C Primer Plus (fifth edition) Study Notes-variable macros:... and _ VA_ARGS __, primer _ va_args _

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags variadic

C Primer Plus (fifth edition) study notes-variable macros: ... and __VA_ARGS__, primer__va_args_

First, __VA_ARGS__

The parameters of the printf () output functions mentioned in P454 are variable. When debugging a program, you may want to define the parameters as variable output functions.

Then variadic macros are an option, for example:

#define DEBUG (X, ...) printf ("Message", #X, ":" __VA_ARGS__)
Among them, ... indicates that the parameters are variable, and __VA_ARGS__ is replaced by the actual parameter set in the preprocessing.

//variadic.c----variable macro


#define DBG (format, ...) printf ("Message" #format ": File:% s, Line:% d, Function:% s" __VA_ARGS __, __ FILE__, __LINE__, __FUNCTION__)
int main (void)
   double x = 48;
   double y = 0;
   y = sqrt (x);
   DBG (1, "x =% g \ r \ n", x);
   DBG (2, "x =%. 2f, y =%. 4f \ r \ n", x, y);
   return 0;

Second, if some do not support __VA_ARGS__, you can use the following method


void printDebugMsg (const char * format, ...)
    char buffer [DEBUG_BUFFER_MAX_LENGTH + 1] = {0};
    va_list arg;
    va_start (arg, format);
    vsnprintf (buffer, DEBUG_BUFFER_MAX_LENGTH, format, arg);
    va_end (arg);
    printf ("% s", buffer);
int main (void)
   double x = 48;
   double y = 0;
   y = sqrt (x);
   printDebugMsg ("x =% g \ r \ n", x);
   printDebugMsg ("x =%. 2f, y =%. 4f \ r \ n", x, y);
   return 0;

    Third, variable parameters (P487)
int SqSum (int n1, ...)
    va_list arg_ptr;
    int nSqsum = 0;
    int n = n1;
    va_start (arg_ptr, n1);
    while (n> 1)
        nSqsum + = (n * n);
        n = va_arg (arg_ptr, int);
    va_end (arg_ptr);
    return nSqsum;
int main (void)
    int nSqSum = SqSum (2,3,4,5, -1);
    printf ("sqsum =% d \ r \ n", nSqSum);
    return 0;
int SqSum (int n1, ...) parameters can be divided into two parts: a fixed number of fixed parameters and a variable number of optional parameters. A function requires at least one fixed parameter. The declaration of a fixed parameter is the same as an ordinary function; due to the uncertain number of optional parameters, "..." is used for declaration. Fixed parameters and optional parameters together form the parameter list of a function.
Analyze the above routine to see the role of each va_xx:
va_list arg_ptr: defines a pointer to a variable number of parameter lists;
va_start (arg_ptr, argN): Make the parameter list pointer arg_ptr point to the first optional parameter in the function parameter list. Note: argN is a fixed parameter before the first optional parameter, (or, the last fixed parameter; ... the previous parameter), the order of the parameters in the function parameter list in memory is the same as the order of the function declaration. If the declaration of a va function is void va_test (char a, char b, char c,…), then its fixed parameters are a, b, c, and the last fixed parameter argN is c, so it is va_start (arg_ptr, c ).
va_arg (arg_ptr, type): Returns the parameter pointed by the pointer arg_ptr in the parameter list, the return type is type, and the pointer arg_ptr points to the next parameter in the parameter list.
va_copy (dest, src): dest and src are both va_list. va_copy () is used to copy the parameter list pointer and initialize dest to src.
va_end (arg_ptr): clears the parameter list, and the collocated parameter pointer arg_ptr is invalid.
Explanation: After the pointer arg_ptr is invalidated, arg_ptr can be restored by calling va_start (), va_copy (). After each call to va_start () / va_copy (), there must be a corresponding va_end () to match it. The parameter pointer can move around freely in the parameter list, but it must be within va_start () ... va_end ().

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