Address: http://wiki.ubuntu.hk/w/Install_Ubuntu_server#.E5. AE .89.E8.A3.9D.E8.BB.9F.E9. AB .94
Everything is difficult at the beginning, although it is not difficult to install ubuntu server, haha
This document describes how to use the Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid Lynx) Server installation CD to install the Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Server on the PC platform. To install Ubuntu Desktop, see install Ubuntu Desktop.
10.04 LTS is the latest long-term Support version (LTS, Long Term Support). Its server version has a five-year Support period, which is much longer than the general 18-month Support period. From 10.04 to April 2015, Ubuntu will provide security updates for major software for free. You can also purchase commercial technical support services from Canonical Ltd during this period. Therefore, if you want to have an Ubuntu server with a secure, stable, and support service and do not want to upgrade it frequently, 10.04 LTS is a good choice.
This article aims to provide a step-by-step installation manual for beginners, but it may be too long for veterans or friends who have installed old Ubuntu. This section lists the basic programs and key points for installation, so that experienced users can install Ubuntu 10.04 LTS immediately.
- Use BT to download the ISO file of the Ubuntu 10.04 server and then burn it to the CD.
- For Vista users, useDisk Management ConsoleNarrow down the partition.
- If the hard disk has some important information, please firstBackup.
- Start the instance with the Server installation disc.
- Select the installation language.
- Select the region.
- Select"USA 』Keyboard Layout ).
- Set the Network, enter the IP address, subnet Mask (Network Mask), Gateway, primary DNS address, and host name ). If a DHCP server exists on the network, the system automatically obtains the network settings.
- Set the time zone.
- Based on your hard disk, choose the partitioning hard disk solution:
- The hard disk has an unpartitioned space of more than 1 GB. You can choose to install Ubuntu.Use the largest continuous unused space (use the largest continuous free space).
- The entire hard disk is useless. You can selectUse the entire disk)OrUse the entire disk and use LVM (use entrie disk and use LVM).
- Set the Full name, Username, and password of the first user ).
- Determine whether to use the Encrypted Private Directory (Encrypted Private Directory) to allow all users of the system to securely store Private confidential files.
- Select update scheme: Do not update automatically, automatically install security updates, and use Landscape management system updates.
- Select the software combination you want to install: DNS server, LAMP server, Mail server, OpenSSH server, PostgreSQL server, Print server, Samba server, Tomcat Java server, and Virtual Machine Host.
- Start the installed Ubuntu server.
- After the installation is complete, see "use Ubuntu as a server" to realize the potential of Ubuntu!
Prepare hardware requirements
The server does not need graphical interfaces or software that uses a large amount of resources such as OpenOffice.org, so the hardware requirements are much lower than those of the desktop. Ubuntu requires at least official suggestions64 MB memoryAnd800 MB hard disk space(Normally, the volume is over seven hundred MB.) Of course, the actual requirement depends on the actual usage and traffic of the server.
Get Ubuntu CD
You can get the Ubuntu installation CD from many ways, one is to download the ISO image of the installation CD from the Internet and then burn it into the CD-R/DVD. The Ubuntu website has multiple ISO images:
- Server Install CD,Ubuntu-10.04-server-*. iso)-This CD allows you to install Ubuntu on a computer for server use. The installation interface only supports the text mode. Server Edition is particularly available with the support for the Sun UltraSparc platform for the iSCSI edition. This is also the installation CD to be discussed in this article.
- Alternate Install CD,Ubuntu-10.04-alternate-*. iso)-This CD allows you to perform some special installation. This includes creating preset OEM systems, setting automatic installation, upgrading old Ubuntu systems without network conditions, and installing GRUB outside MBR.
- Desktop CD,Ubuntu-10.04-desktop-*. iso)-This disc is mainly used for trial and desktop installation. It allows you to start and try Ubuntu Desktop without having to install it on a CD, and install Ubuntu Desktop easily if you are satisfied. For more information, see install Ubuntu Desktop.
- Install/Live DVD)-Integration of multiple installation and Live systems.
Server Installation discs are available in three versions:
- Ubuntu-10.04-server-i386.iso (Intel x86)-It is used by all computers compatible with Intel, AMD, and Other Processors, that is, almost any computer that can run Microsoft Windows can use this installation disc.
- 64-bit PC (AMD64) (ubuntu-10.04-server-amd64.iso)-Computers that use x86-64 (including AMD64 or Intel64) architectures, including Athlon64, Opteron, Turion64, Pentium D, Pentium Extreme Edition, EM64T Xeon (Woodcrest), and Core 2. Basically, all Intel/AMD 64-bit processors other than Itanium can use this version. For non-64-bit AMD computers, use PC (Intel x86 ).
FlossDoc has a list of ing sites in Greater China and neighboring regions, which is faster than downloading from a foreign site. In addition to direct download, you can also use BitTorrent, which is faster than direct download. You can find the BitTorrent Tracker corresponding to each ISO image on the ing site above. Download the cd iso image, please first check whether its MD5SUM is correct to be sure to download the CD image file information is correct, then burn to the CD-R/DVD.
This article will demonstrate how to use a PC (Intel x86) server disc to install an Ubuntu server. The 64-bit PC (AMD64) installation method is almost the same. If you are interested in how to use the desktop and text interfaces to install the CD, refer to the relevant Guide.
Install and start
Set the BIOS of your computer to boot with a CD-ROM, and put the Ubuntu Server (Server) disc into the optical drive to start.
If there is no accident, you can see the following Ubuntu boot screen:
In this case, you can select the interface language first. (It is recommended that the server use English.) After the selection, you will naturally see the following Ubuntu boot screen:
There are five projects under the Ubuntu logo:
- Install Ubuntu Server)-Install the Ubuntu server system to the hard disk.
- Install Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud)-Install the Ubuntu enterprise cloud system.
- Check whether the CD has any defects (Check CD for defects)-Check whether any defect exists in the installation disc.
- Test memory)-Check whether the computer memory is faulty.
- Boot from first hard disk)-Start the operating system on the hard disk.
- Rescue damaged system (Rescue a broken system)
In addition, the following six function keys are displayed at the bottom:
- F1 Help)
- F2 Language)-Select an interface language. This will affect the interface language of the installed system.
- F3 keyboard table (Keymap)-Set the keyboard arrangement. Generally, users in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia do not need to change this setting.
- F4 Mode)-Set the startup mode. You can select the following modes:
- Install a minimal system)
- Install a minimal virtual machine)
- F5 Accessibility)-Select to enable some accessibility assistance to facilitate the use of the installation system.
- None)-No accessibility assistance
- High Contrast)-The interface uses high-contrast sets for the question, and the screen master uses black and white colors, making it easier for people with a little visual impairment to watch the screen.
- Magnifiers)-A screen magnifier can be provided to zoom in any part of the screen, making it easier for people with a little visual impairment to watch the screen.
- Screen Reader)-You can read the text displayed on the screen, so that people with impaired vision can know the content on the screen.
- Braille Terminal)-The text displayed on the screen can be output to the blind dot terminal.
- Keyboard Modifiers)-Users are allowed to press the keys individually and individually to press the keys separately. This makes the operating system more suitable for users with a little barrier in their hands.
- On-Screen Keyboard)-A virtual keyboard is provided on the screen.
- F6 Other Options)-Manually add other startup options to the Linux core.
Note that if you have selected English)OtherThe installer will no longer ask you which language and region you are using. It is recommended that you use English as the server computer.
You can press ENTER to start Ubuntu. The system will load the Linux core and start the Ubuntu Server Installation program on the CD. When you see the following picture, it indicates that the Ubuntu Server Installation program has been started.
First, the installer will ask you which language you used to display the message when installing Ubuntu. The language you selected here will also become the default language for Ubuntu after installation. Ubuntu has good support for Chinese Characters Since 6.06 LTS. You can select "Chinese (traditional)" or "Chinese (simplified )』. However, as a server, you may log in with different machines. If the login machine does not support Chinese characters, the Chinese Information on the server may become garbled, so it is safer to choose 「English)」.
To facilitate routine operations, you need to set your region, which will also become the time zone of your computer clock:
The keyboard arrangement in different countries may be slightly different, so you need to set the keyboard arrangement to avoid confusion.
The installer first asks if you need to detect the keyboard arrangement. If you select'Yes)The installer will ask you a series of questions to determine which type of arrangement of your keyboard belongs, which is quite troublesome. In addition to some portable computers for Japanese goods, generally, computers in Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan are arranged on American English (USA) keyboards."No" (No)It is more convenient to select the keyboard arrangement on your own.
The American English keyboard also has multiple variants. Let's choose the simplest 「USAAs the keyboard type:
The installer then loads the required components from the installation disc.
First, find the location of the optical drive:
The required components are loaded by the installation disc:
The installer will help you detect DHCP servers on the network and automatically set the network. You can also press "Cancel" to manually enter the IP Address, Network Mask, Gateway, Primary and Secondary DNS addresses, and other information.
Manually set the network (skipped)
If you "Cancel" (Cancel) or cannot find the DHCP server on the network, the installer will complain about failure to automatically set the network:
After you press "continue", the installer will let you select the method to set the network:
If only the network cable is not connected, you can select Retry network autoconfiguration ). If your DHCP server requires a host name to allocate network configuration, you can select "use DHCP host name to Retry automatic network configuration" (Retry network autoconfiguration with a DHCP hostname ).
Of course, the server generally uses a fixed IP address instead of DHCP. Therefore, we generally choose"Manually Configure the network" (Configure network manually).
Enter the IP address first:
The default Subnet Mask (Network Mask) is 255.255.255.0. You can set the correct subnet Mask here:
Set the Gateway address:
Set the primary DNS address:
Set Host Name
After the network is set, the installer requires you to set the computer name. The name should be the same as the first segment of the computer website.Esmail.Example.org. The host name must be esmail. (The host name can only consist of letters, numbers, and minus signs)
The installer will automatically determine your time zone based on the region you have previously set, and ask you to confirm:
However, if your region has too many time zones (such as the United States), the installer will list all the time zones in the region, so that you can select the correct time zone:
Split hard disk and Format hard disk
Next we came to the most difficult and error-prone part of the entire GNU/Linux installation process-split the hard disk. To install two or more operating systems on the same hard disk and facilitate the management of different types of data, we must divide the hard disk into multiple partitions ). This is just as if two or more guests are in the same house, the house owner also needs a room. Even if there is only one guest, there will be a study, bedroom, dining room and kitchen.
The difficulty of this work is that most personal computers are pre-installed with other operating systems (most of which are Microsoft Windows), and the entire hard disk space is allocated with pre-installed operating systems early in the morning. Many non-technical personnel have no idea about splitting hard disks, and sometimes damage their original operating system and the information in it without knowing it. However, you only need to be careful when dealing with it. Generally, there is no problem.
However, the server rarely has two or more operating systems installed on the same computer, so splitting the hard disk is much easier than working on the desktop.
Ubuntu provides several solutions to split hard disks:
- Use the entire disk)-In this solution, all partitions on the hard disk are deleted and the hard disk is split again. If you have another operating system on your hard disk that you want to retain, pleaseNoSelect this option.
- Use the entire disk and use LVM (use entrie disk and use LVM)-This solution deletes all partitions on the hard disk and uses LVM to separate the hard disk. If you have another operating system on your hard disk that you want to retain, pleaseNoSelect this option.
- Use the largest continuous free space)-If your hard disk is empty enough, you will see this solution. This solution will find the longest consecutive vacancies on the hard disk and install Ubuntu on the vacant space.
- Manual)-This solution does not automatically split the hard disk, but allows you to manually split the hard disk.
The method to use this solution is as follows:
- If the data on the hard disk is useless, You also decided to allocate the entire hard disk to Ubuntu. Please useUse entrie disk).
- If the information on the hard disk is still useful, but there is enough space (not less than 3 GB)SelectUse the largest continuous free space).
- You can selectManual)Separate the hard disk. Pay attention to the risks of using this method.
After selecting the solution, the installer will list all your hard disks and ask you to separate them:
Once again, we remind you that once all the preceding splitting schemes are executed, they cannot be canceled or replied. If the hard disk still has information to be retained,Do notUse Erase entrie disk ).
Click "Yes" (Yes) to confirm that the selected hard disk is to be split.
After selecting the appropriate solution and hard disk, the installer will naturally compile the Splitting Method for you and draw out the method for your final confirmation:
If there is no problem, press "Yes" (Yes.
Install the basic system
User Information and password
GNU/Linux and Unix are Multi-User operating systems. a gnu/Linux operating system can be used by multiple users at the same time. To facilitate the management of each user's files and resources, each user has his/her own user account and password ). Ubuntu requires you to create a user account first, so you will see the following picture asking you to enter the information and password of the first user of the new Ubuntu:
EnterYour name (yourname). This is mainly used as the direct real name on applications such as emails. Except for the colon (:) and comma (,), the name can be composed of any character with spaces in the middle. It is best to use English.
EnterUser name (name use to log in)Is the name used for Logon. It can only contain English letters, numbers, hyphens (-), and hyphens, you cannot enter an empty space or the first character must be an English letter. Note that the usernames of Unix/Linux are case-sensitive, that is, jrandom, JRANDOM, and JRandom are three different users. To avoid confusion, we recommend that you use all lowercase letters as the user name.
EnterPassword), Which is also case sensitive. To reduce the chance of being cracked, do not use the phone number, birthday date, person name, or any word found in the dictionary as a password.
||Unlike other Unix/Linux systems, Ubuntu stores root, the highest-privilege user, and prohibits direct logon. A new user level is created with sudo. You only need to enter your own password for system management. Compared to Unix/Linux, you need to remember both the root password and a general user password. Ubuntu only needs to remember one user password, which may be easier and safer for beginners and desktop management.
To perform management, you only need to enter 「
sudo -i"Enter the root user:
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (Lucid) supports the so-called private directory function. After this feature is enabled, the system creates a Private directory for a user, and all files stored in this directory are automatically stored in the hard disk in encrypted mode. This can reduce the chances of being easily read from private files after a computer is stolen.
If you have a Proxy, you can set it here to reduce the download time:
Next, you need to set the update scheme:
Currently, the Ubuntu server provides three update solutions:
- No automatic update)
- Install security updates automatically)
- Manage system with Landscape)
Select the software package to install:
At present, the Ubuntu server version provides nine software combinations:
- DNS server-Domain Name Server
- LAMP server-The so-called Linux + Apache + MySQL + PHP combination, using Apache as the Web server, MySQL as the database management system and PHP as the website application language, you can set up a website or e-commerce system.
- Mail server-The email server uses Postfix as the MTA and Dovecot as POP and IMAP servers.
- OpenSSH server-Remote Access Server
- PostgreSQL server-Database server, using PostgreSQL
- Print server-Print the server and use CUPS
- Samba server-Use Samba as an archive server that can be integrated into Windows networks
- Tomcat Java server-Use Tomcat's Java Web Application Server
- Virtual Machine host-Virtual Machine Server
- Manual package selection-Manually select the one to install from thousands of suites.
After selecting the software combination, start to install the software by pressing "Continue:
If you select a combination that requires installing the MySQL database management system, you will encounter the following picture asking you to enter the password of the root user in MySQL:
The following figure shows that you have successfully installed the Ubuntu server.
Now you can press "Continue" to restart the Ubuntu server.
After the computer restarts, the computer automatically enters the Boot Manager ).
GRUB Loading stage1.5.GRUB loading. please wait...Press 'ESC' to enter the menu... 4
If you want to start another operating system, Press ESC to enter the menu within one or two seconds and select another operating system. If you do not press any key, the boot administrator automatically starts Ubuntu.
You can see 「
Ubuntu 10.04 LTS esmail tty1esmail login: _
You can enter your account name and password and start working on the new Ubuntu server.
After the installation is complete, please refer to "use Ubuntu as a server" to develop the potential of Ubuntu!
Set dial bandwidth for Internet access
As mentioned above, as long as you have connected the network cable, Ubuntu can automatically obtain network settings from the DHCP server on your local network to help you connect to the Internet. However, if your computer is connected directly to a Broadband Modem, you may need to log on to the Internet. In addition to Hong Kong Broadband and wired broadband, PPPoE connections are required for Internet and Hutchison broadband.
Run the following command on the command column:
Run the PPPoE setting program. Enter your broadband network user name and password.
- Detects which network card is connected to the ISP.
- Enter the user name (note that most ISPs require "@ ISPDomainName" at the end of the user name ")
- Enter Password
- If you want the "noauth" and "defaultroute" options to clear the "nodetach" option, please answer "yes 』
- If you want to use the DNS server provided by your ISP, please answer "yes 』
- If you want to automatically connect to Ubuntu every time you start it, please answer "yes 』
- Finally, you will be asked if you want to connect to the online network instantly. Please answer "yes 』
For more information, see use PPPoEConf to connect to the Internet.