Easy to learn Linux Tutorials III play Linux common commands

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags clear screen comparison table disk usage

You know? Linux has a number of different ways of operation, graphical interface and text interface, using command operation, how to use these commands, can be in the text interface to obtain a large number of command instructions, and do not need to hard back some of the command options and parameters, this is the article to introduce. These include basic commands, file and directory management commands, disk with file System management commands, files with file system compression and packaging commands.

OK, let's get into the theme:

I. X window vs. command-line mode switch

The Linux desktop operation is almost exactly the same as window, so it's not much more, so how do I switch between x window and command-line mode (also called Terminal Interface Terminal or console)? Linux By default provides 6 terminal to let the user log in, switch to use CTRL+ALT+F1~F6, the system named it Tty1~tty6, then the question, how to return to the graphical interface? Ctrl+alt+f7 or STARTX, the graphical interface opens the virtual terminal using Ctrl+alt+t

Two. Basic command operation

(1) Correct method of shutting down the machine

Linux is a multi-user multitasking operating system, you can not see the screen behind the fact that there may be many people at the same time working on your host, such as browsing the web, transfer files, etc., if the power is directly off the other person data may be interrupted.

viewing system usage Status

W.H.O. View who is currently online
Netstat-a View Network Online Status
Ps-aux View Background Execution Program

Notify online users when the shutdown

Sync Synchronizes the current in-memory data to the hard disk
Shutdown-h now Shut down now (recommended)
Reboot Restart
Poweroff-f Shutdown
Halt Shutdown

(2) Simple command

Display date and time: date;

Display calendar: Cal;

Easy to use calculator: BC;

(3) Important Hotkey tab,ctrl-c,ctrl-d

tab is followed by the first command of a string of commands, then the command completion, followed by the second command of a sequence of commands, to fill the file. (Try pressing Tab two times)

Ctrl-c (i.e. CTRL and C keys pressed simultaneously): interrupts the current program

Ctrl-d: End of keyboard input, quite have exit

(4) man page and Info page

Haha, people are not afraid to remember the command parameters Ah, do not worry, Man,info command will help you remember Oh, try man date command

man-f [command or data] <==>whatis try man-f date, and try to understand.

man-k [command or data] <==>apropos

Info and man are about the same, specific differences on the Internet a lot of, will not write

There's a--help, and it's a command aid.

Try date--help and see what's out there.

(5) Ultra-simple text editor: Nano

In fact, the most important editor is VI, which is said later

Nano [filename] You can open the file.

(6) Change the root password:


(7) Clear screen:


Three. linux file and directory Management command operations

Relative path: path is not written by/write, such as from/usr/share/doc to/usr/share/man, can be written as CD. /man;

Absolute path: The path must be written by the root directory/write, such as/HOME/HPW

Directory-related Operations command:

Ls List files under Directory-L: Show file Properties,-A: Show hidden files
Cd Switch directories
Pwd Show current directory
Mkdir New Directory-P: You can create your own multi-level directory,-M: You can add permissions when creating a directory, such as
RmDir Delete an empty directory (note that you cannot delete a directory that is not empty)

Note: LS is displayed in different colors:

Blue--Directory Green--executable file red--compressed file light blue--Link file Pink--image file

Yellow--Device file gray--Other files

File and Directory Management

CP (copy) Copy a file or directory-r: Recursive execution,-I: ask whether to perform a-p: Copy along with permissions
RM (remove) Remove a file or directory-r: Recursive execution,-I: query,-F enforcement
MV (move) Moving files and directories-R: Recursive execution,-I: Asking

Gets the path's file name and directory name

File Content Lookup

Cat Show file contents starting from first line-N: Print travel number
Tac Starting from the last line, you can see that the TAC is an inverted form of cat, huh?
nl When displayed, the output line number by the way
More A page-by-page display of the contents of a file
Less With the more class try, but better than the more, it can flip ahead
Head Just a few lines.
Tail Just look at the end.
Od Read the contents of a file in a binary way

Modify file time or create a new file: Touch

In Linux, a lot of time parameters will be recorded, in fact, there are three major changes in time

Modification (Mtime): When the content data of the file is changed, the time will be updated, the file permissions or properties will not be updated

Status Time (CTime): Updated when the status of the file changes, such as permissions or attributes changed

Access Time (Atime): When the contents of a file are used, the read times are updated, and if we use cat to read/etc/man.config, the atime of the file is updated.

Touch: Create an empty file; Modify the date of a file to the current date (Mtime and Atime)

-A: Modify access time

-C: The time to modify the file, if the file does not exist do not create a new file

-D: the date after which you want to modify it instead of the current time

-M: Modify Mtime only

-T: The time later to be modified instead of the current time, in the format [YYMMDDHHMM]

Permission Modification Command:

CHGRP: Change file to user group syntax: CHGRP-[r] User group name file or directory-R indicates whether or not recursively modified directory with subdirectories modified

Chown: Change file owner Syntax ditto

chmod: Change the permissions of a file syntax: chmod-[r] Permissions digital file or directory Note: Each permission number comparison table: R:4 w:2 x:1-:0 Example: Owner = rwx = 4+2+1 = 7 Group = rwx = 4+2+1 = 7 others =---= 0+0+0=0 Example: Chown 770 file or directory name

In addition to the appeal use the number modification permission can also use symbols for permission modification


U (user)

G (Group)

O (Other)

A (full identity)

+ (Join)


= (set)




File or directory

File Special permissions: Suid,sgid,sbit (here will not write, interested can own Baidu encyclopedia OH)

Viewing file types: Files

If you want to know the basic data of a file, such as making it into ASCII or data, or making binary, where there is no use of the dynamic function library (share libary) and so on, you can use the file command to view

Query for script file name

Which (looking for "execute file") such as LS the common command where? can be used which LS

Search for files

Whereis (looking for a specific file)

Locate: You can get results after entering "part of file name" directly in the back

Find: Very powerful command of Baidu Encyclopedia find

Four. Linux disk and File System Management command operations

Disk-to-directory capacity: df,duhttp://hpw123.net/424346976/

DF: List The overall disk usage of the file system

Du: Evaluating the disk usage of the file system (commonly used to estimate the capacity of the catalog)

Connection file: ln (-S is a symbolic connection, not a hard connection)

Connecting files with hard connections and symbolic connections (that is, shortcuts)

partitioning, formatting, checking and mounting of disks: Fdisk,mkfs,fsck,badblocks,mount,umount

Mount Disc: Mount-t iso9660/dev/cdrom/mnt/cdrom

Unmount disc: Umount/mnt/cdrom or Umount/dev/cdrom

Mount USB: Mount/dev/sdb1/mnt/usb

Mount ISO Image: Mount-t iso9660-o loop iso image file/mnt/cdrom

Five. File and file system compression and Packaging command operations

Common compressed file extensions:

*. Z Compress Program Compressed files
*.gz Files that are compressed by the GZIP program
*.bz2 BZIP2 Program Compressed Files
*.tar The TAR program is packaged with data that has not been compressed
*.tar.gz Tar program packaged files, which are compressed by gzip
*.tar.bz2 The TAR program packages the files, which are compressed by bzip2

Well, as for the compression command a lot of, because the compression software is much better

Here's a memory of the following.

Compression: Tar-jcv-f filename.tar.bz2 The name of the file or directory to be compressed

Enquiry: Tar-jtv-f filename.tar.bz2

Decompression: Tar-jxv-f filename.tar.bz2-c to extract the directory

OK, today's content is probably the case, if there is something wrong, ask the big God, we see in the next article:)

Now let's take it easy: Sketch art, Beautiful sketch (video)

    • Related articles recommended:
    • Linux User management commands (Useradd, adduser)
    • What are the Linux restart commands? Linux Restart command Daquan
    • Examples of Linux finger command usage
    • This article from: Hobby Linux Technology Network
    • This article link: http://www.ahlinux.com/start/cmd/6955.html

Easy to learn Linux Tutorials III play Linux common commands

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