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1. Hard drive Daily maintenance hard disk in the use of the process should pay attention to the following aspects:
Computer work is strictly forbidden to move or collision machine, otherwise it may make the hard disk head and disc collision, causing the hard disk head and disc damage, thus unable to read data.
Do not often low-level format of the hard disk, otherwise it will cause hard disk read and write unreliable, and shorten its service life. Advanced formatting is less damaging to hard drives, but it is not always appropriate.
Do not place your hard disk next to a strong magnetic field to avoid data loss.
Do not suddenly shut down when the hard disk is reading and writing data.
To back up the data on your hard drive often, sometimes the value of your data is much greater than the value of your hard drive.
To defragment the disk periodically, optimize the data structure chain.
Use disk cache storage programs as much as possible to reduce disk access to extend disk life.
Regularly check and remove viruses to prevent viruses from destroying hard drive data.
2 most common failures of hard drives
The system does not recognize the hard drive
The hard drive is not readable or writable
System does not start
This failure is usually caused by the following four reasons:
The DOS boot file is corrupted.
The master boot program is corrupted.
Partition valid flag error.
The partition table is corrupt.
Bad drive in the wrong way
If the hard disk has the following behavior, you should check whether the hard drive has a bad path:
(1) When reading a file or running a program, the hard disk repeatedly read the disk and error, or it will take a long time to succeed, while the hard disk makes a strange noise, this phenomenon indicates that there may be bad on the hard drive.
(2) Can not boot through the hard disk boot system, with a floppy disk to go to the hard disk drive letter, but unable to operate, with the SYS command to boot the system is not successful, this situation is likely to be the boot sector of the hard disk problem.
(3) Format the hard disk, to a certain progress stalled, the final error, unable to complete the format.
(4) When using the FDISK command to partition the hard disk, go back and forth to a certain progress.
Hard drive capacity is clearly inconsistent with nominal value
No matter what device you are using, you cannot boot the system properly
The hard drive cannot be raised when booting, the system does not recognize the hard disk
Recovery of data when deleting partitions by mistake
Error formatting hard drive data recovery 3 typical failures and exclusions of HDD
Prompts HDD Controller Failure after boot
"Symptom" after booting the screen prompts HDD Controller failure error message.
"Analytical processing" causes this failure generally due to poor contact or wiring errors in the hard drive cable interface. First check the hard drive power cord and the hard disk connection, and then check the hard disk data cable connection to the motherboard and the hard disk, if the connection is loose or the link is reversed will have the above hint.
Prompt invalid partition table after boot
"Symptom" after boot screen display invalid partition table error message, the hard drive can not start, from the floppy disk can be started, but can only recognize the C drive.
The cause of this failure is typically an error in the partition table in the master boot record of the hard disk, which is indicated when multiple bootstrap partitions are specified or the partition table is destroyed by the virus.
No ROM Basic, System halted prompt after boot
"Symptom" after post, the screen shows no ROM Basic, System halted error message when booting from hard disk.
The cause of this failure is typically a boot program is damaged or infected by a virus, or there is no bootstrap flag in the partition table, or it may be that the end flag 55AA is overwritten. Start the computer with a floppy disk, execute the command fdisk/mbr, overwrite the master boot program on the hard disk with the correct master boot program and the end flag in Fdisk to fix the main boot and end flag.
Prompt for error loading operating system after boot
"Symptom" on the screen after the error loading operating system or missing operating system error message is displayed.
The cause of this failure is generally due to an error in the DOS boot record.
After booting the disk boot Failure "Symptom" after the self-test, the hard drive LED is bright, the screen shows disk boot Failure error message. The invalid drive specifition error message appears on the screen when you start the disk successfully with a floppy disk access.
"Analytical processing" uses the BIOS interrupt program to read the contents of the boot area and discovers that the area system information is corrupted. This type of failure is usually caused by illegal procedures, illegal operations, or viruses. Users can use the FDISK/MBR command to recover, if it fails, you can read out the boot area information from the same configured computer, and then write to the failure machine, can troubleshoot.
Repairing the hard drive master boot area using the debug command
(1) MBR and partitioned table structure
In order to correctly determine whether the MBR has failed, the fault in which bytes, you must first call up the MBR byte content, for this we first look at the hard disk MBR data structure.
The MBR is located on the hard disk 0 cylinder, 0 heads, 1 sectors, it consists of the following three parts:
Master boot program (with error message), offset address is 0H~1BDH.
partition table, offset address is 1BEH~1FDH.
End flag 55AA, offset address is 1feh~1ffh.
(2) Viewing the hex display of the MBR
After understanding the above situation, let's actually solve how to view the hex display of the MBR, the command line operation is as follows:
1d2f:0100 MOV ax,0201
1d2f:0103 MOV bx,1000
1d2f:0106 MOV cx,1
1d2f:0109 MOV dx,80
(3) backing up MBR
The backed up MBR is generally kept in the end sector of the boot disk (No. 2870, b36h sector) because the 1.44MB floppy disk has 2,880 sectors, and the end sector is usually idle, which does not affect the normal use of the boot disk, while also providing a convenient backup file recovery.
(4) Restore MBR
Here's how to restore the previously backed up MBR by:
-l1000 0 B36 1
After confirming that the backed up MBR is healthy, continue with the following command:
1d2f:0100 MOV ax,0301
1d2f:0103 MOV bx,1000
1d2f:0106 MOV cx,1
1d2f:0109 MOV dx,80
Resolve a hard disk failure with the FDISK command
"Symptom" a computer suddenly has a power outage when it is in use and cannot be started again.
"Parse processing" starts with the disc boot disk to DOS, then formats the C drive, reinstalling Windows 98. Run the setup installation file, jump back to the DOS interface after the wizard has run to 100%, and prompt for standard mode:invalid DPMI return from 036f:6090. Reformatting the hard drive is still a problem, scanning with the ScanDisk command does not find an error. Finally execute the FDISK/MBR command under DOS, then install Windows 98, troubleshooting.
The hard drive makes an abnormal sound
"Symptom" a computer, the new hard drive issued "whining" sound.
"Analytical processing" opens the chassis for inspection and finds that the sound is caused by a resonance in the chassis and hard disk, and the sound disappears when the fixed screw on the hard drive is tightened.
Crash after installing a new hard drive
"Symptom" a computer, new add a 60GB hard disk, the original hard disk set to slave disk, install and set all normal, but in the course of use, after a period of time the hard drive lights flashing and there is a lot of noise, the system crashes, after a while the computer will automatically return to normal.
"Analytical Processing" is analyzed by the failure phenomenon, which should be caused by the "hibernate" function provided by the new hard disk. This feature allows the hard disk to automatically enter a low-power hibernation state after "idle" (not working) for a period of time, in which case the hard disk will not respond immediately to the system's read request, but must return from "Hibernate" state to the normal state, during which time the whole system will have a short pause when the computer is like a crash And there is a large noise (in fact, the hard drive starts and starts to work when the sound).
You can troubleshoot by opening the Device Manager window and turning off the hibernate feature.
Hard drive does not boot system
"Symptom" The computer prompts disk boot failure at startup, Insert system disk and press ENTER.
"Analysis processing" from the message, it is because the computer does not detect the hard disk, the reasons for the main cause of the virus, the BIOS parameters set wrong or the motherboard battery low. Anti-virus treatment of the computer, reset the BIOS parameters, or replace the motherboard battery can solve the problem.
Failure caused by a hard drive jumper
"Symptom" When you add a hard drive to a computer, you are prompted no operation system or disk error when booting.
"Analytical processing" because the computer worked properly before adding the hard drive, it was determined to be the second hard drive, but the test was normal when the hard drive was purchased. After shutting down the second hard drive to check, found its jumper set to master (primary), the second hard drive jumper set to slave (from the hard disk), install the hard drive after the boot, troubleshooting.
How hard drive data loss is handled
"Symptom" after the hard drive has been in use for some time, it is not possible to invoke some files on the screen:
DATA Error reading drive C:
Abort, Retry, Ignore?
"Analysis processing" causes this failure, one is the disk body wear or improper use of hard disk, resulting in the loss of internal hard disk information, the second is the disk repeatedly read and write, file connection confusion, the allocation of too much fragmented space. The elimination method is: Call the disk Maintenance tool in the analysis of the disk function, such as parameters/F chkdsk,msdos| Defhell's Compress tool and the diagnose disk feature in Norton can be used to analyze and recover lost cluster chains. By executing the chkdsk c:/f/v command, the system prompts: "XXX Lost clusters found chains to files (y/n)?", where XXX refers to the number of clusters and chains at run time, and when input Y, each chain loses a cluster to form a file. If you still have a problem, you should re-format the hard drive again, and then copy the backup files to your hard disk.
Device failure due to hard disk resident virus
"Malfunction phenomenon" in the process of computer operation, often appear some special symbols, information, or found some execution file bytes increase, some data files are lost or some command files are destroyed, the computer running slow, frequent crashes, and even the emergence of inexplicable peripheral failure.
"Analytical processing" This failure is caused by hard disk viruses. Computer viruses are basically divided into two categories: one is System virus, the other is file virus. The virus is divided into benign and malignant viruses by the nature of its destruction, and some viruses only destroy data and files, while others affect the normal functioning of hardware devices. In particular, the virus caused hardware equipment failure, it is easy to be mistaken for equipment failure and repair by mistake. In the event of such a failure, the use of anti-virus software.
HDD Capacity reduction
"Symptom" A computer installs Windows 2000 and Windows 98 dual operating systems, Windows 2000 is installed in the NTFS 5 format partition, the hard disk fails at startup, the hard disk capacity is reduced after low-level format of the hard disk with the DM tool.
"Analytical processing" technically, the NTFS 5 format is compatible with the FAT32 format, but using both the NTFS5 and FAT32 formats can cause unpredictable errors, but this error does not result in a reduction in hard disk capacity, and the reduction in hard disk capacity should be due to low-level formatting. From the point of view, the DM tool used by the user should be an older version, so it is not compatible with large capacity hard drives. Users only need to download the latest version of the DM tool, and then low-level format of the hard disk to completely solve the problem.
Bad drive causes installation of operating system failed
"Symptom" Installs Windows 98 when the file is copied and restarts when the computer freezes.
"Analysis processing" first suspected hard disk error, and then use the ScanDisk command to scan the hard disk, the result is normal. After replacing the hardware with the replacement method, the fault remains. Re-partition the hard disk, format the hard disk, and then install the system, the failure is still not excluded. Switch the hard drive to another computer for testing, and still have the same failure, indicating that there is a problem with the hard drive. Using the DM tool to repair the hard disk, the system prompts "in the XXX location has bad track, follow the prompts to repair." After repeated repair, re-partition, format the hard disk, and then install the system, everything is OK.
Computer crashes more than two times to start normally
"Fault phenomenon" since the installation of a new hard disk, the boot often crashes, generally to crash more than two times to start normally.
"Analytical processing" This is because the hard disk initialization time is too long, the hard disk after power-on will have a period of initialization time. It is recommended to try a different power supply.
Hard drive rotation sound abnormal
"Symptom" the hard drive makes a shrill "hissing" sound and the indicator lights up after booting.
"Analytical processing" This fault is mostly due to the long-time lack of oil caused by hard drive spindle motor. Carefully remove the hard-drive circuit board, locate the brake pads on the spindle motor, lift it, and drop one or two drops of pure oil onto the spindle motor to troubleshoot.
The computer does not boot after the hard drive changes the jumper
"Symptom" due to the need to replicate large amounts of data, remove the hard drive and then change the jumper master to slave, connected to other computers to use. After the use of the hard drive jumper back to master, installed back to the original computer, but can not start the computer, prompted by the press a key to reboot.
This behavior occurs because the main boot partition becomes inactive when the drive changes jumper settings are used on other computers and the original settings are restored.
Hard drive cannot be formatted
"Symptom 1" in a re-partition and to reinstall the system process, after the normal Fdisk, the format of the C-drive to 1% stop, the hard drive prompt light, the reboot after the hard disk detection, re-partition is still the case.
"Analytical processing" may be the cause of the boot virus, repartitioning, using the FDISK/MBR command to rewrite the main boot sector of the hard disk to remove the boot-type virus.
"Symptom 2" when formatting the hard drive, prompt cannot format this a new work disk.
Analysis processing has an option in the BIOS setup boot Virus deltection, which is designed to prevent viruses from destroying the boot sector and partition tables of the hard disk, while formatting the hard disk may modify some parameters in the partition table. If this item is set to Enabled, the format operation will be disabled. The user simply sets this option to disabled and then formats the hard drive, which can be done normally.
Installing dual hard drives causes the computer to crash frequently
"Symptom" will use a 10GB old hard disk and a new 40GB hard disk, the old hard drive jumper to slave, and then connected to the data cable and power cable, the results of each run about 30 minutes after the crash.
"Analytical processing" from the point of view of the phenomenon, just when the machine can be used normally, it is important to check the hard disk data cable and jumpers. In particular, the old hard drive jumper switch use time too long, will have some aging, although the beginning can be used normally, but after a period of time, the hard disk heating will cause the jumper switch internal reed deformation, resulting in poor contact, resulting in the crash, replacement data cable and jumper switch, troubleshooting.
Hard Drive connection fault handling
"Symptom" a Pentium 4 motherboard can support the ata/100, hard disk and data cable can also support ata/100, and also installed the corresponding ata/100 driver, but the system self-test display can only support ATA/33.
"Analytical processing" caused this failure for two reasons: first, because of hard disk line failure, you can change a line to try again, and the second is because the 80-pin hard drive cable connection. If the user installs the hard drive cable, the blue of the 80-pin hard drive connector to the hard disk, the black end to the motherboard, the fault will occur, adjust the location of the wiring can solve the problem.
Abnormal sound when the hard drive starts
"Symptom" a WH IBM hard drive (capacity 40GB, Speed 7 200 rpm, 2MB cache), each time you start the computer, a normal start sound, and then issued a "click" Sound.
"Analytical processing" first try to change the drive line, and then you should strengthen the heat dissipation of the hard disk. You can also take the hard drive out, put on the palm of a few taps, this is because the hard disk has a "dead point" (that is, just get stuck), through a certain vibration can make it reset. Remember not to force too hard to prevent damage to the drive.
Prompt system file corruption at startup
"Symptom" When you start your computer, the screen displays information such as:
Bad or missing command interpreter.
"Analytical processing" This is the system file on the boot drive C disk Command.com is damaged or lost. Use the same version of the system's floppy disk to start the computer, copy the Command.com file on the floppy disk to the C packing directory, or using the SYS command to pass the same version of the file to the user's hard disk.
Repair of 0 track damage to the hard drive
"Symptom" When formatting the hard drive, the 0 track of the hard drive is damaged.
"Analytical processing" Whether this hard disk is scrapped, depends on the extent of the damage. The 0 track damage to the hard drive can be divided into logical and physical damage situations. Logical corruption means that the logical boot sector of the operating system is compromised, or the operating system Io.sys, Ms-dos.sys, Command.com, and other files are compromised, and if this is the case, you can use the method of passing the system files from the floppy disk to repair the hard disk's logical corruption. Physical damage is hard disk media damage, which is more serious than logical damage, you can try to low-level format of the hard disk. There are three possible types of low-level format, one is hard disk retirement, and the other is the normal use of hard disk, and the third is that the hard disk can be used, but not as a boot disk.
Primary hard disk boot partition failure is not activated
"Symptom" When the hard disk is partitioned, formatted, booting the computer by the hard disk, the prompt appears: Invalid drive specification, and the hard disk without any failure.
"Parsing processing" is due to the fact that the primary boot partition of the hard disk is not activated. If the drive is divided into only one zone, the boot partition will be activated automatically, and if the hard disk is broken into two or two or more zones, the master boot partition is manually activated so that the master boot partition can boot the computer. The specific treatment is as follows:
Start the floppy disk with Windows 98 and start the computer, after startup, execute the FDISK command on the a drive, enter Y, press "enter" key to indicate that the primary partition is not activated on the partition main interface. Enter 2, select the "Activate Partition" option, then enter 1, activate the primary partition, press "ESC" key back to the partition main interface, then press "ESC" key to return to the DOS prompt, re-enter the format c:/s command, formatted the hard disk, after the format is completed, re-booting the computer by hard disk, fault can be excluded.
Defragmenting disk fragmentation is not working
"Symptom" When defragmenting a hard disk, Windows 98 's Disk Defragmenter repeatedly repeats the work and looks like it will never be completed.
(1) Wait a few minutes for the program to run. Disk Defragmenter looks like it stopped when it's about 10%, but it's actually judging how the files are organized, so it starts working fast in a few minutes.
(2) When you run the program, scan the disk, and if there is a problem with the disk, you cannot defragment it. If disk defragmentation is always halfway through, it can be caused by problems with the file system or the disk itself. Run ScanDisk first, click Start | Program "|" Accessories "|" System Tools "|" ScanDisk command, select the Full radio button in the Open dialog box, and click the Start button to scan the disk. If ScanDisk still does not complete properly, you should exit Windows and enter DOS by clicking Start | Close System command, in the Open dialog box, select the "Restart the computer and switch to MS-DOS mode" radio button and click the "Yes" button, then enter the ScanDisk command at the DOS prompt and press "enter" key to scan the disk to determine if there is a problem.
Installing the Windows XP partition is missing
"Symptom" a computer, after installing Windows XP found a partition, under DOS with the FDISK command to view the hard disk, the display partition is normal.
Analysis processing occurs because you chose the wrong hard disk partition format when you installed Windows XP. If the user has a backup of the hard disk partition table, it can be restored, and if there is no backup, you can convert the partition format and fix the error by using the Partition Magic tool software. If the above method still can not troubleshoot, it is only possible to reformat the hard disk and re-install the system.
Hard drive failure due to virus infection
"Symptom" because the virus infects the hard drive main boot area, causes the hard disk boot to fail.
"Analysis and processing" virus against the main boot area of the hard disk, resulting in the system can not boot from the hard disk common diseases are: Stone virus, 2708 virus, AIDS trojan virus.
Beep when hard drive starts
"Fault phenomenon" computer for a long time, after the recent boot, the hard disk issued a strange "beep" sound, the system does not detect the hard disk. The same thing happens when you install the hard drive on another user's computer.
"Analytical processing" can cause this failure because the hard drive has not been used for a long time, so that the head is glued to the disk surface. Switch the power supply several times, or turn the hard drive up and down several times, and it may work correctly. However, even if the hard drive starts to work properly, don't assume that the hard drive is back to normal, and it may "strike" at any time. The first thing to do after booting is to back up important data, and then send the hard drive to repair because it is damaged.
Hard Drive head Damage
"Fault phenomenon" head damage is a typical phenomenon is the post can not pass the self-test, and the hard drive because can not find the way to issue a regular "click, click" Sound. Some laptop hard disk sound will be relatively small, close to listen to hear.
"Analytical processing" encountered this situation, if the data of the hard disk is more important, should be immediately power off, because the head is damaged, the swing of the head arm may scratch the disk surface and lead to numerous data recovery. Then you should find a powerful data recovery company for data recovery, do not casually get to the computer city of the pavement. Now the domestic data recovery industry is uneven, hard disk can only be opened in the pure room level 100 or above, replace the head, if the normal environment to take apart the hard disk, will cause the disk surface sticky ash and can not recover data, so should find a strong data recovery company.
The hard disk data still exists after the low lattice program with the motherboard comes with
"Symptom" with the low-lattice program that comes with the motherboard, the hard drive data still exists, as it was before the lower grid.
"Analytical processing" of such phenomena is more common, as long as the transformation of the hard disk mode can solve the problem. For example, you can convert the LBA mode to normal or large mode, and then transform it to the original LBA mode when the hard drive is low.
How to block out bad sectors of the hard drive
"Symptom" the middle part of the hard drive has a serious bad way, unable to complete the format with the Format command, ScanDisk or NDD detection also pass.
"Analytical processing" hard drive bad path is divided into logical bad and physical bad DAO two kinds. The former is soft bad, usually caused by the software operation or improper use, the software can be repaired; the latter is a real physical bad word that indicates a physical error in the hard disk partition or sector. Low-level formatting can only solve the hard disk's soft failure (such as partition errors, etc.), can not repair bad problems. The operation for masking bad sectors is as follows:
(1) Use the Format command, do not add the/q parameter, notice the percentage of changes later.
(2) Assuming that the format goes to 82%, the percentage disappears, instead of a long list of numbers, and the speed becomes very slow, write down 82%.
(3) Press the "CTRL + C" key combination or the "Ctrl+break" key to exit the format command. If not, press the reset button on the chassis to restart.
(4) Start the partition Magic, add a partition, and drag the demarcation to about 81% places.
(5) Exit partition Magic and restart the computer.
(6) using the Format command to reformat the previous partition, the partition will work as expected.
(7) If you also want to make full use of the good space in the back 19%, then you can insert a partition at the back, each time a small increase in its percentage, and restart. Try formatting the partition you just separated to see if there is a situation where the speed is slow or not, and be careful not to format the partition that contains the bad path.
(8) Hide the bad partition in Partition magic to avoid misoperation in Windows, this function is implemented through the Hide Partition menu item. This also ensures that a hard drive with a serious bad path can be used properly, and that the system will not be able to read and write bad lanes frequently to expand the area of the bad path.
Hard drive is always on its own "read"
"Symptom" the hard drive is always "read", even if any software is not running, the hard disk will also ring, and the hard drive light will be lit.
"Analytical processing" Generally speaking, there are two possible types of hard drives in "read": one is reading or writing data, and the other is exchanging data. If the user runs a software, the operating system to the data on the hard disk into the program, at this time, the hard disk will be "read", or the user performed a save operation, at this time also "read", if the user's memory is not large enough, the hard disk will be used as virtual memory, and the physical memory of the frequent exchange of data However, if the hard drive does not take any action, the hard drive lights always light, it is possible that the hard drive is bad, you can scan the hard disk, to see if there is a bad sector, if any, can immediately back up important data, and then send repair.
Mobile hard drive cannot be recognized by the system
"Symptom" mobile hard drive cannot be recognized by the system.
There are several things you can consider when analyzing and processing these phenomena:
(1) System-related setup installation issues
(2) USB interface problem for motherboard
(3) Improper operation causes the mobile hard drive not to use
(4) The problem of moving the hard disk itself
Using a flash drive does not start the computer
"Symptom" boot-type flash drive does not start the computer.
The "Analytical Processing" Startup flash drive is not available for all models of motherboards, it requires the support of the motherboard BIOS to start the computer. The boot-up drive can function properly only if the motherboard BIOS contains the USB-FDD, Usb-zip, or USB-HDD startup settings and the USB device starts up in the same order as the drive.
Also, before booting, the user will need to format the startup Flash drive as a bootable disk using a dedicated formatting tool. This allows the boot-type drive to start the computer normally after a reboot.
Error in moving hard drive due to insufficient voltage
"Symptom" a blue sky makes the 30GB removable hard drive (USB1.1 interface) plugged into an IBM desktop (Pentium 4 2.0ghz,windows XP operating system) when used, the system can automatically find the USB Removable storage device, but in "My Computer" The drive letter for the removable hard disk is not present in the window.
"Analytical processing" to observe the mobile hard drive, found its lights flashing, and issued a "click, click" Sound, at this time suspected that the mobile drive is damaged. Take it to a Lenovo desktop and a Toshiba laptop to try it out, and the results will work. Plug in a different USB interface (this computer has four USB ports) and the fault remains. and the use of USB on the computer's interface, read and write are normal. It appears that the problem is with the IBM machine USB interface and the mobile hard drive connection. Careful observation of the mobile hard disk, its slight "click, click" Sound as if the hard drive does not turn up and issued, may be the mobile hard disk power supply, swap with the mobile hard disk PS/2 interface line power supply, fault resolution.
Failure caused by internal concave of mobile HDD box
"Symptom" used to copy a lot of data using a mobile hard drive, but now on several computers are not detected on the mobile hard disk, hard drive LED is not lit.
The analysis processing hard drive LED does not light, indicating that the problem may be in the mobile hard disk itself. Careful observation of the hard disk USB interface and interface cable, no abnormal pin, open the hard disk box, the surface parts of the body also no discoloration and abnormal phenomenon; The interface pin of the hard disk and the enclosure is not deformed. Also observe the hard disk box body, found that the upper and lower surface of the hard disk box concave, may be in a business trip due to compression and deformation, and then use the interface module of the hard disk box to connect the hard disk, and not loaded into the box, plugged into the computer, the mobile hard drive and resumed normal. In the enclosure, the removable hard drive is not responding. is the inner concave iron box body contacting with the hard disk surface components causing the mobile hard drive to work abnormally? Use the tool to flatten the concave box body, install the hard drive, insert the computer, and use it. It is determined that this fault is caused by the inner concave of the movable HDD box.
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