Name

Abs

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Abs (number)

Parameters

Must be selected. The number argument is a valid numeric expression of any type

"Return value"

Type of same number

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the absolute value of the parameter number. The absolute value of a number is to remove the positive sign from the future. For example, ABS (-1) and ABS (1) both return 1. Abs (5.2) =5.2,abs (-5) =5

Example

Dim MyNumber

MyNumber = Abs (50.3) ' returns 50.3.

MyNumber = Abs (-50.3) ' returns 50.3.

Notes

Returns NULL if number contains NULL, or 0 if number is an uninitialized variable.

Name

Atn

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

ATN (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a double or any valid numeric expression.

"Return value"

Double type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the tangent value of the parameter number.

Example

Dim Pi

PI = 4 * ATN (1) ' Calculates pi.

Notes

The ATN function's parameter value (number) is the ratio of the sides of the right-angled triangle and returns the angle in radians. This ratio is the angle of the side length divided by the angle of the adjacent side length of the quotient. The range of values is between-PI/2 and PI/2 radians. To convert the angle to radians, multiply the angle by pi/180. To convert radians to angles, multiply radians by 180/pi.

Note: Atn is the inverse trigonometric functions of tan, and the value of tan is the angle, which returns the ratio of two sides of the right-angled triangle. Instead of confusing the Atn with the cotangent function, the cotangent function value is the reciprocal of the tangent value, cotangent = (1/tangent).

Name

Cos

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Cos (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is Double or any valid numeric expression that represents an angle in radians.

"Return value"

Double type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the cosine of a specified angle.

Example

Dim MyAngle, Mysecant

MyAngle = 1.3 ' defines the angle (in radians).

Mysecant = 1/cos (myangle) ' uses cosine to compute secant (sec ()).

Notes

The Cos function's argument is a corner and returns the ratio on both sides of the right-angled triangle. The ratio is the angle of the adjacent side length divided by the length of the hypotenuse. The values of the results range from 1 to 1.

To convert the angle to radians, multiply the angle by pi/180. To convert radians to angles, multiply radians by 180/pi.

Name

Exp

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

EXP (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a Double or any valid numeric expression

"Return value"

Double type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns a specified E (the bottom of the natural logarithm, the value of E is 2.71828).

Example

' This example uses the EXP function to compute one of the sides of E.

Dim MyAngle, Myhsin

' Defines the angle (in radians).

MyAngle = 1.3

' Computes the hyperbolic sine function value (sin ()).

Myhsin = (exp (myangle)-exp ( -1 * myangle))/2

Notes

If the value of number is more than 709.782712893, it can cause an error to occur. The value of constant e is about 2.718282. Note: The function of the EXP function is complementary to the function of Log, so it is sometimes called the objection number.

Name

Fix

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Fix (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a Double or any valid numeric expression

"Return value"

Integer type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Truncate the decimal part of number to find the integer part, for example: Fix (3.8) =3,fix (-3.8) =-3.

Example

Dim MyNumber

MyNumber = Fix (99.2) ' returns 99.

MyNumber = Fix (-99.8) ' returns-99.

MyNumber = Fix (-99.2) ' returns-99.

Notes

If number contains null, NULL is returned.

Name

Int

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Int (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a Double or any valid numeric expression

"Return value"

Integer type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

The largest integer that is not greater than number, INT (3. 8) =3,int (-3.8) =-4.

Example

Dim MyNumber

MyNumber = Int (99.8) ' returns 99.

MyNumber = Int (-99.8) ' returns-100.

MyNumber = Int (-99.2) ' returns-100.

Notes

If number contains null, NULL is returned. Int and Fix will delete the decimal part of number and return the remaining integers. The difference between int and fix is that if number is negative, INT returns the first negative integer less than or equal to number, and fix returns the first negative integer greater than or equal to number. For example, Int converts-8.4 to 9, and Fix converts-8.4 to 8.

Name

Log

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Log (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a Double or any valid numeric expression greater than 0

"Return value"

Double type

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the natural pair value of the specified number parameter.

Example

This example uses the Log function to get a natural numeric value for a number.

Dim MyAngle, MyLog

' Defines the angle (in radians).

MyAngle = 1.3

' Computes the inverse hyperbolic sine function value (inverse sinh ()).

MyLog = Log (MyAngle + SQR (MyAngle * myangle + 1))

Notes

The natural logarithm is the logarithm of the base e. The value of constant e is about 2.718282.

As shown below, by dividing the natural value of x by the natural pair value of n, you can calculate the numeric x's pair value for any bottom n:

Logn (x) = log (x)/log (n)

The following example shows how to write a function that asks for a value of 10:

Static Function Log10 (X)

LOG10 = log (X)/log (10#)

End Function

Name

Rnd

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

rnd[(number)]

Parameters

Required, the number argument is single or any valid numeric expression.

"Return value"

If the value of number is

Rnd generation

Less than 0

Each time, number is used as the same result as the random seed.

Greater than 0

The next random number in the sequence.

equals 0

The number of recent builds.

Omitted

The next random number in the sequence.

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns a single that contains a random value. The RND function returns a value less than 1 but greater than or equal to 0. The value of number determines how the Rnd generates random numbers.

The same sequence is generated for the seed given initially, because each call to the RND function uses the first number in the sequence as the seed of the next number.

Before calling Rnd, the random number generator is initialized with a Randomize statement without parameters, which has seeds based on the system timer.

To generate a random integer in a range, you use the following formula:

Int ((upperbound-lowerbound + 1) * Rnd + lowerbound)

Here, the upperbound is the upper limit of the range of random numbers, and the lowerbound is the lower bound of the range of random numbers.

Note If you want to get a duplicate sequence of random numbers, call a Rnd with a negative parameter value directly before using a Randomize with a numeric parameter. Using a Randomize with the same number value does not get a duplicate sequence of random numbers.

Example

This example uses the RND function to randomly generate a random integer from 1 to 6.

Dim myvalue

MyValue = Int ((6 * Rnd) + 1) ' generates a random number from 1 to 6.

Notes

No

Name

Sgn

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

SGN (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a valid numeric expression of any type

"Return value"

If number is

SGN return

Greater than 0

1

equals 0

0

Less than 0

-1

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns a Variant (Integer) that indicates the positive or negative number of the parameter. The symbol for the number parameter determines the return value of the SGN function.

Example

This example uses the SGN function to determine the positive sign of a number.

Dim MyVar1, MyVar2, MyVar3, mysign

MyVar1 = 12:myvar2 = -2.4:MYVAR3 = 0

MySign = SGN (MYVAR1) ' returns 1.

MySign = SGN (MYVAR2) ' returns-1.

MySign = SGN (MyVar3) ' returns 0.

Notes

No

Name

Sin

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Sin (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a Double or any valid numeric expression that represents an angle in radians.

"Return value"

Returns a Double specifying the sine (sine) value of the parameter.

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

The Sin function takes an angle as a parameter value and returns the ratio of the angle to the length divided by the length of the hypotenuse.

The values of the results range from 1 to 1.

To convert the angle to radians, multiply the angle by pi/180. To convert radians to angles, multiply radians by 180/pi.

Example

This example uses the SIN function to find the sine value (sin ()) of one corner.

Dim MyAngle, Mycosecant

MyAngle = 1.3 ' defines the angle (in radians).

Notes

No

Name

Sqr

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

SQR (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a double or any valid numeric expression that is greater than or equal to 0.

"Return value"

Returns a Double.

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the square root of the specified argument number

Example

This example uses the SQR function to compute the square root of a number.

Dim MYSQR

MYSQR = SQR (4) ' returns 2.

MYSQR = SQR (23) ' returns 4.79583152331272.

MYSQR = SQR (0) ' returns 0.

MYSQR = SQR (-4) ' generates a run-time error (negative numbers cannot open the square root of this function).

Notes

No

Name

Tan

Category

Mathematical functions

Prototype

Tan (number)

Parameters

Required, the number argument is a double or any valid numeric expression that represents an angle in radians.

"Return value"

Returns a Double.

"Exception/Error"

No

Description

Returns the tangent value of the specified argument number. Tan takes one angle as the parameter value and returns the ratio of two adjacent sides of the right angle. The ratio is the angle of the side length divided by the angle of the adjacent side length of the quotient.

To convert the angle to radians, multiply the angle by pi/180/180. To convert radians to angles, multiply radians by 180/pi.

Example

This example uses the TAN function to find the tangent of a corner (tan ()).

Dim MyAngle, MyCotangent

MyAngle = 1.3 ' defines the angle (in radians).

MyCotangent = 1/tan (myangle) ' uses tangent to compute cotangent (cot ()).

Notes

The following is a list of non-basic mathematical functions that can be derived from basic mathematical functions:

Function

The formula derived from the basic function

The following are the referenced contents: Secant (secant) SEC (x) = 1/cos (x) Cosecant (more cut) Cosec (x) = 1/sin (x) Cotangent (cotangent) Cotan (x) = 1/tan (x) Inverse Sine (anyway chord) Arcsin (x) = Atn (X/SQR (-X * x + 1)) Inverse cosine (anti-cosine) Arccos (x) = Atn (-X/SQR (-X * x + 1)) + 2 * ATN (1) Inverse secant (anyway cut) ARCSEC (x) = Atn (X/SQR (x * X-1)) + SGN ((x)-1) * (2 * ATN (1)) Inverse cosecant (anti-surplus cut) Arccosec (x) = Atn (X/SQR (x * X-1)) + (SGN (x)-1) * (2 * ATN (1)) Inverse cotangent (anti-cotangent) Arccotan (x) = Atn (x) + 2 * ATN (1) Hyperbolic Sine (hyperbolic sine) HSin (x) = (exp (x)-exp (-X))/2 Hyperbolic cosine (hyperbolic cosine) Hcos (x) = (exp (x) + EXP (-X))/2 Hyperbolic Tangent (hyperbolic tangent) Htan (x) = (exp (x)-exp (-X))/(EXP (X) + exp (-X)) Hyperbolic secant (hyperbolic secant) Hsec (x) = 2/(exp (x) + exp (-X) Hyperbolic cosecant (double curved Cut) Hcosec (x) = 2/(exp (x)-exp (-X) Hyperbolic cotangent (hyperbolic cotangent) Hcotan (x) = (exp (x) + exp (-X))/(exp (x)-exp (-X)) Inverse hyperbolic Sine (inverse hyperbolic sine) Harcsin (x) = Log (x + SQR (x * x + 1)) Inverse hyperbolic cosine (inverse hyperbolic cosine) Harccos (x) = Log (x + SQR (x * X-1)) Inverse hyperbolic Tangent (inverse hyperbolic tangent) Harctan (x) = Log ((1 + x)/(1-x))/2 Inverse hyperbolic secant (anti-hyperbolic secant) Harcsec (x) = Log ((SQR * x + 1) + 1)/x) Inverse hyperbolic cosecant Harccosec (x) = Log ((SGN (x) * SQR (x * x + 1) + 1)/x) Inverse hyperbolic cotangent (anti-hyperbolic cotangent) Harccotan (x) = Log ((x + 1)/(X-1))/2 Logarithm with N as the base Logn (x) = log (x)/log (N) |