CPU clock speed and related Introduction

Source: Internet
Author: User

CPU clock speed, that is, the clock frequency (cpu
Clock speed ). In general, the CPU is as high as, And the is the "CPU clock speed ". Many people think that the CPU clock speed is its running speed. The clock speed of the CPU indicates the speed at which the digital pulse signals oscillate within the CPU, which is not directly related to the actual computing capability of the CPU. Because the frequency does not directly represent the computing speed, under certain circumstances, it is likely that the actual computing speed of the CPU with a higher frequency is low.

In electronic technology, a pulse signal is a analog signal continuously sent at a certain voltage range and at a certain interval. The interval between pulses is called a cycle, and the number of pulses generated per unit time (for example, 1 second) is called a frequency. Frequency is the metering name that describes the number of pulses that appear in a periodic cycle signal (including a pulse signal) per unit time. The standard unit of measurement for a frequency is Hz ). The system clock in the computer is a typical Pulse Signal Generator with a very accurate and stable frequency. The frequency is represented by "F" in a mathematical expression. The corresponding units are Hz, kHz, MHz, and GHz ). 1 GHz = 1000 MHz, 1 MHz = 1000 kHz, 1 kHz = 1000Hz. The time units for calculating the pulse signal cycle and their corresponding conversion relationships are: S (seconds), Ms (milliseconds), μs (microseconds), NS (nanoseconds ),

Fxw.cpu has the highest default clock speed in GB history

Where: 1 S = 1000 ms, 1 MS = 1000 μs, 1 μs = 1000ns.

CPU clock speed, that is, the clock frequency (cpu
Clock speed ). In general, the CPU is as high as, And the is the "CPU clock speed ". Many people think that the CPU clock speed is its running speed. The clock speed of the CPU indicates the speed at which the digital pulse signals oscillate within the CPU, which is not directly related to the actual computing capability of the CPU. There is a certain relationship between the clock speed and the actual computing speed, but there is no definite formula to quantify the numerical relationship between the two, because the computing speed of the CPU depends on the performance indicators of the CPU pipeline (cache, instruction set, number of CPU digits, etc ). Because the frequency does not directly represent the computing speed, under certain circumstances, it is likely that the actual computing speed of the CPU with a higher frequency is low. For example, most of AMD's athlonxp series CPUs can reach Intel's Pentium at a low frequency.
4 series CPU performance with high clock speed, so the athlonxp series CPU is named in the prvalue mode. Therefore, the clock speed is only one aspect of CPU performance, and does not represent the overall performance of the CPU. The CPU clock speed does not represent the CPU speed, but increasing the clock speed is crucial to improving the CPU computing speed. For example, if a CPU executes an operation command within a clock cycle, the speed of a CPU running at a clock speed of MHz is twice faster than that running at a clock speed of 50 MHz. Because the MHz clock cycle takes half of the time of the 50 MHz clock cycle, that is, the time required for a CPU running at a MHz clock speed to execute an operation command is only half that of the 20ns running at a 50 MHz clock speed, and the natural operation speed is doubled. However, the overall running speed of the computer depends not only on the CPU computing speed, but also on the running status of other subsystems. Only when the clock speed is increased, the overall computer operation speed can be improved only when the operation speed of each sub-system and the data transmission speed between the sub-systems are improved. Increasing the CPU clock speed is mainly restricted by the production process. Because the CPU is made on a Semiconductor Silicon Wafer, the components on the silicon wafer need to be connected by wires. The shorter the wires, the better, in this way, stray interference such as wire distribution capacitance can be reduced to ensure correct CPU operation. Therefore, the limitation of manufacturing process is one of the biggest obstacles to the development of CPU clock speed. The mainstream memory frequencies are 6-MHz and MHz DDR2 memory, and 13-MHz ddr3 memory. High-end computing at GHz, for example, high-end enterprises require a clock speed ≥ 2.4 GHz. Speaking of the processor clock speed, we need to mention two concepts closely related to this: Frequency Doubling and external frequency. The external frequency is the benchmark frequency of the CPU, and the Unit is also MHz. The external frequency is the synchronous speed between the CPU and the motherboard, and the external frequency in most computer systems is also the synchronous speed between the memory and the motherboard. In this way, it can be understood that the external frequency of the CPU is directly connected to the memory to achieve synchronous operation between the two, and the frequency doubling is the ratio of the main frequency to the external frequency. The relationship between frequency, frequency, and frequency doubling: frequency = frequency X frequency doubling. Early CPUs didn't have the concept of "Frequency Doubling", and the clock speed was the same as that of the system bus. With the development of technology, the CPU speed is getting faster and faster, and the memory, hard disk and other accessories are gradually unable to keep up with the CPU speed, and the emergence of Frequency Doubling solves this problem, it enables memory and other components to still work at a relatively low system bus frequency, and the CPU clock speed can be infinitely increased by doubling (theoretically ). We can regard the external frequency as a production line in the machine, while the frequency doubling is the number of production lines. The speed at which a machine produces (clock speed) is naturally the speed at which the production line (external frequency) multiply by the number of lines in the production line. Manufacturers have basically locked the frequency doubling. To overclock, they only need to start from the outer frequency. By matching the frequency doubling with the outer frequency, they can patch the motherboard or set the soft overfrequency In the BIOS, this improves the overall performance of the computer. Therefore, pay attention to the external frequency of the CPU whenever possible during purchase. Vison has provided this feature since the 693 chipset. The parameter external frequency is also called the external frequency or fundamental frequency of the CPU. The unit of measurement is "MHz". The CPU clock speed is proportional to the external frequency (multiplier). Because the memory and the l2cache operating frequency configured on the motherboard are synchronized with the external frequency, the CPU with a higher external frequency is used to assemble the computer, its overall performance is higher than the CPU with the same clock speed but with a lower external frequency. This parameter relationship is used on the motherboard. The frequency doubling coefficient is the proportional relationship between the CPU clock speed and the external frequency. Generally, the frequency is: frequency = External frequency * frequency doubling. The frequency doubling of all Intel's CPUs (except for a few test products) is usually locked (locked). Users cannot adjust the frequency doubling to adjust the CPU frequency, however, you can adjust the external frequency to set different clock frequencies. AMD [1] and other companies' CPUs are not locked. The best solution for netizens right-click the "my computer" icon on the desktop and select "properties" to see it! The simplest way is to press pause break when starting the system. At this time, the CPU frequency in the BIOS is displayed because it is the system boot self-check! Use the crystalcpuid software. This is a processor information detection overclocking tool. Similar to wcpuid, crystalcpuid supports a wider range of processors. Crystalcpuid supports the detection of almost all types of processors. The most special thing is that crystalcpuid has complete processor and system information. The frequency of the edited link CPU continuously increases with technological advances and market demand. However, the frequency limit that external devices can withstand cannot be compared with the CPU core, so the concept of external frequency is introduced. Generally speaking, we can see standard external frequencies of 100 MHz, 133 MHz, or even higher 166 MHz, with a high external frequency of MHz. The CPU operating frequency (clock speed) consists of two parts: the outer frequency and the multiplier. The product of the two is the clock speed. The frequency doubling is called the frequency doubling coefficient. There is a ratio between the CPU clock speed and the external frequency, which is the multiplier coefficient. The multiplier value ranges from 1.5 to 23, and is measured at an interval of 0.5. The frequency (frequency = frequency X frequency) is used to multiply the frequency. Therefore, any improvement can increase the CPU frequency. We know that computers have many accessories, and the speed varies with accessories. In 286, 386, and early 486 computers, the CPU speed is not too high, and the memory speed is the same. Later, as the CPU speed increases rapidly, the memory cannot be increased as high as the CPU speed due to the electrical structure (even if the memory reaches 400, 533, but compared with the speed of several G of the CPU, it is not a level at all), so there is a speed difference between memory and CPU. Before 486, the CPU clock speed is still in a low stage, and the CPU clock speed is generally equal to the external frequency. However, after the advent of 486, due to the continuous increase in the CPU operating frequency, some other devices (such as plug-in cards and hard disks) on the PC are restricted by the technology and cannot withstand a higher frequency, this limits the further improvement of the CPU frequency. Therefore, the frequency doubling technology is introduced. This technology can change the internal frequency of the CPU to a multiple of the external frequency, so as to increase the frequency by increasing the frequency doubling. The Frequency Doubling technology enables external devices to work on a lower external frequency, while the CPU frequency is a multiple of the external frequency. In the Pentium era, the external frequency of the CPU is generally 60/66 MHz. Starting from Pentium II 350, the external frequency of the CPU is increased to 100 MHz, and the external frequency of the CPU has reached 200 MHz. Under normal circumstances, because the external frequency is the same as the memory bus frequency, when the CPU external frequency increases, the switching speed with the memory is also improved accordingly, which has a greater impact on the overall running speed of the computer. The unit of CPU clock speed, external frequency, and FSB frequency is Hz, which is usually measured in MHz and GHz. Note that do not confuse the external frequency with the FSB frequency. We often see some words of the external frequency 800 MHz and 533mhz on the IT media. In fact, these words confuse the external frequency with the FSB. For example, Pentium
The 4-processor has two types of external frequencies: MHz and 133mhz. Intel uses four-fold transmission technology to benefit from the four-fold data transmission (QDR, quad data rate) bus of the pentium4 processor. This technology enables the system bus to transmit four times of data in a clock cycle, that is, the transmission efficiency is four times that of the original, which is equivalent to using four original front-end buses to connect with the memory. The external frequency is still 133 MHz (for example, p4
The frontend bus speed is increased by 4 times to 133 × 4 = 533 MHz. When the external frequency is increased to 200 MHz, the frontend bus speed is changed to 800 MHz, so you will see p4 of the 533 Front-End bus and P4 Of the 800 Front-End bus. Their actual external frequencies are only 133 and 200. That is, FSB = CPU external frequency × 4. AMD
Based on the same principle, the athlon 64 processor will also support MHz Front-End bus frequency at MHz. However, for AMD athlon XP processors, Dual Data Transmission Technology (DDR, double
Date rate), The frontend bus frequency is twice the external frequency, so the frontend bus frequency of the athlon XP processor with an external frequency of 400 MHz is MHz. For early processors, such as Pentium III, the external frequency is equal to the frontend bus frequency. The speed of the front-end bus refers to the speed of the bus between the CPU and the chip of the North Bridge. It also represents the speed of CPU and external data transmission. The concept of external frequency is based on the fluctuation speed of Digital pulse signals. That is to say, a 10 thousand MHz external frequency refers to a digital pulse signal that oscillates million times per second, it affects the frequency of PCI and other bus. The two concepts of the front-end bus and the outer frequency are confusing, mainly because of the long time before (mainly in the Pentium
4) the front-end bus frequency is the same as the outer frequency, so it is often called the front-end bus as the outer frequency, which leads to such misunderstanding. With the development of computer technology, it is found that the frequency of the front-end bus is higher than that of the outer frequency, so the QDR (quad
Date rate) technology, or other similar technologies. The principles of these technologies are similar to the 2x or 4x of AGP. They make the front-end bus frequency twice, 4x, or even higher than the outer frequency, since then, the difference between the front-end bus and the external frequency has been paid attention. FSB is the bus that connects the CPU to the North Bridge Chip and is also the main channel for data exchange between the CPU and the outside. Therefore, the data transmission capability of the front-end bus has a great impact on the performance of the entire machine, the maximum bandwidth of data transmission depends on the width and transmission frequency of all data transmitted simultaneously, that is, the data bandwidth = bus frequency × data Bit Width limit 8. For example, Intel pⅱ 333 uses 6
6 MHz Front-End bus, so the data exchange bandwidth between it and the memory is 528 MB/S
= (66 × 64)/8, while its P ⅱ 350 uses a 800 MHz Front-End bus, so its peak bandwidth for data exchange is 100 Mb/s = (× 64)/8. For example, Intel
The 845 chipset only supports single-channel ddr333 memory, so the theoretical maximum memory bandwidth is 333mhz × 8bytes (data width) = 2.7 Gb/s, while Intel
The memory bandwidth of the 875 platform in two channels can reach up to 6.4 MHz × 8 bytes (data width) × 2 = Gb/s. The commonly used Front-End bus frequency of a PC is 266 MHz, 333 MHz, 400 MHz, 533 MHz, 800 MHz, and 1066mhz. When it comes to external frequency, let's talk about the PCI operating frequency. Hard disks, sound cards, and many other components on the computer are in the form of PCI bus and work at a standard operating frequency of 33 MHz. The PCI bus frequency is not fixed, but depends on the system bus speed, that is, the external frequency. When the external frequency is MHz, the motherboard uses the dual-frequency technology to keep the PCI device at a MHz operating frequency. When the external frequency is increased to MHz, the same as the tri-frequency technology, the operating frequency of PCI devices is not exceeded. When the operating frequency of PCI devices is 133 MHz and MHz, the PCI device can also work at 33 MHz. However, if the external frequency does not adopt the above standard frequency, but is fixed below 75 MHz and 83mhz, the PCI bus can only use the dual-division technology, the operating frequency of the PCI system is 41.5 MHz or even MHz. In this way, many parts must work at a non-rated frequency, and whether the operation can be normal depends on the quality of the product. At this point, it is critical that the hard disk can survive, because after the PCI bus is upgraded, the data exchange speed between the hard disk and the CPU increases, which may lead to abnormal read/write operations and lead to a crash. The impact of high-frequency on the system is dual. The two benefits can be attributed to the two factors: Improving the execution efficiency of the CPU and the overall system, and increasing the memory bandwidth available to the system. The final result of both is naturally a significant improvement in overall performance. Therefore, we can see from the above that the external frequency plays a decisive role in the system performance: the CPU clock speed is determined by the frequency increase and the external frequency. The frontend bus frequency is determined by the external Frequency Based on the transmission technology used, the PCI frequency of the motherboard is determined by the outer frequency and the frequency division, and the data bandwidth of the memory subsystem is also determined by the outer frequency. A high-frequency system requires sufficient memory bandwidth to meet system requirements. Theoretically, synchronization between the front-end bus and memory specifications is the most efficient mode for memory systems. To make full use of the external frequency of MHz, the memory bandwidth must match the external frequency and the front-end bus. Otherwise, the memory will become a system bottleneck. At first, Intel used DDR memory instead of focusing on DDR performance. Instead, it was because RDRAM memory was too expensive and unacceptable to users. In the mainstream market, Intel's memory specification has never been able to meet the needs of the processor bandwidth, and it is always a step behind. Only on the high-end platform, dual-channel DDR and dual-channel RDRAM memory are enough. When the external frequency is 6.4 MHz, the bandwidth increases to 6.4 Gb/s after the front-end bus reaches MHz. The dual-channel ddr400 can solve the matching problem, and the memory bandwidth of the dual-channel ddr400 will reach Gb/s, this can meet your needs. For athlon
For XP, because the frontend bus is 3.2 MHz, the bandwidth is 3.2 Gb/s, and the single channel ddr400 memory bandwidth is Gb/s, it can also meet the system requirements. Therefore, ddr400 will become popular in the future. This is why intel switched to ddr400. The external frequency of MHz, the front-end bus of MHz, and the dual-channel ddr400 bring the PC system to a new stage and meet the needs of the future, there is also a considerable space for upgrading. The edited memory clock speed is the same as the CPU clock speed. It is used to indicate the memory speed and the maximum operating frequency that the memory can reach. The memory clock speed is measured in MHz (MHz. The higher the memory frequency, the faster the memory can reach. The memory clock speed determines the maximum operating frequency of the memory. The mainstream memory frequency rooms include 333mhz and 400mhz DDR memory, and DDR2 memory of 533mhz and 667mhz. We all know that the clock speed of computer systems is measured by frequency. The crystal oscillator controls the clock speed. When voltage is added to the silicon wafer, it vibrates in the form of a sine wave. This vibration can be recorded through the deformation and note of the wafer. The vibration of the crystal is presented in the form of sine harmonic current, which is the clock signal. The memory itself does not have a crystal oscillator, so the clock signal during memory operation is provided by the North Bridge of the Motherboard chipset or directly by the clock generator of the motherboard, that is, the memory cannot determine its operating frequency, the actual working frequency is determined by the motherboard. The DDR memory, DDR2 memory, and ddr3 memory frequencies can be expressed in two ways: the operating frequency and the equivalent frequency. The operating frequency is the actual operating frequency of memory particles, however, because the DDR memory can transmit data at both the pulse rise and the descent edge, the equivalent frequency of data transmission is twice the working frequency; in DDR2 memory and ddr3 memory, each clock can read/write data at four times the operating frequency. Therefore, the equivalent frequency of data transmission is four times the operating frequency. For example, DDR
The operating frequencies of 200/266/333/400 are 100/133/166/200 MHz, while the equivalent frequencies are 200/266/333/400 MHz. The operating frequencies of DDR2 400/533/667/800 are 100/133/166/200 MHz, respectively, the equivalent frequencies are 400/533/667/800 MHz, while those of ddr31066/1333/1600/1800/2000 are 266/333/400/450/500 MHz, while those of ddr31066/1066/1333/1600/1800 are 2000/MHz respectively. The asynchronous memory working mode has multiple meanings. in a broad sense, any memory working frequency that is inconsistent with the external CPU frequency can be called the asynchronous memory working mode. First, the earliest asynchronous memory working mode appeared in the early Motherboard chipset, the memory can work in a mode that is 33 MHz or 33 MHz higher than the external frequency of the CPU (note that the difference is only 33 MHz), so that the system memory performance can be improved or the old memory can continue to use the residual heat. Secondly, in normal working mode (CPU is not overclock), many Motherboard chipset also support asynchronous memory working mode, such as Intel
910gl chipset, only supports 533 MHz FSB, that is, MHz CPU external frequency, however, it can work properly with a 133mhz DDR 266 working frequency, a 166mhz DDR 333 working frequency, and a 400 MHz DDR 400 working frequency. the operating frequency is MHz ), however, the performance of different memory combinations varies. Again, in the case of CPU overclocking, in order not to let the memory drag down the CPU overclocking capability, you can reduce the memory operating frequency to facilitate overclocking, such as AMD's socket
The opteron 939 of the 144 interface is very easy to overclock, and the external frequency of many products can easily exceed 300 MHz. In the memory synchronization mode, at this time, the equivalent memory frequency will reach DDR 600, which is obviously impossible. In order to smoothly exceed the MHz external frequency, we can set the memory in the BIOS of the motherboard to DDR 333 or DDR 266 before the overclock. After the overclock is over 500 MHz, the former is only DDR (some of the best memory can be reached ), while the latter only has DDR 400 (completely normal standard frequency). Therefore, setting the asynchronous memory mode correctly helps overclock success. The Motherboard chipset supports almost all of the memory Asynchronization. Intel supports all the modules from the 810 series to the newer 875 series, while Weisheng provides all the functions after the 693 chipset.External frequency,The relationship between the memory frequency and the front-end bus of the CPU in the past P3, the external frequency of 133, the memory frequency is 133, and the front-end bus of the CPU is also 133, the three are the same thing. CPU of P4, with an external frequency of 133, the frontend bus reaches 533 MHz, and the memory frequency is 266 (ddr266 ). When the problem arises, the front-end bus is a bridge between the CPU and the memory. At this time, the front-end bus reaches 533, while the memory is only 266 faster, and the memory is half slower than the front-end bus of the CPU, theoretically, the CPU has to wait for the memory to transmit data before processing the data. This means that the memory is dragging the CPU down. This is indeed the case. This is true for 845 and 848 boards. Therefore, the concept of a dual-channel memory is proposed. The two memory uses two channels to work together to provide data, which doubles the speed again. The two ddr266 have a speed of 266x2 = 533, exactly p4
The front-end bus speed of the CPU is not slow. When the external frequency is increased to 200, the CPU Front-End bus is changed to 800. Two ddr400 memories constitute a dual channel, and the memory transmission speed is also 800. Therefore, to make good use of P4, you must use dual-channel memory. More than 865 of the motherboard provides this function. However, the 845 and 848 boards do not have a dual-channel memory function. After the CPU temperature limit is exceeded, the CPU reduces the frequency for self-protection. Pay attention to the cleaning of the heat dissipation system to prevent automatic frequency reduction when the CPU temperature is too high. Automatic CPU frequency reduction is a protection measure, so do not worry About overclocking, or affect the CPU life. Edit this section of overclocking summary the computer overclocking is to manually increase the operating frequency of CPU, graphics card, and other hardware (actually increasing the voltage ), let them work more stably than their rated frequency. Use intel
Taking a p4c2.4ghz CPU as an example, its rated operating frequency is 2.4 GHz. If the operating frequency is increased to 2.6 GHz, the system can still run stably, then the overclocking will succeed. The main purpose of CPU overclocking is to increase the operating frequency of the CPU, that is, the clock speed of the CPU. The CPU clock speed is the product of the outer frequency and the multiplier. For example, if the external frequency of a CPU is 100 MHz and the frequency doubling is 8.5, the clock speed is calculated as follows: External frequency × frequency doubling = 850 MHz × 8. 5 = MHz. To increase the CPU clock speed, you can change the frequency doubling or out-frequency of the CPU. However, if you are using an Intel CPU, you can ignore the frequency doubling because intelcpu uses a special manufacturing process to prevent frequency doubling modification. AMD's CPU can modify the frequency doubling, but modifying the frequency doubling improves the CPU performance as well as the external frequency. The external frequency speed is usually closely related to the speed of the front-end bus and memory. Therefore, when you increase the CPU external frequency, the performance of the CPU, system, and memory is alsoPossibleAlso improved. MethodThere are two main ways to overclock the CPU:One is hardware settings, and the other is software settings. Hardware settings are commonly used, and they are divided into Jumper settings and bios settings.1. Patch Cord overclockingMost early mainboards used jumpers or DIP switches for overclocking. In the vicinity of these jumpers and DIP switches, some forms are often printed on the motherboard, recording the functions defined by the Jumper and dip switch combinations. When the instance is shut down, you can set it according to the frequency in the table. After the computer is restarted, if the computer is started normally and runs stably, The overclocking is successful. For example, an intel845d chipset motherboard that is used in combination with the cyyang 1.7ghz uses a jumper overclocking mode. Below the Inductance Coil, we can see the Jumper description table. When the jumper is set to 1-2 mode, the external frequency is 100 MHz, and when it is changed to 2-3 mode, the external frequency is increased to 133 MHz. In contrast, the default external frequency of SAI Yang 1.7ghz is 100 MHz. As long as the external frequency is increased to 133 MHz, the original sai Yang 1.7ghz will overclock to 2 GHz, isn't it easy. The other is the viakt266 chipset motherboard used with amd cpu. The DIP switch is used to set the frequency doubling of the CPU. Most amd do not lock the frequency doubling, so you can modify the frequency doubling to overspeed the frequency. This is a five-group dip switch. Different disconnections of each serial number switch can be combined to form more than 10 modes. The description table is printed on the top right of the dip switch, indicating that the dip switch has different frequency changes under different combinations. For example, if you want to overclock an AMD 1800 + instance, you must first know that the frequency of athlon xp1800 + is equal to the frequency of 133mhz external frequency × 11. 5. As long as the frequency doubling is increased to 12.5, the CPU clock speed becomes 133mhz × 12. 5 ≈ 1.6 GHz, equivalent to athlon XP 2000 +. If the CPU clock speed is increased to 13.5 GHz, the athlon xp1800 + overclock will become athlon xp2200 +. Simple operations have greatly improved the performance.2. BIOS overclock settingsThe main board basically gave up the Jumper settings and dip switch settings to change the CPU multiplier or external frequency, but used a more convenient BIOS settings. For example, the softmenuiii of the upgrade (abit) and the powerbios of the upgrade positive (epox) all belong to the BIOS overclock mode. In the CPU parameter settings, you can set the CPU frequency doubling and external frequency. If the computer cannot be started normally after the clock is over, the computer will automatically return to the default CPU working status after shutting down and holding down the ins or home key and restarting the computer, so it is better to overclock in BIOS. Here we will use the combination of the nf7 motherboard and the athlon XP 1800 + CPU to implement this overclocking practice. There are two main brands of BIOS on the market: Phoenix-Award bios and AMI bios. Here we take Award bios as an example. Start the computer and press del to go To the BIOS settings page of the motherboard. Select soft menu III setup from the bios, which is the softmenu overclock function of the Technical Board. After entering this function, you can see that the system automatically recognizes the CPU as 1800 +. Press enter here to change the default model to user define mode. After the manual mode is set, the unselectable CPU external frequency and frequency doubling of the original gray mode become optional. If you need to use the extra frequency to overclock, press enter at external clock: 133mhz. There are many external frequencies available for adjustment. You can adjust them to a MHz or higher frequency option. Increasing the external frequency will increase the system bus frequency and affect the stability of other devices. Therefore, the PCI frequency should be locked. One of the multiplier factors is to adjust the CPU multiplier. Press enter to enter the option area. You can select a multiplier based on the actual CPU usage, for example, a multiplier of 12.5, 13.5, or higher. You can set and adjust the CPU core voltage in the BIOS.

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