Dedicated to beginners: How to learn Linux operating system

Source: Internet
Author: User

First, choose the appropriate Linux distribution

When it comes to Linux distributions, too many, probably no one can give an accurate number, but one thing is to be sure, Linux is becoming more and more prevalent, faced with so many Linux distributions, the intention to go from other systems to the Linux system beginners may be confused, even if the loyal Linux users do not have the time and energy to test each other, so beginners before learning Linux, the need to have a clear direction, choose a suitable system to start learning Linux is very important! Let's go through the classification. Big Data Linux Learning Data sharing group 119599574

1.1 Beginners First Choice-redhat series
Before learning Redhat series Linux, first understand the relationship between the following Redhat Linux releases.

1. Red Hat Linux
Red Hat Linux is Redhat's earliest release of the personal version of Linux, and its 1.0 version was released on November 3, 1994. Although its history is not as long as other Linux distributions, Red Hat has a much longer history than many Linux distribution packages. Since the release of Red Hat 9.0, RedHat has discontinued the development of the desktop version of the Linux distribution suite, and Red Hat Linux has focused all its power on the development of the server edition, the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Edition. Red Hat officially stopped supporting Red Hat version 9.0 on April 30, 2004, marking the official end of Red Hat Linux. The original desktop version of the Red Hat Linux distribution suite was merged with Fedora from the open source community to become the Fedora Core release.
Red Hat is now divided into two series: Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is powered by Red Hat and updated by the company, and the free Fedora Core developed by the community.

2. Fedora Core
Fedora Core (FC) is targeted by Red Hat as the experimental site for new technologies, and many new technologies will be tested in FC, and Red Hat will consider joining Red Hat Enterprise Linux if stable.
Fedora Core 1 was released at the end of 2003, and FC is positioned as a desktop user. FC offers the latest software packages, while its version update cycle is also very short, just 6 months. Because of the frequent version updates, performance and stability are not guaranteed, it is generally not recommended to use Fedora Core on the server.
As a matter of fact, Fedora is an experimental version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is the basis for the release of Red Hat Enterprise Edition by testing users.

3. Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (abbreviated to rhel,red Hat's corporate edition). Red hat is now primarily a server version of Linux development, with a focus on performance and stability and hardware support. Version updates are relatively slow due to the long development cycle of Enterprise Edition operating systems, which focus on performance, stability, and server-side software support.
RedHat Enterprise Linux is also divided into 4 versions of Advanced Server (AS), ES Workstation (WS), Desktop, they are not very different, but functional differences.

4. Centos
CentOS Full name is "Community Enterprise Operating System" (Community Enterprises Operating System)
CentOS-Generated backgrounds:
Redhat released Redhat 9. After 0, no longer developed Redhat 10,11 ..., the overall shift to Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) development, and the previous difference is that the new Redhat Enterprise Edition requires users to buy lisence first, Redhat also undertakes to ensure the stability and safety of the products. Rhel binaries are no longer available for download, but are part of the Redhat service, but the source code is still open. In this case, there are a number of open source Enterprise versions of CentOS, Whitebox, DAO, and so on, with CentOS being the most active.
Here's how CentOS is produced:
The CentOS community will download all the source code on Redhat's website and recompile it. Since AS/ES/WS is a commercial product, all Redhat logos and logos must be changed to their own CentOS logo. For example, AS4.0 original srpm source code compiled, replace the CentOS community logo, this becomes the CentOS 4.0. Redhat Enterprise Linux AS4 Update1 Source code compiled, it became the CentOS4.1. AS4 Update2 After the source code compiled, it became CentOS4.2 and so on. That's how CentOS comes into being.
Therefore, it can be said that CentOS is the free version of Redhat As/es/ws, using CentOS to get the same functionality and performance as Redhat Enterprise Linux. CentOS also offers free long-term upgrade and update Services. As a result, CentOS is outstanding and excellent in many of the clone versions of Rhel.
Although CentOS is a clone of Rhel, it's not exactly the same, and the clones are 100% interchangeable. For CentOS is not the same, Rhel software on CentOS does not guarantee that 100% of normal work.
After understanding the differences in each version of the Redhat series. In fact, we found out why choose Redhat Linux as a beginner to learn the reason.
First of all: in the country, and even the world's Linux users are most familiar with the most heard can be detailed distribution version is Red Hat is definitely. Because Red Hat is the "boss" of the Linux World, Red Hat Linux is the most successful Linux distribution suite in the business, so Red Hat's Linux is trustworthy, Red Hat There is no doubt about the functionality and performance of Linux.
Second: Red hat now has a large network user community, network Linux Resources Basic 90% is based on Redhat Linux, if you encounter any problems during the learning process, search the network, there are thousands of answers to show in front of you.
Third: The Red Hat Linux series complements each other: If you first touch Linux, it is recommended that you install Fedora Core First, Fedora Core installation is simple, the hardware support is very good, the interface is gorgeous, but also can experience redhat The latest Linux features; If you have a certain understanding of Linux and need to learn more, it is recommended that you use the CentOS system; If you are doing Linux enterprise applications, it is recommended that you use the Rhel version.
Finally: Redhat wide range of applications, with a typical and representative, many systems (such as Red Flag Redflag, won the bid linux,oracle released Enterprise Linux) are based on Red Hat Linux, so you can say that learned red Hat Linux, you can comprehend by analogy, other similar Linux system can also be mastered quickly, and now around to learn Linux is generally based on Redhat Linux, so easy to communicate, learning problems, more easily resolved. At the same time Redhat Linux installation and use is also the simplest, so basically do not waste too much time on the "Installation system".
Big Data Linux Learning Data sharing group 119599574

1.2 Enterprise-Class application preferred-suse Linux
Enterprise-class applications are looking for reliability and stability, which requires a system platform that builds enterprise-class applications with high reliability and high stability. The release version of Enterprise Linux is the solution to this problem.
SuSE is the most famous Linux distribution in Germany and enjoys a high reputation all over the world. Novell announced its takeover of SuSE on November 4, 2003. The acquisition was successfully completed in January 2004, and Novell formally named SuSE Linux as SuSE. Novell acquires SuSE, accelerates the development of SuSE Linux, and SUSE Linux is more specialized in both the desktop and server markets, with incomplete statistics, SUSE Linux now occupies nearly 80% of the European Linux market, Most of the critical applications are built under SuSE Linux. SuSE's market share in China is still not very large, but it does not affect the fact that SUSE Linux is highly reliable and stable, as SuSE has developed and is confident that SuSE will not be able to be accepted in China due to the short time it takes to enter China and the SUSE's marketing model. There will be more and more applications for Linux in China.

1.3 Gaming Entertainment Preferred-ubuntu Linux
When it comes to the Linux desktop market, Ubuntu Linux occupies almost half of desktop Linux, Ubuntu Linux is the most Linux desktop, the interface is beautiful, simple and gorgeous, if you want to play under Linux, Ubuntu Linux is definitely the first choice.
Ubuntu installation is very user-friendly, just follow the prompts step by step, installed as simple as Windows! And, Ubuntu is known as one of the best and most comprehensive Linux distributions for hardware support, many of which are not available on other distributions, or hardware that is not available in the default configuration, and can be easily done on Ubuntu. So you can install Ubuntu as easily as you would install Windows. Enjoy the fun of Ubuntu Linux.

1.4 Linux as a server is a development trend
In the above chapters, the main introduction of several of the most common Linux distributions, in fact, there are many distributions of Linux, more common is the Debian Gnu/linux, Mandriva, Gentoo,slackware, Knoppix,mepis, Xandros, domestic red flag Redflag, won the bid for Linux and so on, here no longer introduced, in fact, throughout the Linux distribution, Linux distribution is nothing more than the two aspects, one is the server market, but the desktop market.
Linux distributions, represented by Ubuntu Linux, are on the desktop market, and although they bring a lot of surprises to users and are quick to update, the desktop market is struggling with a strong opponent like windows.
The Linux distribution, represented by the Redhat series, is now primarily geared toward the server market for Enterprise Linux, with a focus on the enterprise version of Linux, and SuSE Linux also has a major focus on developing Enterprise Linux, others such as the domestic Redhat flag, The winning bid for Linux is focused on the Linux server market. Linux two major publishers now go to the Linux server market route, it can be seen that Linux as an enterprise-Class server has a huge development prospects, according to the authoritative department statistics, Linux in the server market share continues to rise every year.
In fact, many Linux applications are for Linux servers, this book is mainly for Linux in the various applications under the server deployment.
Big Data Linux Learning Data sharing group 119599574

Second, develop a good Linux operating habits

When you enter Linux learning, do not use the way windows work to think about the problem, because they are really very different, such as the memory management mechanism between them, process operation mechanism, etc. are very different, these similarities and differences will be described in the following chapters, so, It's important for beginners to put aside the thinking of windows and try to tap into the unique potential of Linux with new ideas.

2.1 Be sure to get used to the command line style
Linux is a command line composed of the operating system, the essence of the command line, regardless of the level of the development of the graphical interface, the command line mode of operation will never change, the Linux command has many powerful features: from simple disk operations, file access, To the production of complex multimedia images and streaming media files are inseparable from the command line. Although Linux also has desktop systems, X-window is just one application running in command-line mode.
Therefore, it can be said that the command is to learn the basis of Linux system, learning Linux, to a large extent, is learning commands, many Linux masters are actually playing command very familiar people.
Perhaps for beginners who have just entered Linux from the Windows system, it is too difficult to get into the boring command immediately, but once you learn it, you will love it. Because its function is too powerful. Your future learning path will also increase exponentially.

2.2 Theory combined with practice
There are a lot of beginners will encounter such a problem, when it comes to every command of the system is familiar, but in the event of a system failure, facing the problem of the Linux system can not do. Do not know when to use what command to check the system, this is a lot of Linux novice most helpless thing. In the final analysis, the theory of learning is not well integrated with the actual operation of the system.
A lot of Linux knowledge, such as the parameter meaning of each command, is very clear in the book, it seems easy to understand, but once used together, it is not so easy, not many hands-on practice, the skills are not mastered.
The human brain is not like a computer hard disk, unless the hard drive is broken or the hard disk is formatted, the stored data will always and always memory on the hard disk. In the human memory of the curve, it is necessary to constantly repeat the practice will be a thing to remember more familiar. Similarly, learning Linux is the same, if you can not learn often, learn the back, forget the front, but also some Linux beginners have learned a lot of Linux knowledge, but because of the long-term use, led to learn something in a very short period of time and forget, over the years, lost the confidence of learning.
Can be seen, increase their own Linux combat skills, only diligent hands, the courage to practice, which is the fundamental to learn Linux.

2.3 Learn how to use Linux online Help
Each Linux release has a short technical support time, which is often not enough for Linux beginners, but when a complete Linux system has been installed it has a powerful help, but it is possible that you have not found and used their skills. For example, you are not familiar with the use of a Linux tar command, so as long as you enter man tar on the command line, you will get a detailed description and usage of the tar;
Mainstream Linux distributions come with very detailed help documentation, including usage instructions and FAQs, from system installation to system maintenance, to system security, and detailed documentation for different levels of people. After reading the document carefully 60% of the questions can be resolved here.

2.4 Learn to think independently and solve problems independently
Encounter problems, the first thought should be how to solve the problem, many solutions, reading information, web search engine, Technical forum, and so on, through these several ways, 90% of the problems can be solved, through this way on the one hand to exercise their own ability to solve problems independently. On the other hand, the technology can also be quickly improved.
If it is not possible to solve the problem by the way above, you can ask people to consider why you should do so after you get the answer, and then take notes to record the resolution process. The most taboo way is that as long as you encounter problems, ask people, although this may soon solve the problem, but long-term problems will depend on others, technology will not progress.

2.5 Learning Professional English
If you want to learn more about Linux, be sure to try to read English documents. Because, the most technical things to write the best, the most comprehensive documents are written in English, the first release of high-tech are also written in English. Even non-English-speaking countries publish technical documents, which are first translated into English and published in international academic journals and online. Install a new software when the first look at the readme, then look at the install, and then look at the FAQ, the last to install, so encountered problems to know why. Therefore, it is necessary to learn a little professional English.

2.6 Linux Learning basic steps
Here, we summarize the Linux Learning Roadmap for beginners as a reference.
Primary stage:
1. command is necessary to learn, Linux commonly used commands around 80, these common commands must be mastered.
2. Master the common installation methods of Linux software packages, such as source installation, RPM installation and so on.
3. Learn to install device drivers (such as network cards, graphics drivers)
4. Familiar with Grub/lilo boot program and simple repair operation.
5. Familiar with Linux file system and directory structure and Linux basic operation principle.
6. Master Vi,gcc,gdb and other common editors, compilers, debuggers.
7. Understand shell aliases, pipelines, I/O redirection, input and output, and shell simple scripting.
8. Learn the basic building of network in Linux environment.

Advanced Stage:
1: Try to read the Linux kernel source code:
This needs to have a certain C, C + + language Foundation, because C, C + + is the core language of Linux/unix, the system code is written in C.
2: Try to compile and install your own Linux kernel:
After reading the source code to understand the Linux underlying operating principles, it is possible to compile a suitable Linux system.
3: In-depth study of shell, perl,cgi and other scripting languages:
These scripting languages are very powerful under Linux, they can do anything you want to do, and mastering these languages will allow you to navigate the Linux system.
4: Build Enterprise Linux High-availability cluster system:
Linux has many open-source free cluster software, using these free clustering software can be built with the commercial UNIX system to rival the cluster system.

Dedicated to beginners: How to learn Linux operating system

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