32-bit and 64-bit (software and hardware)

Source: Internet
Author: User

Generally speaking, 32-bit and 64-bit systems have two differences: hardware and software.

Hardware:The 64-bit and 32-bit architectures are different. Here, the 64-bit technology is relative to 32-bit, which refers to general-purpose registers (general-purpose register) the data width is 64-bit, And the 64-bit instruction set is the command to run 64-bit data, that is, the processor can run 64-bit data at a time. 64-bit processors are not available now. 64-bit processors have been available for a long time in high-end CPU (Reduced Instruction Set computers, for example, sun's ultrasparc III, IBM's power5, and HP's Alpha.

64bit computing has two main advantages: it can perform integer operations in a larger range; it can support larger memory.

64-bitComparison between architecture and 32-bit architecture
Address Space, 64-bit, 32-bit
Physical memory 128 GB 4 GB
16 TB 4 GB virtual memory
Page file 512 TB 16 TB
Page buffer pool 128 GB 470 MB
Non-page buffer pool 128 GB 256 MB
System cache 1 TB 1 GB

Software:To implement a true 64-bit computing, a 64-bit processor is not enough. A 64-bit operating system and 64-bit application software are required, without any of these elements, 64-bit computing cannot be implemented.

For 64-bit processors, Intel and AMD both have released multiple series of 64-bit processors with multiple specifications. In terms of operating systems, XP has provided a 64-bit version for a long time. Vista and win7 both have 32-bit and 64-bit Release versions, which is not very optimistic about the application software, most of the application software is still 32-bit, so it cannot run on a 64-bit system, which restricts the incompatibility of the 64-bit system.


What are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft Windows 64-bit (x64) compared with 32-bit (x86) Operating Systems?

First, the original design is different. The 64-bit operating system is designed to meet the requirements of mechanical design and analysis, 3D animation, video editing and creation, as well as customer requirements that require a large amount of memory and floating point performance in scientific computing and high-performance computing applications. In other words, they are the operating platforms for high-tech personnel to use special software in this industry. The 32-bit operating system is designed for common users.
Second, different configurations are required. The 64-bit operating system can only be installed on 64-bit computers (the CPU must be 64-bit ). At the same time, 64-bit common software must be installed to achieve the best performance of 64-bit (x64. A 32-bit operating system can be installed on a 32-bit (32-bit CPU) or 64-bit (64-bit CPU) computer. Of course, the 32-bit operating system is installed on a 64-bit computer, and its hardware is like a "big Mara car": the 64-Bit performance will be greatly reduced.
Third, the computing speed is different. The data width of 64-bit cpu gprs (general-purpose registers) is 64-bit, And the 64-bit instruction set can run 64-bit data instructions, that is to say, the processor can extract 64-bit data at a time (only two instructions are required to extract 8 bytes of data at a time), which is 32-bit (four instructions are required to extract 4 bytes of data at a time) the performance is doubled in theory.
Fourth, different addressing capabilities. The advantage of a 64-bit processor lies in the system's memory control. Because the address uses a special integer, An ALU (Arithmetic Logic calculator) and register can process larger integers, that is, larger addresses. For example, Windows Vista x64 Edition supports up to 128 GB of memory and up to 16 TB of virtual memory, while 32-bit CPU and operating system support up to 4 GB of memory.
Fifth, the popularity of software varies. Currently, 64-bit commonly used software is much less than 32-bit commonly used software. The principle is simple: there are fewer users using 64-bit operating systems. Therefore, software developers must consider the "input-output ratio" and invest limited funds in software for more users. This is also an important reason for the relatively high price of 64-bit software (the cost is shared in a small amount of sales ).
All in all, the 64-bit Microsoft Windows operating system must be backed up by the 64-bit host hardware and the 64-bit common software, in order to maximize the advantage of 64-bit, the "trinity" is indispensable (the principle is simple: the operating system is just a startup platform ). For 64-bit computers, 32-bit operating systems and 64-bit operating systems can be installed with 32-bit software, which is designed as "backward compatible ", it is not the original meaning of the 64-bit design (as described above ).

Finally, I would like to remind some netizens:
1. Although a 64-bit computer can install a 32-bit operating system, a 32-bit computer cannot install a 64-bit operating system. This is important to remember to avoid blind download and installation.
2. 64-bit operating systems running on 64-bit computers cannot be installed on hard disks. If the disk is installed, the preferred method is to format the disk, and the complicated dos installation method can also be used.
3. Using a virtual machine to install the operating system is actually installing software on the operating system currently running. Therefore, a 64-bit operating system cannot be installed on a 32-bit operating system. Even if the installation is barely implemented by using the "curve" method, it is no doubt that it is out of the support of the underlying device.

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