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The enterprise-level project management system is an integral part of the overall enterprise management system. Therefore, to establish an enterprise-level project management system, you must proceed from the fundamental goal of the enterprise, gradually analyzes various behavioral characteristics of enterprises, so that the project management method can be targeted.
To establish a scientific and rational enterprise-level project management system, follow these steps:
1. Clarify the enterprise's mission and market positioning;
Different missions of an enterprise are directly related to the enterprise's objectives and positioning in the market and its position in the value chain. This will affect the formulation of a large number of specific management objectives of enterprises, and each enterprise must be clear. The mission of an enterprise is not only related to all aspects of the traditional enterprise management mode, but also with the flat management in enterprise project management, the guiding role of the enterprise's mission will also directly affect project decision-making, it affects the actual behavior of the project during execution.
2. determine the key tasks of the enterprise and the specifications of professional methods;
A. Conduct WBS decomposition on the mission of an enterprise to obtain specific and clear key task requirements of the enterprise. They are the actions that the enterprise must take to complete Use. The task should be clearly defined and must be operable and can be applied to future specific actions. These decomposed tasks are the requirements of the entire enterprise. Enterprises need to define the enterprise process, the organizational structure, and the enterprise culture, the more specific functions of the enterprise in the future are consistent with these key tasks. For example, software enterprises can develop software products, sell software products, implement software projects, and provide customer services (special tasks ), the task of developing software products can be further divided into planning software products, designing software products, developing software products, testing software products, and releasing software products.
B. Define the project types in each key task to form a management process for different types of projects. For example, the task of developing software products can be R & D project management, and implementation software projects can be classified into implementation project management.
C. Build an enterprise project roadmap. Each key task of an enterprise can divide the entire process into different stages, and each stage can correspond to a type of project. In this way, the entire process of key tasks of an enterprise can correspond to a series of project processes. In each project process, the basic management process of each type of project is determined based on the characteristics of the submitted results, the characteristics of the project resource organization, and the requirements of key time points. At the same time, we must ensure the continuity between projects corresponding to this stage to ensure the continuity of the entire task.
3. Analyze the three management lines of products, processes, and resources in an enterprise. From the perspective of enterprise management, in an enterprise with both products and projects, it generally includes three main lines: product management, project management, and resource management:
A. The product management line focuses on product management, product lifecycle, project achievements, product design departments, product production departments, and quality inspection departments, can belong to the product management line;
B. The project management line focuses on the project process and focuses on the full lifecycle of the project. Generally, some enterprises manage projects (such as the Project Management Department) through functional departments ), some also manage projects through a dedicated project management office (PMO;
C. The resource management line manages internal and external resources of the company. The departments involved generally include human resources, finance, IT, procurement, and other departments.
The three management lines have a certain relationship. Generally, the basic requirements of the product management line are determined first, and then the project management requirements are determined according to the basic requirements of the product management line, determine resource management requirements based on product management and project management requirements. However, in the specific project implementation process, these three management lines work simultaneously. When improving the level of project management, it is difficult to simply improve the level of project management. The three lines must be improved at the same time. This is the starting point for us to build an enterprise-level project management system.
These three management lines are a whole, and all systems will ultimately act and affect each other in the project. When formulating relevant management systems, these three management lines should be designed from the perspective of the actual project and from the overall perspective of the enterprise, to ensure the effective allocation between them, to ensure the close collaboration of various systems, not to bring chaos to the project.
In these three management lines of enterprise management, corresponding management departments are responsible for overall planning, organization, and coordination. They formulate a series of rules and regulations according to the needs of enterprise projects, to a certain extent, it has become a constraint for the enterprise's internal projects. Projects in an enterprise must be implemented under the constraints of these systems. Violation of these requirements will lead to the loss of strong support from the Enterprise, the formation of resistance to the project, the project will be difficult to continue.
4. Build an enterprise organizational structure suitable for project management;
In the three management lines, enterprise management and project management content exist at the same time. In the base layer, project managers need to manage what, to what extent, and which are enterprise-level management, there is a demarcation line between them. The project manager is responsible for the management of the departments below the demarcation line, and the Division above the demarcation line must be managed by the enterprise, the demarcation line reflects the authorization granted by the enterprise to the project manager.
You can analyze the existing management functions of an enterprise based on the project management roles or functional management dimensions. In these management functions, it is better to identify which management functions are handed over to the project team during the project process. Review the changes in various management functions, sort out the management permissions assigned to the project, and clarify the connection between the two. The format can be in the R-responsibility; A-authority format. You can also use the raew matrix to build an enterprise's management architecture.
5. Evaluate the start point of enterprise project management improvement;
The improvement of enterprise management is also based on the following factors:
A. Different development periods of enterprises. Start-ups talk about survival. after entering a stable period of time, they need to consider development issues. At this time, they need to consider how to build an enterprise management system, how to manage it through the system.
B. management costs. Management requires costs. At the same time, management also aims to reduce costs and increase profitability. The more complex the management, the more investment in management, and the higher the management cost. Therefore, for an enterprise, management itself is not an aim. Through certain management, it can reduce the costs brought about by ineffective management.
C. Management itself is also a technology with its own laws and cannot blindly improve the goal of management.
D. Influence of market changes.
Project management in enterprises is also affected by the above factors. Generally, the level of project management can be divided into three different stages: the first stage is to manage the project scope, project duration, the task is tracked to get the actual progress. The second stage is to focus on resource allocation and track the actual labor hours of human resources. The third stage is to formulate the project budget and project plan, and then determine the actual cost through the resource unit price, the actual cost of the project is obtained to achieve quantitative assessment.
The improvement time required for each stage is related to the company's accumulation in the past. If some enterprises already have a certain foundation in terms of systems, personnel, and tools, this accumulation can be used as a reference data for improvement, and historical data can be directly used for quantitative management. However, if you do not have the data, you need to accumulate it.
6. Formulate project management processes and systems for enterprises;
"A system without theoretical basis is unsuccessful, and a system without implementation methods is not feasible. A system without tool support is not efficient ", in the process of establishing and improving the system, Theories, Methods, and tools are indispensable and there is a sequence of three.
A. Formulate enterprise-level project management systems: formulate project systems from the perspectives of products, projects, and resources to ensure the requirements of IPO. These systems form clear input and output linkages and cooperate.
B. The project management system is only a "Basic Law" and only specifies general problems. The project manager may need to make decisions at the project site to solve specific problems; in addition, the project management system can only be a prerequisite for the successful improvement of the project. After all, "the system is dead and people are living ".
7. Comprehensively cultivate the project management team;
The project manager is the most active manager in the Project Management System and also the core unit of work. In the enterprise-level project management system, it is not only necessary to specify the project manager's responsibilities, it is also important to emphasize the cooperation of various related aspects in the enterprise. It also involves different roles, such as decision makers, enterprise managers, product managers, resource managers, application experts, and project team members.
For project management personnel training, the above roles must also be covered. Some enterprises have specialized project management offices (PMO) and project directors, and they need to assume corresponding responsibilities.
8. Establish an enterprise-level project management information system: to improve project management efficiency, tools are required. enterprise-level project management information systems require such tools.
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