Chapter Nineth Science, Technology and industry

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The Nineth chapter of Science, Technology and Industry review three main contents
    • The Enlightenment of France and the dissemination of mathematical spirit in the 18th century
      The spread of mathematical traditions in France is consistent with the spirit of the Enlightenment, and on the other hand, it is in conflict with Descartes ' worldview.
    • Two major traditions in physical science
      Mathematical tradition
      Bacon tradition
    • The experiment and analysis of life science
      Two major branches of life sciences
      Experimental physiology Tradition
      Jenna was the first person in history to have a definite cure for some kind of definite disease.
      Bus de, who has distinguished contributions in microbiology
      Tradition of natural history
Without the development of science and technology, there is no industrial civilization 9.1 (unrelated to science) the first scientific revolution

What the Industrial Revolution meant for Britain was like the philosophical revolution for Germany, the political revolution for France--Engels

Characteristics of the Industrial Revolution (Industrial Revolution)
    • Replacing manpower with machines
    • Factory production in large scale to replace the manual production of individual workshops
    • Unlimited economic growth with technological innovation
The distinctive features of the industrial revolution

Make several major industries promote each other, several industrial chains are interrelated and promote each other
ironmaking, coal, textile, transportation, the United Kingdom at the turn of the 18-19 century, the formation of mutual influence, mutual promotion of the situation

Several major industrial ironmaking industry

1709 up to 2 success with Coke instead of charcoal ironmaking
In 1760, Smithton invented hydraulic-driven blowers to increase the temperature of coke and improve the efficiency of ironmaking.
1784, Henry Cotte invented the stirring method
British iron production increased by 10 times times in 18th century


Spinning and weaving have a mutual promotion of technological innovation
1733 British Johnny Cash invented the flying shuttle (weaving)
1765 British James Hagrifs invented Jennifer Machine can (spinning)
1769 Arkwright power spinning machine, with hydraulic power, spun yarn more solid
1779 Compton invented the light walking spinning spinning machine and became the Mule machines (Arkwright combined with Hargreaves)
Cartwright Power Weaving Machine

The development of the textile industry also stipulates the direction of the factory development
Mechanization, enlargement
Production system changes with technological innovation
All workers become dependencies of machines, changes in the status of workers
200 times times higher labour productivity in 1764-1812

Power of discovery Power (steam engine)

In late Greece, the steam engine was discovered, but not used for actual production.
The steam engine was first used for coal pumping
Pressure cooker?? On this basis, France and Pakistan invented the steam engine
1698 British Savery invented a steam pump dedicated to pumping water.
1712 British twist door invented the air machine, joined the coupling movement

Watt made an important change to the steam engine.

    • Increased condenser, greatly improved the efficiency of the torsion door machine
    • Transforming a linear piston movement into an axle action

Watt steam engine is not the steam itself, still is the atmospheric pressure work
The important significance of Watt's steam engine is that it is being put into business immediately, which has a great effect in the industrial revolution.
After the advent of Watt machine, the mining industry, the rapid development of textiles
Watt's steam engine does not play a role in science, mainly in its successful commercial marketing tools.

Trevisc invented a machine powered by steam, forming a competitor with the Watt machine. Watt suppressed the emergence of a high-pressure steam engine.

The large-scale trials of steam engines and the use of them are occurring in the United States

Revolution of transport machinery (steamboat)
    • In 1785, Americans Fitch the use of Watt-modified steam engines on sailboats.
    • About 1800 years, the American Fulton continued to make steamboat
    • The Claremont was built in 1807 with the use of the Ming wheel propulsion
    • In 1838, the British merchant Sirius used steam power to cross the Atlantic Ocean successfully.
Revolution of transport machinery (train)
    • 1796, the British Trivisich made the first train
    • In 1814, the British Miludeer made the first practical train to pull coal. Half steam, half horse.
    • 1823, Miludeer's train was put into commercial
    • Liverpool and Manchester rail link connected in 1830

      The time of the first railroad appears
    • United States 1828
    • France 1830
    • Germany 1835
    • China's late 19th century
9.1 First Scientific Revolution (exercise)

The first scientific revolution was thought to have nothing to do with science, which was launched in 18th century with Britain as its leader.
The Industrial Revolution takes the technological innovation as the opportunity, the economy grows infinitely; machines replace humans; large-scale factory production replaces artisanal production
Compton invented the spindle spinning machine, which is also a "Mule machine"
The tradition of experimental physiology and natural history are two major branches of life science
British iron production increased 10 times times by technological innovation in 18th century.

9.2 (Science applied to handicrafts) the second Industrial revolution

Crivisich 1800, high-pressure steam engine. But soon into the internal combustion engine. The rapid development of the steel industry has made it possible to cast solid steel, and chemical raw materials such as kerosene have begun to emerge. An internal combustion engine appears.

Revolution of the transport Machinery (automobile)
    • In 1885, Daimle developed the first two-wheeled "motorcycle" of a petrol engine.
    • In the same year, Benz of Germany invented a gasoline engine for a tri-wheeled vehicle
    • In 1886, Benz invented the four-wheel car
    • 1888, the British Dunlop invented the inflatable tires
    • In 1892, Ford developed America's first car
      Ford changed the modern automobile industry to the meaning of human life, so that the production of automobiles into a modern production mode, batch production, running water operations. Ford makes cars from luxuries into daily necessities.
U.S. car sales in history
    • 1900 4000
    • 1911 600,000
    • 1915 890,000
    • 1927 3.7 million
Ford's history of automotive production
    • 1908 10,000
      1913 300,000
      1924 2 million
Ford car assembly time per car
    • 1908 12h
      1913 93min
      1927 24s
Ford Motor makes invention a mother of necessity

Automobile Economy Automobile Culture

The Industrial Revolution is a large-scale use of natural forces

The Industrial revolution made Europeans take a step towards the development and use of natural forces.

The significance of Industrial revolution
    • The steam-turbine was used extensively, freeing humans from heavy physical labor, and people began to benefit for themselves with their brains rather than their muscular limbs.
    • The industrial Revolution lifted the constraints on technological innovation and economic growth
    • The Industrial revolution made the whole people educated and objectively promoted the concept of equality.
Characteristics of the Industrial revolution
    • The emergence of new power Sources:
      Elemental Force-Mechanical
      Renewable energy-non-renewable energy
    • Led to a new type of labor organization relationship:
      From the handicraft workshop--Large production
      standardization, flow of industrial production form appears
    • New means of financing
      The advent of the monetary economy
    • A new kind of thought concept
      From the national mercantilism to the free economy
The spread of industrial civilization

The proportion of urban population to total population marks the extent of industrialization in the region
Reach half the time

    • England 1850
    • Germany 1900
    • USA, France 1920
9.2 Second Industrial Revolution (exercise)

The Ford model has the meaning of: making cars everyday in American life, explaining that inventions are the mother of need, and making the production of automobiles a standard modern mode of production
The first practical train was invented by Miludeer, and the train was used to pull coal
The first two-wheeled "motorcycle" of the petrol engine was developed by DAIMLE.
The country that first appeared railroad was the United Kingdom (the answer is that America?????? )
The steam engine was not invented by Watt, he improved it.

9.3 20th century Great science

The core industries of industrial civilization: steel, textile, railway transportation, electrification
New Industries of Industrial civilization: architecture, food processing, modern agriculture, service industry

The scientific revolution and colonialism are accompanied. The Western powers have conquered 84% of the world's land in the 1914.
World War I was a chemist's war, and WWII was a physicist's war (nuclear weapon)

Science has two major turns--philosopher tradition and craftsman tradition
The first industrial revolution had nothing to do with the Philosopher's tradition, and the first industrial revolution was represented by engineers without any scientific education, not by scientists.

The Second Industrial Revolution

The second Industrial Revolution originated from Electromagnetics, and humans entered the electrical age.

Major events in the Power Revolution
    • In 1821, Faraday succeeded in turning a small magnetic needle around the power cord, creating the first "baby" motor in history.
    • 1822, French physicist Arago discovered electromagnets
    • In 1829, Henry found that insulated conductors made coils to produce more powerful magnetic fields, and in 1831 attracted 1 tonnes of iron with an electromagnet.
    • In 1834, the German Jacobian was made into a rotor, making the First Utility motor, which was made into an electric steamboat in 1838.
    • In 1850, Paige made a 10-horsepower motor.
    • 1831, French inventor Picochi produced a hand-cranked generator, output DC, but weak current
    • 1857, the United Kingdom Wheatstone electric magnets instead of permanent magnets, invented the self-excited generator
    • 1867, Siemens, Germany invented the self-fed generator
    • About 1880 years, electric machinery began to enter the factory floor

Electric motors, generators, power grids

The advent of the power grid is of great significance for the electrical age, and the laying of the grid owes to Edison
In 1879, Edison illuminated the town of Menlo, New Jersey, with electric grids and electric lights.
1882, Edison's DC generator for thousands of lighting power supply

1885 emergence of AC induction motors
High voltage power transmission to establish electric network

Edison's Invention

1869, invented the auto-ticker machine
1876, the invention of the phonograph
1879, the invention of carbonized bamboo filament lamp
1882, the world's largest power system DC generator built in New York
1894, made the first Kinetoscope

Telecommunications and mass media Telegraph

The appearance of telegraph and the magnetic effect of electric current
1822 amp designed the magnetic needle transmitter.
1838 Morse Code

Franklin's hand, caught the galloping steed, and steered the Steed, was Professor Moore.


Bell was the inventor of the first practical phone.


1884 TV Show

9.3 20th century Great Science (exercise)

The development of electromagnetism led to the second Industrial revolution
Edison didn't invent the phone.
In 1847, the first submarine cable was laid on the English Channel by British law.
The core industries of industrial civilization include steel, electrification, textile ...
Ampere designed the magnetic resonance communication machine

Chapter Nineth Science, Technology and industry

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