Debianlinux-from installation to upgrade

Source: Internet
Author: User
Debianlinux-from installation to upgrade-Debian information of the Linux release-the following is a detailed description. Under windows, we have suffered a lot of joy and pain: office (windows is pre-installed in the notebook, why not pre-installed office ?) Games (the most popular of course are 3D games MOH, RTCW and incredible machines), music (the APE captured by BT or from CD), movies (free windvd can only be watched for 5 minutes, fortunately, my laptop is pre-installed with WinDVD), viruses (Trojans, worms), and inexplicable errors ......

Of course, the biggest torment is the mean number of "pirated" characters or an insensitive ear, which has a piracy rate of 92% in mainland China, and the popularity of angry people on the Internet. think of thieves without shame, hitting the brain together constitutes a complex and depressing mood, like a two thousand-year-old mental slavery, seriously affecting your normal thinking.

It is time to break the prison cage of the tyrant in the field of ignorance. Therefore, I plan to replace my notebook with Linux.

This is a very painful attempt. Compared with the convenient and quick installation of windows, installing a linux suitable for your computer is undoubtedly a long way to go.

First, I chose the Debian Linux version because it is very stable and easy to use. This is a masterpiece of tens of millions of non-paid programmers. Therefore, if you encounter any difficulties, please do not scold her. You must be at your fault.

The stable release of Debian is Woody. Her core is 2.4.18. Although it is outdated, only the released version can download the CD image. If you have new hardware and want to use some features such as PCI and USB hot swapping, the core is a little old. It doesn't matter. We can start from here, build a 2.6-core system by yourself.

The fastest is (900 K): 2-i386-binary-1.iso

If this does not work, you can also go to the terminal.

Then, cut her into a CD. Then, you can install her like windown2000.

Before installation, delete one of your original Hard Disk Partitions under windowns2000, remember the size of its space, and remember your Nic type. Then you can install her in the partition you vacated. On the above homepage, note the "4.15 select to install the source and start to install the Debian Basic System" section. If you do not have a network, select cdrom, if you have broadband Internet access (the IP address, gateway, DNS settings are the same as those in windows), select edit sources list by hand, and enter deb woody mian contrib non-free, then press ctrl-o to save and press ctrl-x to exit. Select "cancel" on "Appendix 4", and do not select "5" or "66". Select "no" for "8" and "simple" for "9.
If you do not have a network, run tasksel and select x-window-system, desktop, c-dev, and simplified Chinese. After a woody installation is completed.

If there is a network, you should simply drop tasksel Cancel and use this clean Basic System (about 80 Mb) to directly upgrade it.

Before the upgrade, modify/etc/apt/souces. list as follows:
Deb sarge main contrib non-free

After you run apt-get update, run apt-get upgrade.

This upgrade only upgrades the software packages that have been installed on your machine, so there are still some things to do.

First, upgrade the core to 2.6.7-1-686. Run the command: apt-get install kernel-image-2.6.7-1-686.

In this way, there are two files under your/boot/directory: vmlinuz-2.6.7-1-686 and initrd-2.6.7-1-686, edit the/etc/lilo. conf file, add this startup option, run lilo to make configuration changes. Restart the machine to enter the new core system environment.

Then configure your machine. Video Card, sound card, Nic, usb or something. At the core of 2.4, the configuration depends on the/etc/modules file. You can download modconf (apt-get install modconf) to modify this file, however, this is undoubtedly a headache for new users, so I suggest you use discover1 (the old version is discover, which has poor hardware support .) This software package manages your own hardware. If discover1 cannot identify one of your hardware, use modconf to manually load it.

Install discover: apt-get install discover1

Run the lsmod command and you will find that many hardware modules are automatically loaded. Of course, you may also need a USB device or automatically load the corresponding module when PCMCIA is inserted. Then, you need to install the hotplug and udev packages (one of the advantages of upgrading to 2.6 ): apt-get install hotplug udev depends on hotplug in udev. If udev is installed, hotplug is automatically installed based on dependency (this is the biggest benefit of Debian Linux, in this regard, Redhat often makes people go crazy when looking for the dependencies of packages ).
Obviously, your machine has been fully configured here. Now, the graphic interface is added. This is also very simple. apt-get install x-window-system can be installed with the xfree86 system. During the process, you will be reminded to configure xfree86. You can select vesa when selecting a video card, at this time, the general graphics card driver, everything else will press enter, select the resolution according to your preferences. (If the configuration is complete, the startx command has an error. Most of the errors are caused by incorrect mouse configuration. Use lsmod to confirm that the psmouse, mousedev, and usbhid (usb mouse) modules are located, if not, modprobe psmouse mousedev usbhid .)

Then dress up the gnome gui (I think gnome is more concise and beautiful than kde): apt-get install gnome.

Install gnome. My principle is to press enter if any problem occurs.

If the problem persists, the next step is to run the following command: (if the problem persists, start the GUI manually or enter the xdm system.

Select the default Interface for running the configuration.

Well, basically everything is available, that is, there is a lack of Chinese support. install apt-get install locales.

During the locales installation process, you are required to configure the regional environment support. My principle is that all the regions starting with en and starting with zh are selected. Then the system automatically generates the locales file for you.

Now, the chinese font library is ready. It is very simple: apt-get install xfonts-intl-chinese.

Of course, these fonts are not good-looking. If you want truetype fonts, go to the forum to find them.

With the font, You can restart the machine to enter the x-window system. When logging on, do not forget to select the Chinese Simplified UTF-8 in the language column on the top left of the logon window.

Then, install the fcitx Chinese Input Method (this method is similar to the pinyin plus method and is very easy to use. Of course, there are also five pen fonts .) : Apt-get install fcitx. Then run the fcitx command on the terminal to input it in Chinese.

Everything is done. However, this system is far away from the application. The following are the Software and Its commands that can be installed:
Openoffice (an office software suite similar to M $ office ,):
Apt-get install

Graphics Processing Software: (almost the same as photoshop)
Apt-get install gimp
MSN, Yahoo instant message sending software (due to the boredom of Teng Xun, the support is canceled ):
Apt-get install gaim
Gthumb Image view software (not inferior to acdsee ):
Apt-get install gthumb
Gtkam digital camera software (supports many cameras and requires no additional driver. My old canon A60 is supported ):
Apt-get install gtkam
DVD player xine (you can view many formats and the interface is similar to windvd ):
Apt-get install xine-ui.
The RealoneGold software must be downloaded from
Listen to the mp3 software bmp and xmms:
Apt-get install beep-media-player xmms
Very good Super Mario game supertux:
Apt-get install supertux
Quake2 trial version:
Apt-get install guake2
Very fun tank games:
Apt-get install atanks

Good VoIP tool skype: Go to the homepage to download it.

And so on. The new software management tool that comes with the system allows you to download thousands of Free Software. Whether you are in that industry, there is always one that makes you feel at ease.

As for me, it is enough to have these plus minicom and planner.

However, it is also very useful to recompile the core to meet your needs. For example, I have compiled the NIC, sound card, usb host, and video card into the core, and removed a lot of things that will never be reached for a lifetime. Then, with the system sleep patch, my notebook won't have to be started regularly every time, and installed acpid, cpufreq and powernowd, so when my notebook is not busy at work, it runs at a 66% cpu rated frequency, saving some battery. Then we configure openGL and occasionally play a dozen quake games. Unfortunately, my laptop is a radeon M6 video card. If we play OpenGL games, sleep will be problematic, do not load DRI anymore. My HSF cat does not support sleep, so we need to modify the sleep script and uninstall the cat module before sleep.

This is lightweight, but it took me a lot of time and I will not write it here. I will take some time to remember and write down the problems encountered during kernel compilation (including the oss and alsa sound card configurations.

Finally, by the way, after the USB to serial port is plugged in, the device is/dev/ttyUSB0; after the USB flash drive is plugged in, the device is/dev/sda1; after the USB drive is inserted, the device used is/dev/sr0. in linux, the driver has lost its meaning. In addition, changing lilo to grub is also good. lilo is too slow and does not support passwords. It is very difficult to start. I have changed it for a long time. And so on.
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