Python Tutorials

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A Python tutorial?

Python is an easy-to-learn but powerful programming language. It has a high level of high efficiency data structure and a simple yet efficient object-oriented programming method. Python's elegant grammatical structure and its lively data type, along with its explanatory nature, make it an ideal programming language for scripting and fast applications in many areas of most platforms.

The Python interpreter for all major platforms and a large number of standard library source or binary codes are available free of charge from the official Python website (https://www.python.org/) and are free to branch. The same site may also contain many free third-party Python modules, programs and tools, as well as additional references to the branching and pointing links.

The Python interpreter is easy to extend with new functions and data types that are executed in C or C + + (or other programming languages that can be called by the C language). Python can also be used as an extended language to modify your app to suit your needs.

This tutorial provides the reader with an informal introduction to the basic concepts and features of the Python language and system. It makes the Python interpreter easier to learn, but all instances are already included in the program, so this tutorial can also be read offline.

To learn about standard objects and modules, see the Python Standard library . The Python Language Reference gives a more formal definition of the language. To write extensions in C or C + +, refer to the extensions and embedding of the Python interpreter and the python/c API Reference manual . Python is also described in detail in several books on the market.

This tutorial does not attempt to cover every feature of Python in all its aspects, not even in every common feature. Instead, it introduces many of the most noteworthy features in Python and will give you a better understanding of the language's style. Once you've read it, you'll be able to read and write Python modules and programs, and you'll have the ability to learn more about the Python library modules described in the colorful Python standard library .

The glossary is also worth reading carefully.

  • 1. Starter Dishes
  • 2. Using the Python Interpreter
    • 2.1. Invocation of the Interpreter
      • 2.1.1. Parameter passing
      • 2.1.2. Interactive mode
    • 2.2. Interpreter and its environment
      • 2.2.1. Source code encoding
  • 3. An informal introduction to Python
    • 3.1. Take Python as a calculator
      • 3.1.1. Digital
      • 3.1.2. String
      • 3.1.3. List
    • 3.2. First step of programming
  • 4. More Process Control tools
    • 4.1. if statements
    • 4.2. for statements
    • 4.3. range() functions
    • 4.4. break and continue statements, and clauses in loops else
    • 4.5. pass statements
    • 4.6. Definition of functions
    • 4.7. Some other related content about the definition of a function
      • 4.7.1. Values for Default parameters
      • 4.7.2. Keyword parameters
      • 4.7.3. Arbitrary Argument Lists
      • 4.7.4. Unpacking Argument Lists
      • 4.7.5. Lambda Expressions
      • 4.7.6. Documentation Strings
      • 4.7.7. Function Annotations
    • 4.8. intermezzo:coding Style
  • 5. Data structure
    • 5.1. More on Lists
      • 5.1.1. Using Lists as Stacks
      • 5.1.2. Using Lists as Queues
      • 5.1.3. List comprehensions
      • 5.1.4. Nested List comprehensions
    • 5.2. del statement
    • 5.3. Tuples and sequences
    • 5.4. Collection
    • 5.5. Dictionary
    • 5.6. Looping techniques
    • 5.7. More on Conditions
    • 5.8. Comparing sequences and other Types
  • 6. Module
    • 6.1. More on Modules
      • 6.1.1. Executing modules as scripts
      • 6.1.2. The Module Search Path
      • 6.1.3. "Compiled" Python files
    • 6.2. Standard module
    • 6.3. dir () function
    • 6.4. Packages
      • 6.4.1. Importing * from a package
      • 6.4.2. Intra-package References
      • 6.4.3. Packages in multiple directories
  • 7. Input and Output
    • 7.1. Fancier Output formatting
      • 7.1.1. Old string Formatting
    • 7.2. Reading and Writing Files
      • 7.2.1. Methods of File Objects
      • 7.2.2. Saving structured data withjson
  • 8. Errors and Exceptions
    • 8.1. Syntax Errors
    • 8.2. Exceptions
    • 8.3. Handling Exceptions
    • 8.4. Raising Exceptions
    • 8.5. user-defined Exceptions
    • 8.6. Defining clean-up Actions
    • 8.7. Predefined clean-up Actions
  • 9. Class
      • 9.1. A Word about Names and Objects
      • 9.2. Python Scopes and namespaces
        • 9.2.1. Scopes and Namespaces Example
      • 9.3. A First Look at Classes
        • 9.3.1. Class Definition Syntax
        • 9.3.2. Class Objects
        • 9.3.3. Instance Objects
        • 9.3.4. Method Objects
        • 9.3.5. Class and Instance Variables
      • 9.4. Random Remarks
      • 9.5. Inheritance
        • 9.5.1. Multiple inheritance
      • 9.6. Private Variables
      • 9.7. Odds and Ends
      • 9.8. iterators
      • 9.9. Generators
      • 9.10. Generator Expressions
  • 10. Brief tour of the standard Library
    • 10.1. Operating System Interface
    • 10.2. File wildcards
    • 10.3. Command line Arguments
    • 10.4. Error Output redirection and program termination
    • 10.5. String Pattern Matching
    • 10.6. Mathematics
    • 10.7. Internet Access
    • 10.8. Dates and Times
    • 10.9. Data Compression
    • 10.10. Performance measurement
    • 10.11. Quality Control
    • 10.12. Batteries Included
  • Brief Tour of the Library-part II
    • 11.1. Output formatting
    • 11.2. Templating
    • 11.3. Working with Binary Data Record Layouts
    • 11.4. multi-threading
    • 11.5. Logging
    • 11.6. Weak References
    • 11.7. Tools for working with Lists
    • 11.8. Decimal floating Point arithmetic
  • Virtual Environments and Packages
    • 12.1. Introduction
    • 12.2. Creating Virtual Environments
    • 12.3. Managing Packages with Pip
  • What is now?
  • Interactive Input Editing and history Substitution
    • 14.1. Tab Completion and History Editing
    • 14.2. Alternatives to the Interactive interpreter
  • Floating point arithmetic:issues and limitations
    • 15.1. Representation Error
  • Appendix.
    • 16.1. Interactive Mode
      • 16.1.1. Error Handling
      • 16.1.2. Executable Python Scripts
      • 16.1.3. The Interactive Startup File
      • 16.1.4. The Customization Modules

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Python Tutorials

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