Android Fresco image processing library usage API Original English document 3 (Facebook open-source Android Image Library)

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags image processing library prefetch webp

Android Fresco image processing library usage API Original English document 3 (Facebook open-source Android Image Library)

This is the third part of the English document: IMAGE PIPELINE GUIDE


Introduction to the Image Pipeline



The image pipeline does everything necessary to get an image into a form where it can be rendered into an Android device.

The pipeline goes through the following steps when given an image to load:

  1. Look in the bitmap cache. If found, return it.
  2. Hand off to other threads.
  3. Check in the encoded memory cache. If found, decode, transform, and return it. Store in the bitmap cache.
  4. Check in the disk cache. If found, decode, transform, and return it. Store in the encoded-memory and bitmap caches.
  5. Check on the network (or other original source). If found, decode, transform, and return it. Store in all three caches.

    This being an image library, an image is worth a thousand words:

    (The 'disk' cache as pictured into des the encoded memory cache, to keep the logic path clearer.) See this page for more details on caching.

    The pipeline can read from local files as well as network. PNG, GIF, and WebP are supported as well as JPEG.

    WebP on older platforms

    WebP is often a useful image format, but Android did not support it at all until Android 3.0. Extended WebP format was not supported until Android 4.1.2.

    The image pipeline transcodes unsupported WebP images into JPEG for you. This allows you to use WebP in your app all the way back to Android 2.3.

    Processing the Image Pipeline


    Most apps can initialize Fresco completely by the simple command:


    For those apps that need more advanced customization, we offer it using theImagePipelineConfig class.

    Here is a maximal example. Rare is the app that actually needs all of these settings, but here they are for reference.

    ImagePipelineConfig config = ImagePipelineConfig.newBuilder()    .setBitmapMemoryCacheParamsSupplier(bitmapCacheParamsSupplier)    .setCacheKeyFactory(cacheKeyFactory)    .setEncodedMemoryCacheParamsSupplier(encodedCacheParamsSupplier)    .setExecutorSupplier(executorSupplier)    .setImageCacheStatsTracker(imageCacheStatsTracker)    .setMainDiskCacheConfig(mainDiskCacheConfig)    .setMemoryTrimmableRegistry(memoryTrimmableRegistry)     .setNetworkFetchProducer(networkFetchProducer)    .setPoolFactory(poolFactory)    .setProgressiveJpegConfig(progressiveJpegConfig)    .setRequestListeners(requestListeners)    .setSmallImageDiskCacheConfig(smallImageDiskCacheConfig)    .build();Fresco.initialize(context, config);

    Be sure to pass yourImagePipelineConfigObjectFresco.initialize!Otherwise, Fresco will use a default configuration instead of the one you built.

    Understanding Suppliers

    Several of the configuration builder's methods take arguments of a Supplier of an instance rather than instance itself. this is a little more complex to create, but allows you to change behaviors while your app is running. memory caches, for one, check their Supplier every five minutes.

    If you don't need to dynamically change the params, use a Supplier that returns the same object each time:

          xSupplier = new Supplier
          () {  public X get() {    return new X(xparam1, xparam2...);  });// when creating image pipeline.setXSupplier(xSupplier);
    Thread pools

    By default, the image pipeline uses three thread pools:

    1. Three threads for network downloads
    2. Two threads for all disk operations-local file reads, and the disk cache
    3. Two threads for all CPU-bound operations-decodes, transforms, and background operations, such as postprocessing.

      You can customize networking behavior by setting your own network layer.

      To change the behavior for all other operations, pass in an instance of ExecutorSupplier.

      Refreshing the memory caches

      The bitmap cache and the encoded memory cache are configured by a Supplier of aMemoryCacheParams object.

      Flushing the disk cache

      You use the builder pattern to create a DiskCacheConfig object:

      DiskCacheConfig diskCacheConfig = DiskCacheConfig.newBuilder()   .set....   .set....   .build()// when building ImagePipelineConfig.setMainDiskCacheConfig(diskCacheConfig)
      Keeping cache stats #

      If you want to keep track of metrics like the cache hit rate, you can implement theImageCacheStatsTracker class. This provides callbacks for every cache event that you can use to keep your own statistics.



      The three caches1. Bitmap cache

      The bitmap cache stores AndroidBitmapObjects. These are fully decoded images ready for display or postprocessing.

      On Android 4.x and lower, the bitmap cache's data lives in the ashmem heap, not in the Java heap. this means that images don't force extra runs of the garbage collector, slowing down your app.

      Android 5.0 has much improved memory management than earlier versions, so it is safer to leave the bitmap cache on the Java heap.

      When your app is backgrounded, the bitmap cache is emptied.

      2. Encoded memory cache

      This cache stores images in their original compressed form. Images retrieved from this cache must be decoded before display.

      If other transformations, such as resizing, rotating or transcoding were requested, that happens before decode.

      This cache is also emptied when your app is backgrounded.

      3. Disk cache

      (Yes, we know phones don't have disks, but it's too tedious to keep saying local storage cache ...)

      Like the encoded memory cache, this cache stores compressed image, which must be decoded and sometimes transformed before display.

      Unlike the others, this cache is not cleared when your app is backgrounded, or if it exits, or even if the device is turned off. the user can, of course, always clear it from Android's Settings menu.

      Using one disk cache or two?

      Most apps need only a single disk cache. But in some circumstances you may be want to keep smaller images in a separate cache, to prevent them from getting evicted too soon by larger images.

      To do this, just call bothsetMainDiskCacheConfigAndsetSmallImageDiskCacheConfigMethods when processing ing the image pipeline.

      What defines small? Your app does. When making an image request, you set its ImageType:

      ImageRequest request = ImageRequest.newBuilderWithSourceUri(uri)    .setImageType(ImageType.SMALL)

      If you need only one cache, you can simply avoid callingsetSmallImageDiskCacheConfig. The pipeline will default to using the same cache for both andImageTypeWill be ignored.

      Trimming the caches

      When refreshing ing the image pipeline, you can set the maximum size of each of the caches. but there are times when you might want to go lower than that. for instance, your application might have caches for other kinds of data that might need more space and crowd out Fresco's. or you might be checking to see if the device as a whole is running out of storage space.

      Fresco's caches implement the DiskTrimmable or MemoryTrimmable interfaces. These are hooks into which your app can tell them to do emergency evictions.

      Your application can then configure the pipeline with objects implementing theDiskTrimmableRegistry and MemoryTrimmableRegistry interfaces.

      These objects must keep a list of trimmables. They must use app-specific logic to determine when memory or disk space must be preserved. They then ready y the trimmable objects to carry out their trims.

      Using the Image Pipeline Directly


      This page is intended for advanced usage only. Most apps shocould be using Drawees to interact with Fresco's image pipeline.

      Using the image pipeline directly is challenging because of the memory usage. drawees automatically keep track of whether or not your images need to be in memory. they will swap them out and load them back as soon as they need to be displayed. if you are using the image pipeline directly, your app must repeat this logic.

      The image pipeline returns objects wrapped in a CloseableReference. Drawees call.close()Method on these objects when they are finished with them. If your app is not using Drawees, it must do the same.

      The Java garbage collector will free image memory when Bitmap objects go out of scope, but this may be too late. garbage collection is expensive, and relying on it for large objects leads to performance issues. this is especially true on Android 4.x and lower, when Android did not maintain a separate memory space for Bitmaps.

      Calling the pipeline

      You must build an image request. Having done that, you can pass it directly toImagePipeline:

      ImagePipeline imagePipeline = Fresco.getImagePipeline();DataSource
             >     dataSource = imagePipeline.fetchDecodedImage(imageRequest);

      See the page on DataSources for information on how to receive data from them.

      Skipping the decode

      If you don't want to decode the image, but want to keep it in its original compressed format, just usefetchEncodedImageInstead:

             >     dataSource = imagePipeline.fetchEncodedImage(imageRequest);
      Instant results from the bitmap cache

      Lookups to the bitmap cache, unlike the others, are done in the UI thread. If a Bitmap is there, you get it instantly.

             > dataSource =    imagePipeline.fetchImageFromBitmapCache(imageRequest);try {  CloseableReference
               imageReference = dataSource.getResult();  if (imageReference != null) {    try {      CloseableImage image = imageReference.get();      // do something with the image    } finally {      CloseableReference.closeSafely(imageReference);    }  }} finally {  dataSource.close();}

      Do not skip thisfinallyBlocks!


      Prefetching images in advance of showing them can sometimes lead to shorter wait times for users. remember, however, that there are trade-offs. prefetching takes up your users 'data, and uses up its share of CPU and memory. as a rule, prefetching is not recommended for most apps.

      Nonetheless, the image pipeline allows you to prefetch to either disk or bitmap cache. both will use more data for network URIs, but the disk cache will not do a decode and will therefore use less CPU.

      Prefetch to disk:


      Prefetch to bitmap cache:


      DataSources and DataSubscribers


      A DataSource is, like a Java Future, the result of an asynchronous computation. the different is that, unlike a Future, a DataSource can return you a whole series of results from a single command, not just one.

      After submitting an image request, the image pipeline returns a data source. To get a result out if it, you need to use a DataSubscriber.

      I just want a bitmap...

      If your request to the pipeline is for a decoded image-an Android Bitmap, you can take advantage of our easier-to-use BaseBitmapDataSubscriber:

      dataSource.subscribe(new BaseBitmapDataSubscriber() {    @Override    public void onNewResultImpl(@Nullable Bitmap bitmap) {       // You can use the bitmap in only limited ways      // No need to do any cleanup.    }    @Override    public void onFailureImpl(DataSource dataSource) {      // No cleanup required here.    }  });

      A snap to use, right? There is a caveat.

      You can not assign the bitmap to any variable not in the scope ofonNewResultImplMethod. the reason is that, after the subscriber has finished executing, the image pipeline will recycle the bitmap and free its memory. if you try to draw the bitmap after that, your app will crash withIllegalStateException.

      General-purpose solution

      If you want to keep the bitmap around, you can't use raw Bitmaps at all. You must make use of closeable references and the BaseDataSubscriber:

      DataSubscriber dataSubscriber =    new BaseDataSubscriber
             >() {  @Override  public void onNewResultImpl(      DataSource
              > dataSource) {    if (!dataSource.isFinished()) {      FLog.v("Not yet finished - this is just another progressive scan.");    }      CloseableReference
                imageReference = dataSource.getResult();    if (imageReference != null) {      try {        CloseableImage image = imageReference.get();        // do something with the image      } finally {        imageReference.close();      }    }  }  @Override  public void onFailureImpl(DataSource dataSource) {    Throwable throwable = dataSource.getFailureCause();    // handle failure  }};dataSource.subscribe(dataSubscriber, executor);

      If you want to deviate from the example abve and assignCloseableReferenceTo another variable somewhere else, you can. Just be sure to follow the rules.

      Closeable References


      This page is intended for advanced usage only.

      Most apps shoshould use Drawees and not worry about closing.

      The Java language is garbage-collected and most developers are used to creating objects willy-nilly and taking it for granted they will eventually disappear from memory.

      Until Android 5.0's improvements, this was not at all a good idea for Bitmaps. they take up a large share of the memory of a mobile device. their existence in memory wocould make the garbage collector run more frequently, making image-heavy apps slow and janky.

      Bitmaps were the one thing that makes Java developers miss C ++ and its own smart pointer libraries, such as Boost.

      Fresco's solution is found in the CloseableReference class. In order to use it correctly, you must follow the rules below:

      1. The caller owns the reference.

      Here, we create a reference, but since we're re passing it to a caller, the caller takes it:

              foo() {  Val val;  return CloseableReference.of(val);}
      2. The owner must close the reference before leaving scope.

      Here we create a reference, but are not passing it to a caller. So we must close it:

      void gee() {  CloseableReference
              ref = foo();  try {    haa(ref);  } finally {    ref.close();  }}

      ThefinallyBlock is almost always the best way to do this.

      3. Something other than the owner shocould not close the reference.

      Here, we are inserting ing the reference via argument. The caller is still the owner, so we are not supposed to close it.

      void haa(CloseableReference
             ref) {  Log.println("Haa: " + ref.get());}

      If we called.close()Here by mistake, then if the caller tried to call.get(),IllegalStateExceptionWocould be thrown.

      4. Always clone the reference before assigning.

      If we need to hold onto the reference, we need to clone it.

      If using it in a class:

      class MyClass {  CloseableReference
              myValRef;  void mmm(CloseableReference
               ref) {    myValRef = ref.clone();  };  // caller can now safely close its copy as we made our own clone.  void close() {    CloseableReference.closeSafely(myValRef);  }}// Now the caller of MyClass must close it!

      If using it in an inner class:

      void haa(CloseableReference
             ref) {  final CloseableReference
             refClone = ref.clone();  executor.submit(new Runnable() {    public void run() {      try {        Log.println("Haa Async: " + refClone.get());      } finally {        refClone.close();      }    }  });  // caller can now safely close its copy as we made our own clone.}


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