Preparation and equipment of the Japanese army during the Second World War
When the Japanese army was in war 2, the army had the following individual equipment:
Soldiers: 6.5mm 38 type rifle, 30 type bayonet, 94 a kettle, front box cartridge (120 bullets), helmets, etc.
School: 94 type **, telescope, military knife, map sac, school bottle.
The Japanese army also has a special kind of equipment-89-type cartridge, which is similar to micro-mortar. Its structure is a closed cylinder at the bottom and a steel pipe is used for grip, the bottom of the steel pipe is pinned to a base, similar to the frame of the mortar, which can launch micro-grenades without support and sight. It can be used to fill the supporting fire gap between the mortar and the grenade. The power is no better than the grenade. Compared with a grenade, it does not occupy the rifle exit, but it has no advantage over a gun-mounted grenade launcher. As a single-soldier killer weapon, it was widely equipped with first-line troops.
Japanese Army Operational preparation
The basic unit of the Japanese army is the division, which has multiple compilation methods. In the outbreak of the War of Resistance, 17 permanent divisions of the Japanese army were standing reserve troops of the Japanese army, with the following serial numbers being near-guard and one to twenty (less than 13, 15, 17, and 18 divisions ). It is compiled into a four-unit system, that is, the Division has two brigade units, the Brigade has two infantry units, and the infantry unit has three infantry brigades, the brigade has four infantry squadrons, one machine gun Squadron (eight heavy machine guns), one brigade Gun Squad (two 70mm infantry cannons), and three infantry squadrons, the team has one machine gun group (two light machine guns), one machine gun group (two machine guns), and two rifle groups. The Division also has an artillery team, a heavy-duty team, a engineering team, a cavalry Team (four cavalry squadrons and one machine gun squadron) and other troops. At this time, the divisions are divided into two types: one is the MA system, and the artillery team has four brigades (75mm mountain guns and 12 75mm wild guns ), the infantry regiment has a squadron (four-way mountain artillery) and a infantry artillery Squadron (four-way infantry artillery), with a total of 28500 people. The first is the horse-Pulling System. The artillery team has 36 wild guns and 12 120mm howls. The infantry team has a squadron and a squadron (four 37mm ), the total number is 25000. In addition, there are some independent special troops: Cavalry Brigade (two cavalry regiments with one artillery and one armored vehicle) tank Team, independent engineering team, independent field artillery Team (120mm 75mm and 12 150mm), and independent field heavy artillery Team (24) field heavy artillery Team (16-door 100mm cannon), Independent Heavy Artillery Brigade (150mm artillery), and mortar Brigade (36-door medium-sized mortar) independent mountain artillery team, telecommunications team, railway team, etc.
After the outbreak of the War of Resistance, the Japanese army re-formed the 13th and 18th new permanent teachers' regiments and formed a group of special teachers' regiments. The so-called Special Division refers to the troops composed of reserve personnel of the permanent division, whose number is the prefix of the permanent division and the United States plus one hundred. The preparation is basically the same as that of the permanent division, but the Cavalry Regiment becomes a cavalry brigade (two cavalry squadrons and one machine gun squad ), the artillery Team of the horse-system division is a-game-gun and 12-game-gun. The number of special Ma system teachers is 28200, and the number of MA system teachers is 24400. At the same time, during the war, the Japanese Army assigned special troops and supplementary personnel to the divisions and regiments, and allowed more than 40 thousand persons to be directed by a division.
During the war of aggression against China, due to the operational consumption, the Japanese army felt that the operations of the Four-Team division were inconvenient, and two types of preparation were developed: Three-unit division and independent unit division. The three unit divisions are organized into one Infantry Regiment under the Division, three infantry regiments under the Division, three infantry brigades under the regiment, and one infantry artillery Squadron (four infantry cannons ). The infantry brigade has no artillery team, and the artillery team has 24 mountain guns or wild guns. The cavalry team has changed to search for the team. Other logistics units, such as heavy-duty and engineering troops, have also been greatly reduced, with a total of 12800 people. The independent mixed brigade has five infantry brigades and one artillery, communication, engineering, and heavy artillery, with a total of about 5000 people. The infantry brigade has three infantry squadrons, one machine gun Squadron (four heavy machine guns), one mountain gun squadron and two wild gun squadrons. These two types of troops are mainly used for defensive purposes and have small-scale field capabilities.
After the battle in Wuhan was over, due to the expansion of the battlefield and the consumption of war, the Japanese army began to integrate the three-unit division and independent brigade into the first line. Therefore, the Japanese army made a compilation adjustment and supplemented the Logistics Forces of the Three-unit system division, bringing the total number to 1.5-17 thousand. The independent infantry brigade of the integrated brigade is replaced by four infantry squadrons and one machine gun squadron, with a total number of. The preparation is limited to frontline troops, and the standby troops are still the original preparation. In addition, we began to change the four-unit system into three-unit system.
After the outbreak of the Pacific War, the Japanese army formed two tour groups. The Division has two infantry brigades, four infantry brigades, four infantry squadrons and one machine gun Squadron (eight heavy machine guns ). The Division has no artillery, only engineering teams, heavy teams, and communication teams. The total number is 11980.
In 1944, the Japanese army further divided the division into three types: A and B (at this time, there were no four unit divisions ). There are two types of Class A divisions: one is the original permanent division, the total number is 21 thousand, and there are 75mm mountain guns or wild guns. The first category is the original special division and the three unit division, with a total number of 18 thousand members. The Division B is also a three-unit division, but does not have an artillery regiment or a cavalry (Search) regiment. The total number is 14 thousand. The C Division is the two brigade divisions. At the same time, the Japanese army has developed two types of preparation: Independent Police Support and independent infantry brigade. The establishment of an independent infantry brigade is the same as that of the infantry brigade under the jurisdiction of the two regiments. The number of independent infantry brigades is 5100. The independent Alert Team has six infantry brigades, three infantry squadrons under the brigade, and one machine gun Squadron (four heavy machine guns). There are no special troops (here, Special Forces refer to other types of Infantry ), the total number is 4900.
On April 9, 1945, the Japanese army made the last adjustment to its troops, which roughly includes the following points: 1. Add an infantry squadron to the infantry brigade of the group C. 2. Change the infantry brigade of an independent hybrid brigade to four infantry squadrons, one machine gun squadron and one infantry artillery squadron, with a total of 1500 people. The brigade artillery has six wild guns and twelve mountain guns. Meanwhile, its engineers and heavy-duty troops are also expanded to make the total number of artillery troops more than 8000. 3. Ding native division was organized. The Division was roughly the same as that of class C Division, but there were no special troops. The machine gun squadron of the infantry brigade has only four heavy machine guns, and the infantry team has only one light machine gun and one bullet box.
The above are all the details of the Japanese army during the War of Resistance.
COMMANDER: Lieutenant General: 11340 people
2 infantry brigades, 1 artillery regiment, 1 Cavalry Regiment, 1 heavy army, 1 ammunition column, 1 army band; wartime: add one brigade in the column of large and small bridges, and the Ministry of Industry and health
2. Travel Group preparation:
COMMANDER: Major General: 5690 people
2-4 teams, including cyclists, workers, cannons, and other troops
3. Personnel computing:
(2) Team: (arrange) three to four teams; 50 cavalry personnel; 70 infantry personnel; Commander: Lieutenant and Lieutenant
(3) Squadron: (connected) three to four teams; 210-cavalry; infantry;: Commander of the Lieutenant General
(4) Brigade: (battalion) Two to four squadrons; 630-Cavalry and-infantry;-infantry and-infantry; and commanders of zhongzuo and shaozuo
(5) United Wing: (Group) three brigades; 1890-Cavalry and infantry;-infantry and dazuo commanders
Rank of the Japanese army during World War II
During the establishment of the modern army, Japan initially worshipped French military theories and systems. Later, it was basically replaced by German military theories and systems, he also learned from advanced Western systems and established a conscription system for regional compulsory military service and military reserve. That is, the area where every Japanese division is stationed at ordinary times is itself the division and management area of its conscription institution, and the area where it collects supplementary troops. All its soldiers and middle and lower-level officers come from this area. Therefore, in the history of the Japanese army, a great family of grandparents served in the same army in different periods and participated in previous wars. At the same time, the Japanese army's master Division is also often named. For example, the First Division is also known as the Tokyo division because it has been stationed in the Tokyo region for a long time. All its soldiers and all lower-level officers are from the Tokyo region. Similarly, the Second Division is also called the Sendai division, the Third Division is also called the Nagoya division, the Fourth Division is also called the Osaka division, the Fifth Division is also called the Hiroshima division, the Sixth Division is also called the Xiong Ben division, the Seventh Division is also called the xuchuan division, the eighth Division is also known as The Hong Qian division, the Ninth Division is also known as the Jin ze division, the Tenth Division is also known as the Ji Lu division, the 11th Division is also known as the Shentong temple division, the 12th Division is also known as the JIU mi division, the 14th Division is also known as, the 16th Division is also known as the Kyoto division.
The Japanese army ranks 6 and 16 levels in total, namely, generals, generals, Major General, dazuo (school), zhongzuo, shaozuo, Lieutenant, and CaO Chang (shangshi) jun Cao (Sergeant), Wu Chang (corporal), shangbing, first-class and second-class troops. The Japanese army also has the rank of marshal, but it is stipulated that the Japanese emperor should choose from an outstanding or senior general and issue the title of the marshal. From the Meiji Restoration to the surrender of Japanese imperialism in 1945, A total of 17 army generals were awarded the rank of Marshal by the emperor. Unlike some countries, the ranks of the Japanese military are only three stars rather than four stars in the collar and shoulder badges of the Lieutenant General, dazuo, and general. In the Japanese army, the military commander usually has the rank of Lieutenant General or general. The Chief of Division is the rank of Lieutenant General, and the chief of the Brigade is the rank of Major General (or vice general ), most of the team leaders are in the ranks of zhongzuo or dazuo. Most of the team leaders are in the ranks of shaozuo and Beibei. Most of the team leaders are in the rank of lieutenant, and most of the team leaders are in the rank of Shaowei.
The Japanese army only has two types of troops: the army and the navy. Although it once had a powerful air force, it only belongs to the Army Air Force and the Naval Air Force, but does not have an independent air force. The Japanese naval forces are easily distinguished by clothing colors. Although the clothing of the Japanese army is the same, it can also be distinguished from the color of its shoulder and collar. For example, the background color of the Japanese Army Infantry shoulder is red and the artillery is yellow, the cavalry is green, the worker is brown, the heavy army is dark blue, the air is blue, the military is black, the military is dark green, the military judge is white, the accounting officer is silver tea, and so on.
The title of the Japanese army at that time:
Minister of the army-marshal and General;
Army Chief of Staff-marshal and General;
The General Army (planned to be compiled in 1945, and surrendered before implementation, equivalent to an army on the other hand)'s commander, Marshal and general,
General military chief of staff-general and Lieutenant General;
General, Commander of the Army (Group Army,
Military Chief of Staff-Lieutenant General;
Lieutenant General, commander of the fang Minjun (Army,
Deputy Chief of Staff-Major General;
Head of Division (teacher)-Lieutenant General,
Chief of Staff of the Division-Major General and dazuo;
Brigade leader (brigade leader)-Major General, dazuo,
Brigade chief of staff-dazuo and zhongzuo;
Team Chief (head of Team)-dazuo, zhongzuo,
Deputy Team Chief (Deputy Head)-zhongzuo and shaozuo;
Captain (battalion chief)-Shao Zuo and Wei;
Squadron Leader (Company Commander)-lieutenant and Lieutenant;
Captain (platoon leader)-lieutenant and Lieutenant;
Chief Executive Officer-Zheng and CaO Chang;
Deputy Team Chief (Deputy platoon chief)-CaO Chang and Jun CaO;
Leader (shift leader)-jun CaO and Wu Chang;
LEADER: Wu Changlong and shangbing.