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Author: Brian peasland, Senior Expert at the techtarget website searchoracle, Sgt, Inc. Head DBA. Oracle 7.3, 8 and 8i OCP, Master's degree in computer science, specializing in database. Brian has been working in the IT industry for 20 years, from computer operators to Operation analysts, then to system administrators, and then to application software developers until now the DBA. it can be said that Brian's career history is a complete DBA growth guide. Later, at the invitation of techtarget in the United States, I wrote a white paper titled grow that DBA career and sent it to peasland.net.
Over the years, I have spent a lot of time in different news groups talking to people who want to know how to get a database administrator (DBA) or how to grow into a DBA, now they have a job. Over the years, many people have raised different opinions on how to achieve this goal. This article provides good suggestions on how to effectively complete DBA's work. This articleArticleSimilarly, it is more valuable for a DBA to become a boss. If you are a DBA, you may want to skip the first few paragraphs of the article.
Should I be a DBA?
One of the questions I have asked is whether a person should be engaged in a profession like DBA. This question is not easy to answer because it varies from person to person. Some people have the talent they need to become a good DBA. Others do not think it is easy to master the secret of becoming a DBA. The DBA profession must have certain skills. It also requires unnecessary requirements for other IT occupations. Therefore, to answer this question, I usually describe the requirements necessary for the DBA profession to become a DBA. In the following sections, I will end with a question. Please take some time to consider and answer these questions before continuing the next section.
Many people are determined to become DBAs for many reasons. One of the main reasons is salary. DBA is one of the highest-paying jobs in the IT industry. Others want to become DBAs because they like to praise DBAs for their honors, or because they look cool! I personally think it is worthwhile to become a DBA. It is an interesting and exciting career. So why do you consider DBA as a possible career choice?
Unless you are prepared in advance, you may find that your DBA career is full of setbacks and headaches. A data inventory consists of the operating system and end-user applications.Program. Similarly, DBAs must be very proficient in the operating system where their database is located. DBA does not necessarily need to know all the operating system knowledge, but the more he knows, the better. The database is closely related to the operating system. It is necessary to solve this association. DBA also needs to know the server hardware and how it affects and helps the database. At the same time, DBA must understand the application software. DBA may be required to help developers create reliable and sound database applications. Also, the most important thing is the most obvious. DBAs must thoroughly understand the database engine, how it works, and how all engines are combined, and how it affects the ability of the database engine to transmit data to end users and applications. The best dba I have ever seen has a deep understanding, not just in the database itself. They know about system management and application development. Most of the time, they had one or two backgrounds before they became DBAs. In any case, it also requires a lot of background knowledge to become a qualified DBA rather than a good DBA. Are you ready to start learning until you feel that you cannot continue learning?
Many people who have talked with me and who have encountered difficulties in their DBA career will actually have some problems when trying to absorb a large amount of information required by DBAs. After all, the system administrator takes full time to learn the details of the operating system. Application developers are dedicated to learning how to write programs. DBAs should not only have a good understanding of these two different jobs, but also spend more time understanding the database architecture, and understand how each piece of everything is combined! Does it sound daunting? Many people think this way when they fail, and regard DBA work as a very difficult task. There are also people who disseminate and understand all this information and use it to make a sound technical decision. As I used to say when I was a DBA, all these seem like a big mystery to me. Combining all these together is a challenge. Who are you?
Many DBAs are waiting for their lives at any time. They will receive calls during the day or night to solve their database's fatal problems. Databases are an essential part of the basic organization of commercial information technology. Without data, there is no need to own a computer system. Data drives business. What will happen if the website of Amazon.com cannot search for products in the database and no one can place orders for their products? It won't be in business for a long time. When the database goes down, even if it is just a short period of time, the company will suffer significant losses. For this reason, the DBA must solve the problem as quickly as possible after arriving at the site. Many companies have their own DBA teams so that they can take turns. These DBAs maintain database applications within 24x7 hours. If your work is needed, are you ready to wait?
Some DBAs are responsible for patching software or making some changes to the database. Generally, these operations cannot be performed by company employees because the database must be run so that they can work. This means that DBAs often have to finish their work long or late at night or even on weekends. Are you ready to work normally, or are you looking for a job from nine to five?
For DBAs, an important thing to master is what is often referred to as "soft technology. DBAs need to work well in the group. Generally, the team is changing, such as system administrators, network administrators, application developers, project managers, and others. DBAs must be able to explain complex technical concepts in fluent English, so that others in the team can understand them. DBA should also be able to direct team members on database-related issues. How is your soft technology?
Not all of the following lists, but include the typical responsibilities of DBA:
· Monitor database instances as daily necessities to ensure their availability. Solve the Problem of unavailability.
· Collect system statistics and performance information for targeted and Configuration Analysis.
· Configure and adjust database instances to achieve optimal performance under specific application requirements.
· Analyze and manage database security. Controls and monitors user access to the database. Audit database usage if necessary.
· Monitor the backup program. Provide recovery if necessary. Test the backup and recovery procedures.
· Upgrade RDBMS Software and use Patches when necessary. Upgrade or migrate database instances if necessary.
· Support application developers through database-related actions.
· Follow the database trend and technology. Use new technologies when applications are available. Install, test, and evaluate new Oracle-related products.
· Perform storage and physical design. Balanced design issues to optimize performance.
· Create, configure, and design a database instance.
· Diagnosis, fault detection, and resolution of any database problems. If necessary, contact Oracle support personnel to solve the problem.
· Ensure that the Oracle network software (SQL * Net, net8, names, OID) is well configured and run.
· Work with the system administrator (UNIX & NT) to ensure that Oracle-related transactions are well handled.
· Create any necessary scripts for effective and regular database maintenance.
The problem in the previous sections is to let you consider what a DBA should do and help you decide whether this is suitable for your career. I don't mean that if you want to become a DBA, this will stop you. I just tried to show some facts. I have seen that some DBAs will be lost once they are hit by actual work. They spent time, energy, and money getting their first DBA job. I personally think this profession is very valuable. And I can't imagine what else will happen. Therefore, this section helps you decide whether or not you want to engage. If it is, do everything you can to get it!
How can I get my first DBA job?
You have read the previous sections and think that it is a good job to become a DBA. Congratulations! I hope your career will become so exciting and meaningful as you think. So how do you find the first DBA job? I have heard this question many times.
In the early 1990s S, the Internet was booming. It makes the company like grass sprout. Companies flock and begin to create their online images. Almost all websites require a database as the background of Web applications. Unfortunately, there were not so many DBAs in this field at the time. In the IT industry, DBAs become scarce. During that time, obtaining a DBA job seems to be as long as you can spell out "oracle", or you may just have been in college with databases for a semester. In order to make life better, the lack of DBAs has prompted companies to pay high salaries to potential employees. If you want to become a DBA, It's easy and easy. What you need to do is to prove that you understand what a database is and then work will appear in front of you earlier than you expected.
Then the Internet bubble burst. A large number of Internet companies went bankrupt. Many DBAs who work for the Company are seeking for work again. It is much easier for a company that lacks DBA to find a person with DBA experience. In the early 21st century, because the economy was not very stable, it was not easy (at least in the United States) to live ). The company tightened their belts. All of this translates into fewer job opportunities and fewer job openings for DBA candidates.
The hardest part to get the first DBA job is that each position requires some work experience. From the company perspective, you can understand why experience is necessary for DBA positions. If he has no experience, will you pay a high salary for him to operate, maintain and run the largest and most important part of your IT infrastructure organization? Will your company pay for an inexperienced DBA? In addition, while waiting for him to grow up, he may lose millions of dollars in revenue. For most companies, the answer to these questions is definitely 'no '. Therefore, without experience, it is very difficult to obtain your first DBA job.
The first DBA job is now in a vicious circle. If I have no experience, how can I get DBA work? How can I get DBA experience if I have no job? This is the most difficult obstacle to be overcome. The most difficult part is to obtain the first DBA job. The rest of this part will give you some suggestions for achieving your first DBA goal.
Tip #1: receive education. -- Learn as much database knowledge as possible. This may take part of your time and effort. Participate in database training courses held by local universities. Many training companies hold training courses for database administrators. If your boss does not fund your study, you may have to pay for it by yourself. Many DBA professions require at least a bachelor's degree or above in computer science or related disciplines, so you must have at least that diploma.
Tip #2: exercise as a DBA. -- Many database vendors allow you to download the Beta or evaluation version of their database systems. Download a copy and install the software on your PC. Exercise using the database. Deliberately destroys the database and tries to fix it. Try to fulfill as many DBA duties as you can think. Test and hone your skills on your own testing platform so that you can prove your database management capabilities.
Tip #3: Get certification. -- Many database providers provide certification for their own database products. Many companies now regard certification as a standard. One thing to remember is that it is not enough to obtain authentication only. Passing the DBA authentication test does not mean that you know how to manage a database. It only tells you the potential boss, and now you have some technology. It also tells your boss that your attitude towards DBA is very serious. I have seen many people complain that they have been certified but have no experience, but still cannot get the first DBA job. Authentication itself does not allow you to get a job, but it is harmless. Even if there are no other ones, you have learned a lot during your authentication. Do not rely on authentication to bring you the job you are looking. You need more than that. But it will help you at the end.
Tip #4: Use your existing skills. -- Many DBAs have the background of system administrators. Others have application development background. If possible, check whether you can use your existing skills to get a job. The goal is to create a win-win situation for you and your boss. For example, let's assume that you are already a system administrator and want to enter the DBA field. Maybe you will find a job that can use your system management skills for part of the job, and you will be involved in the database management field for the rest of the time. If you are already a DBA on a product platform, but you want to transfer it to another product platform, check if you can find a job to contact both product platforms at the same time. In this way, the company and you get what you want. After you are directed to DBA, you can try to get a job that allows you to work for it full-time, maybe in the same company.
Tip #5: Use the current opportunity. -- Sometimes, what a person needs to enter the DBA field is the right place and the right time. Assume that your current boss has a chance for you to perform any database project and seize this opportunity! Any database experience is better than no database experience. Let your managers know that you are actively looking for any possible database opportunities. They may think of you next time. After these database projects and the desire to become a DBA, they may decide to train you and promote you. Many people obtain their first DBA job in this way. After some database-related projects, they become a relatively low-level DBA unconsciously. Generally, when a DBA leaves the company, the company will look for a candidate internally, if they think the candidate is trainable.
Tip #6: Find a lower-level DBA position. -- If you only work for a relatively low-level dBA, you can see the Requirement Description for the DBA position that they are looking for senior DBA or others. Therefore, let us be more rigorous. You do not have any advanced experience. I have discussed why the company will not consider you for such a position. However, they will consider you in low-level positions. The low-level DBA completes the work under the guidance of the Senior DBA. They are exploring tricks. In general, Senior DBAs are responsible for databases and have won all honors. But don't be anxious. As your career develops, you will have more and more responsibilities and gain more and more trust. Because you have no experience, you should start from here.
I have also heard of companies looking for a senior dBA, but in the end they actually want to hire a low-level DBA. You may want to apply for such a position, although you may not be eligible. They may decide to hire you. However, it indicates that you are still in the exploratory stage and are already at a relatively low DBA level. Do not try to trick them into making them think you are a senior DBA level. This will only reduce your chances of getting the job.
These tips will help you get the first DBA job. Good luck when looking for a job. After finding the first DBA job, continue with the following sections to learn how to proceed.
I just got my first job! What should I do now?
Congratulations! You are now a formal member of the DBA club! Are you ready for this dream exciting career? Your job is just getting started and you are already behind in learning. You will find that you have a lot of knowledge to become an efficient database administrator. Your first or first two years will spend more time learning than before. If you find that the amount of learning knowledge overload your brain, take a break, take a rest, and then go back to study. To help you continue, follow these steps:
Step #1: relational database theory-I assume that the database you manage is a "relational" database. Other database models also exist, but the relational model is a dominant database model in the industry in the last two decades. If your data warehouse system is another model, learn its theory. Related database theories are very important. It is the foundation of everything else. I also saw that many people who jumped to the database management position never wanted to learn purely relational database theory. Inevitably, the lack of theoretical basis is exposed as a shortcoming in their career. If you have a good understanding of the relational database theory, you will be very easy to change in the relational database management system (RDBMS) on any platform. I use an Oracle database, IBM DB2, or Microsoft SQL Server. They are all relational database systems. They are doing the same thing at the bottom layer. The difference is how they do the same thing. Pure relational database theory is not necessary for lower-level DBAs. However, if you want to surpass the level of a low-level dBA, it is very important. Many university textbooks contain the theory of relational databases. Bejamin/Cummings press, one of the widely used textbooks, is the database system foundation compiled by elmasri and navathe.
Step #2: thoroughly learn the query language-the database has a language that allows you to get data from the database, put the data into the database, and modify the data in the database. For relational databases, this language is Structured Query Language (SQL ). This language is a tool for your access to databases. It is important that you cannot make this tool an obstacle for future learning. Practice different SQL statements in your test database until they become your habit. This is a good book called Oracle 9i full reference (Oracle 9i the complete reference) written by Loney and Koch, Oracle press. Every Oracle DBA should read this book early in his career. Oracle 9i Reference Manual is another important source of knowledge. There is an account on their technical website technet (http://technet.oracle.com) You can visit... T.
Step #3: start learning basic database management-isn't that why you started here? Why is it in the third place of the list? We are trying to build a knowledge pyramid. I strongly feel that a person needs to know the relational database theory and SQL, they are also used as tools when you learn how to perform basic database management. These tasks include starting and disabling databases, backing up and recovering databases, and creating/deleting/modifying database objects. For Oracle database management, there are a lot of books on the market that can give you a good experience. This book is the Oracle 9i DBA Manual (Oracle 9i DBA handbook by Loney on Oracle Press ). Most DBAs I know read this book more than once in the early days of their career. Here, you should read and understand the Oracle 9i concept guide, Oracle 9i administrator guide, and Oracle 9i backup and recovery Guide (Oracle 9i concepts guide, the Oracle 9i Administrator's Guide, and the Oracle 9i backup and recovery guide) are from Oracle documents.
Step #4: Read, read, and read again-as you have just started your DBA career, you are starting to lay the foundation for your skills. This takes a long time to form, absorb and understand all the knowledge you will learn. There is no doubt that you have to do a lot of work than your senior dBA, so they may not always free up a lot of time to help you learn. You have to learn many things by yourself. This is the purpose of reading. There are many books on the market that can answer many database-related topics. Oracle press is an official publishing house of Oracle. It has a large number of Oracle-related books. There are also other publishers, such as wrox press and o'reilly press. You can also find the Oracle document to read. There are also many websites and newsgroups. Read as many books as possible so that you can continue. Also, reading them more than once can help you absorb what you missed during your first reading.
Step #5: Create test cases-I often see beginners asking some basic questions. In fact, if they take some time to think about these questions, they are easy to answer. There is no doubt that you will have many problems when you start to learn oracle. Check whether you can answer these questions by yourself. For example, I was asked again if I could insert null values into columns with uniqueness constraints. At the beginning, this may not seem easy to answer. But it is very easy to test! You only need to create a simple table. In one of these columns, we assume the uniqueness constraint. Try to insert a null value in this column. Valid? You should be able to answer this question easily. So why should we create these cases? One reason is that this can improve your ability to solve problems. The skills required to create these cases are the skills used to solve the problem. The problem-solving skills will be of great help to your DBA career. Another reason is that as your career develops, you will often need to create more complex test cases to ensure the success of databases and applications. In the future, even simple test cases can form more complex database and application decomposition.
Step #6: Find a mentor-a mentor can lead your DBA career (or other similar occupations. They can give you instructions, answer questions, and help you save some time as your DBA grows. I hope this article will play a role as a mentor and friend in your career development. If you work with a senior dBA, you should have the responsibility to provide useful guidance for your career. You can also select other people to guide you.
Step #7: participate in the local user group-many multinational cities have local user groups who regularly gather to discuss database-related topics. If possible, participate in one of the local user groups. This will give you a good way to communicate with others.
How can I change from a DBA beginner to an intermediate DBA?
You have been a dBA for a while. Do you want to improve your technical level to the first level? What should I do next? First, go back to the previous section and check that you have completed all the steps. It is very important to thoroughly understand the SQL language. It is also important to understand the relational database theory and master basic database management tasks. Up to now, you should have read documents and other books. If not, you are not ready to continue your further studies, increasing the technical level of your DBA. If you are ready to continue, I have prepared some methods for your further study.
Step #1: Learn the operating system and your server hardware-as I mentioned earlier, the database exists on the operating system and server hardware. It is necessary to understand how these components work. You should know how to work with a special operating system. How do you delete or edit an object? If your operating system is UNIX, you should master the command line and how Unix Commands help you. The same is true for running Windows or other operating systems. You also need to have a certain understanding of the server hardware. What is the difference between physical memory and virtual memory? What is raid and how different levels have an impact? Why Do databases prefer more physical hard disks than a large hard disk volume? You need to know these things so that you can easily configure your server with the system administrator so that it can fully support database conversations.
Step #2: Learn the application design because it is related to the database-as described above, the database exists between the operating system and the database application. You really need the two. How does the SQL language help create applications? What are variable binding and why are they important? Tom Kyte wrote a very good book and gave good suggestions on Oracle application design. His expert one-on-one Oracle book can be found in wrox press. I strongly recommend reading this book. He describes in detail what can generate and destroy Oracle Applications. You need to know this because your application developers want to get guidance and database knowledge from you. Learn any knowledge related to application design. It may be advantageous to attend a course class on software engineering, operating systems, or data structures.
Step #4: Get the certification-maybe your job is not needed, but it will be helpful for you to get the certification. Every day as a DBA, you have learned many new and exciting things. Maybe you haven't learned anything new for a few days during your career. But you still have a lot to learn. To become an OCP (Oracle certified professional) dBA, you must have learned all the basics of database management. I found that during the course of the OCP examination, I learned something I never touched at work. Once I learned a special topic that I have never encountered, I was able to use that knowledge to solve the problem. If I fail to take the OCP exam, I will never use that special method to solve the problem. This has happened to me once. Some may say that authentication is actually not worthwhile. I would like to say that it will only benefit you. So, get the certification!
Step #5: Get a resource library-in the previous section, I pointed out that every DBA should have an account on technet. This is one of your main resources. However, there are many other resources at the same time. Many people share their knowledge about oracle. If you haven't started yet, you should use a web browser to search and collect a lot of Oracle resources. If you like, you can start by visiting my website (http: // www.peasland.net. The following lists some websites that Oracle DBAs must know:
Jonathan Lewis web site-http://www.jlcomp.demon.co.uk/
Ixora (Steve Adams)-http://www.ixora.com.au
Metalink (Oracle Support site)-http://metalink.oracle.com
There are many other good websites.
Step #6: Start to communicate with different newsgroups and forums-maybe you have already found them, but if you are not now, it is time to start. There are many news groups and forums that can answer any of your Oracle questions. In the Oracle community, many other experts are willing to share their knowledge with you. All you have to do is ask questions. The following is a list of the best internet groups that can start communication:
Usenet newsgroups-Comp. Databases. Oracle. server and comp. Databases. Oracle. Misc are two world-renowned news groups that can communicate with each other. They have a large number of exchange files for Oracle problems. The best way to watch these groups is to use broadcasters. However, if you want to use web-based access, you can also search for it using the Google search engine. (Http://groups.google.com/groups? Hl =... atabases. Oracle)
Quest pipelines-The revealnet pipelines was called when they first belonged to the software provider revealnet. Now, quest has purchased revealnet and has pipelines. Pipelines is medium, so these are my favorite. Here you can find pipelines (http://www.quest-pipelines.com/index.asp ).
It is a good thing to observe how others are tested and suffering. If you have any questions, you can freely raise them in the group. If you want to ask a question, you should usually include some information, such as your Oracle version and the platform running oracle. These will produce a very different answer. If you forget it, someone will remind you! You can even learn more from others' answers without asking questions. I can't remember how many times I solved the problem because I remember someone else asked the same question in the newsgroup.
How can I change from an intermediate DBA to an advanced DBA?
Well, as a DBA, you have made unremitting efforts for a long time. You feel that you are ready to take another step. What do I need to become a senior DBA? The following sections help you proceed.
Step #1: Read all documents-Oracle documents are generally not easy to read. Countless times, you read the document just to find out the whole thing. If documents are the best, then oracle books standing on your shelves will not be available. However, the document does contain information that cannot be found anywhere else. For example, you cannot find detailed descriptions of every special init. ora parameter or V $ view. Some of them may be involved in books, but Oracle documents include all of them. I met a very powerful senior DBA who did not read the Oracle document from the beginning to the end. This is not accidental. Oracle documents must be read. Maybe you have read the Oracle concept guidance 12 times so far. But when Oracle 10i is released, read it again. Any new concepts related to 10i will be documented in this document. If you really want to go further, read those documents. Do not escape it.
Step #2: become an expert-Oracle database is a very complicated thing. To be more advanced, you must be proficient in many components of the product. Start with backup and recovery. Become a backup and recovery expert. Deliberately destroys the database and then looks at how to recover it. Try to destroy the database in any way possible and check whether the database can be recovered. You will thoroughly understand the concept of backup and recovery. After you become an expert in backup and recovery, you can become an expert in other fields. You will have endless questions to grasp. This remains the case throughout your career. But remember, no matter how professional you are, some people will know more about you in some areas. Do not bring personal emotions. Just learn as much knowledge as possible from that person.
Route #3: actively participate in newsgroups, forums, and user groups-I mentioned why different newsgroups and forums are a good place to learn new knowledge. Now it's your turn to take the next step and answer any questions you can answer. You will be surprised to learn so much in this process!
Route #4: Write a White Paper and show them-this is similar to the method mentioned above. First, sharing your knowledge is very important. If your career has reached this step, in a sense, it is inseparable from others' contributions. Therefore, it is time for you to contribute to others. Second, when you try to share your information, something amazing will happen. When you use clear, concise language to express problems so that others can use them, the information goes through a staggering process in your mind. This process reinforces your knowledge, which cannot be done in other ways. Sharing that information, seminars, news groups, and forums in the White Paper is a very good way for you to learn and make your abilities more advanced. Follow this path and you should do two things. First, realize that you will make mistakes. Others will be happy to point out the mistakes, sometimes not very good in a sense. Do not attempt to hide your mistakes. Recognize and learn from them. Second, learn to say that you do not know the answer, rather than trying to pass through the deception. Sooner or later, people will know that you are attempting to blind them. Simply tell them that you are not sure about the answer, but you will come back and tell them the answer. If you keep these two things in mind, you will not violate your honesty and you will grow into a professional IT person.
Step #5: Become an Oracle expert-Senior DBAs are generally considered to be the people who solve complicated Oracle problems. You will use all your technologies to solve many problems that have been accumulated in your career. Everything I mentioned above will be used to solve the problem. documents, books, newsgroups, test cases, and other DBAs will help you solve the problem.
Step #6: Become a performance tuning expert-Senior DBAs are generally considered to be the people who adjust the performance of databases and applications. If you are a senior DBA but you cannot analyze performance bottlenecks, your company will look for these services elsewhere.
Step #7: become an expert in the bearer capacity plan-Senior DBAs are generally considered to be the people who plan the database capacity based on the data growth and transaction growth. Senior DBAs need to identify system bottlenecks before affecting application performance. For example, DBA should know that more disk space is preset before the database uses up available disk space. If you do not pay close attention to the bearer capacity plan, the production database will be down.
Step #8: pay close attention to new technologies-Senior DBAs should have good suggestions on the future of IT-related database technologies. What technologies are available to help databases? For example, learn the advantages and disadvantages of the storage domain network and how to apply them to the database system. What technologies will be available in the near future and help us? For example, at the time of writing this article, Linux operating systems are becoming increasingly popular. What does Lunix bring to your database operating system platform? Can it work for your company?
From getting the first job to growing from a junior DBA to a senior dBA, I hope this article will give you some suggestions on how to spend all stages of your career. This article is applicable to any stage of your DBA career.
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