Here are a few key questions: How the device is connected to the network. How to communicate between devices. What is the purpose of the Internet of things? How to build up a framework for the internet of things. And what about its technical architecture? The software system architecture of IoT terminal. Object Networking cloud Platform system architecture. 1. How to access network of IoT devices.
Only if the equipment is connected to the network, can it be regarded as the thing networking equipment. Here are 2 key points: access mode and network communication mode . Device access mode:
At present, there are 2 kinds of access to Direct access : The Internet terminals themselves have the ability to connect directly to the network, such as the device to join the Nb-iot communication module, 2G communication module. Gateway Access : The Internet terminal Equipment itself does not have the ability to network, need to be in the local network, the need to unify through the gateway and then access to the network. For example, terminal equipment through ZigBee wireless network, and then the device data through the ZigBee Gateway Unified access to the network. Commonly used to local wireless networking technology has zigbee,lora,ble mesh, Sub-1ghz and so on.
In the Internet of things, the gateway of IoT is a very important role. A smart device that is located between a local LAN and an external access network. The main functions are network isolation, protocol conversion/adaptation, and data network transmission inside and outside.
A typical IoT gateway architecture is as follows:
network communication Mode
There are 2 kinds of commonly used communication networks :
1. Mobile network (mainly for outdoor equipment)
Mobile network 2g/3g/4g/5g/nb-iot, etc.
2. Broadband (main households equipped with standby)
how to carry out m2m,m2c communication after the Wifi,ethernet equipment is connected to the network.
The Internet of IoT equipment terminal is only the beginning of the application of IoT. After the device is connected to the network, the equipment and equipment need to communicate with each other, and the equipment and cloud need to communicate with each other. Only interoperability, the value of the Internet of Things to show. If you want to exchange, you need a set of things networking communication protocol. Only devices that follow the set of protocols can communicate with each other and can exchange data.
What are the commonly used communication protocols for IoT? The main agreements are as follows: Mqtt,coap and so on, they have one thing in common is based on the message model to achieve. Between the device and the device, the device and the cloud communicate with each other by exchanging messages, and the message carries the communication data. between things networking devices, devices and cloud platforms can exchange data, what to do next.
21st century, what is most important. Data. With a large number of things networking equipment data, for the data, humans can dig inside the law, mining the business value of the equipment in the future of the state of the forecast and so on.
For the application of IoT data, it is divided into several levels
1. Basic Application: Monitoring
After the device data is collected through the internet of things, if the device data state exceeds the preset state, the first alarm will be automatically, and the administrator can handle the first time, and the command may be issued by remote operation. Solve the problem in a budding state.
2. Advanced Application: report statistics
Through statistical method, the historical running data of the equipment are statistically analyzed. Different reports can be analyzed according to different dimensions. Then display it in front of the administrator in a chart or a large screen. Administrators can quickly and intuitively understand the whole thing networking equipment operating conditions.
3. Advanced Applications: Data Mining/machine learning
This part needs to dig out valuable things from the data. For example, through the continuous tracking analysis of equipment data for a period of time and the experience of human past equipment operation, the machine learning method is used to predict the failure probability of the equipment and the probable cause after the failure, and the maintenance plan is given. The example cited just now is the tip of the iceberg in the advanced application of the Internet of things. By introducing the now fiery AI technology. The Internet of things can become a network of smart things. Perhaps in the near future, people and equipment can be free dialogue, equipment and equipment can also be dialogue and automatically make optimal decisions.
The value of the Internet of things is to improve production efficiency, manage efficiency, and promote the improvement of social productivity greatly. How to build up a framework for the internet of things. And what about its technical architecture? Software system architecture of IoT terminal Equipment
The common system framework is summed up in the following 2 kinds: with RTOs (dealing with complex business scenarios, in the scene through the need for multiple transactions in parallel to work together) and without RTOs (usually processed business scenario is a single)
non-RTOS device terminal system framework:
with RTOS Device Terminal system framework:
What RTOs is. Real-time multi-task operating system, with it, in the terminal device can run multiple tasks in parallel. Each task is responsible for one transaction. The real-time response and efficiency of the system are enhanced by parallel operation. The RTOs real-time operation kernel typically contains the following important components:
1. Task scheduling 2. Synchronization and communication between Tasks 3. Memory allocation 4. Interrupt Management 6. Time Management 7. Device drivers
Example of a task scheduling component:
In an embedded operating system, the task is the smallest running unit on the CPU. Usually a slightly more complex point IoT app is done in collaboration with multiple tasks. For example, some tasks are responsible for handling user event input and UI display, some tasks are responsible for processing data communication, and some tasks are responsible for business logic processing.
Since there are multiple tasks running in a system, and CPU resources are single, so that each moment can only be run by a single task on the CPU. Therefore, in order for each task to have the opportunity to run on the CPU, it involves the concept of task scheduling. Task scheduling needs to follow certain rules, which are generally based on which rules. Our common scheduling method has 3 kinds: one is based on the priority scheduling, one is based on the time slice scheduling, one is the priority and the time slice unifies in the dispatch.
With priority scheduling examples, when defining tasks, assign a priority to each task, and at run time, high-priority tasks are run preferentially. A low-priority task is not run until a high-priority task is not in order. If a low-priority task gets CPU resources, this is what to do if a high-priority task is in place. Two ways of handling: 1. Continue running 2. preemption type. High priority preemption CPU resources into the running state.
The other components are not listed. architecture of the cloud platform for Internet of things
The architecture of IoT cloud Platform consists of four main components: equipment Access Equipment management rules engine security authentication and Rights Management equipment Access
What is the main thing to do with equipment access?
1. Contains a variety of equipment access agreements, the most mainstream is the MQTT protocol. Some cloud-computing vendors are also streamlining protocols into proprietary access protocols on the MQTT protocol.
2. Concurrent connection management to maintain long connection management that may be billions of devices.
If you should manage billions of of your device connections. At present, the open MQTT Proxy server is mostly stand-alone version, the most is concurrent connection a hundred thousand of devices. So if you want to manage billions of of connections, you need to use load balancing to use a distributed architecture. A distributed MQTT Proxy server needs to be deployed on the cloud platform. Equipment Management
A tree-structured approach to managing devices, including device creation management and device state management, is common. The root node starts with the product, then the device group, and then to the specific device.
Mainly includes the following management:
Product registration and Management
The equipment below the product changes to check management
Device Message Publishing
OTA equipment upgrade management and other rules engine
The cloud platform for IoT is usually built on the existing cloud computing platform. A network of things mature business in addition to the use of the Internet cloud platform to provide functionality, the general need to use the cloud platform to provide functionality, such as cloud host, cloud database and so on. The user can build the Web industry application service on the cloud host.
The main function of the rule engine is to transmit the data of the Internet platform to other cloud computing products through filtering.
For example, you can forward the data submitted by the device to the table store database product.
The rule engine is generally used in a class-SQL language that enables users to filter data, process data, and send data to other cloud computing products, or other cloud computing services. Security authentication and authority management
The IoT cloud Platform issues a unique certificate for each device and requires the certificate to pass to allow the device to access the cloud platform. The minimum licensing granularity of the cloud platform is generally the device level. We call the certificate generally divided into 2 kinds: one is a product-level certificate, one is a device-level certificate. A product-level certificate has the maximum permissions to operate on all devices under the product. A device-level certificate that can only operate on the device to which it belongs and cannot operate on other devices.
Therefore, each device that accesses the cloud platform stores a certificate locally (in fact, the form is a key, there are multiple string composition). Each time you set up a connection with the cloud, take the certificate with you. So that the cloud security components check through. Cloud Products
Large data computing products, cloud infrastructure services (high-performance server, cloud database, cloud Network) and other things networking applications
Intelligent city, intelligent agriculture, industry 4.0, etc.
The following is from the Baidu Internet platform architecture:
Highlighted the things networking equipment, the Internet cloud Platform, cloud computing platform is how to work together, there is a greater reference value.
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