Fifth chapter The origin of European science and technology civilization

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Fifth the origins of European science and technology civilization

The basic characteristics of medieval civilization in Europe
European technological revolution
12-13 Centuries of academic revival
15-16 Centuries of Renaissance

5.1 Basic features and technological revolution basic characteristics of medieval European civilization
    • The fusion of four civilizations--Greek civilization, Roman, Christian Civilization, Germanic civilization (Barbarian clan)
      Greek civilization: a purely academic ideal
      Roman: A pervasive doctrine at the institutional level
      Christianity: Fraternity, full equality of love, faith, fraternity, Universal
      Germanic: Blood relatives, family
    • The church and the secular regime coexist
    • Succession system of the eldest son
    • Expansionism
European technological revolution

The abolition of medieval slavery greatly liberated the productive forces and promoted the scientific and technological revolution.

Agricultural technology

The use of horses--heavy Plow
Three-field rotation system

Military technology

Use of stirrup--the appearance of the Knight class
Gunpowder Technology--smash the Knight class and feudalism

Mechanical Technology

Hydraulic, wind, water tankers, windmills, mills-gear mechanism, transmission equipment, machinery civilization
Europe's technology is powered by hydro and wind.
Manufacturing and utility machinery as part of European life

5.1 Basic features and technological revolution (exercise)

The basic characteristics of medieval civilization in Europe: the integration of four civilizations, the coexistence of church and secular regimes, the succession system of the eldest son, expansionist
The three-field rotation system appeared in the European Middle Ages
The use of the horse pedal is the symbol of European military technology development

5.2 Academic Renaissance 12-13-century academic Renaissance

Significant advances in agricultural technology, the promotion of trade, the emergence of towns
The Crusades brought back the advanced technology of the Arab

Two major events in Europe in 12th century
    • Large translation Movement
      Two main venues: Toledo in Spain and Sicily in south Italy
      Steven Gerrard presided over the translation of the writings of all the important Greek figures
      1207 All Aristotle's writings have been translated into Latin.
    • The appearance of the university
      A guild consisting of teachers and students is the university
      The early European universities have neither real estate nor property, and are self-made institutions for teachers and students.
      early universities generally have four colleges.
      Arts College (should be called Liberal arts College), basic education
      Law School

      Gradually become the base of academic development in the Middle Ages

Aristotle's works were first recognized, the basic contradictions in the university, how to compromise Aristotle and Christianity.
Scholasticism is an idealistic philosophy combined with religious theology, which belongs to the philosophical form peculiar to the Middle Ages in Europe, and is the theory that the Catholic Church used to train the clergy and teaches in its institution, hence the name scholasticism.
Thomas Aquinas, the medieval scholasticism and theologian, "The Encyclopedia of Theology", combines Aristotle's thought and Christianity with a rational approach to theological issues.
In medieval universities, Aristotle's Rational thinking and Christian integration were completed.

The important thought of the Middle Ages
    • The impulse said (somewhat like inertia) was thought to be inspired by Galileo's thought
    • The law of velocity in the uniform Acceleration movement, has given the empirical formula in the Middle Ages
    • The possibility of Earth movement
5.2 Academic Revival (exercise)

The first university in the world was founded in 1150 and is called the University of Bogotá, Italy.
Colleges in the early European universities include arts colleges, seminaries, law schools, medical schools
The early European universities belonged to the autonomous institutions, without real estate.
12th century European universities refer to the Guild of Teachers and students
Toledo, Spain, is one of the major European translation campaigns of the 12th century.

5.3 Renaissance 15-16 century Renaissance

The main features of literary artists: celebrating Human nature

Major events in Europe in 15th century
    • Large translation Movement
      The characteristics of the large translation movement 1. The Greek is translated directly into Latin 2. Plato's thought was introduced
    • Religious reform
      Before the Reformation, Christianity consisted of Orthodox and Catholic
      Martin Luther King of 151,795, against the voucher, founded the Protestant . Liberated the mind.
      Religious reform is directly related to print operation
    • Geographical discoveries
      The compass from the Orient greatly promoted the development of navigation.
      Basic motive: Open the channel of East-west trade alone (economic factor)
      Columbus discovered the new World, Colombia was named after him, and Amarica was the name of a French geographer.
      Magellan sailed from Spain in September 1519, when he arrived in Brazil in December, and the following October through South America's southernmost tip into the Pacific. 1921 arrived in Guam and was killed by the natives in April 1921. November arrives at the Deer ancient archipelago (rich spices). September 1522, return to Saint Lucar Island.
      The discovery of geography is an important psychological preparation for the scientific revolution. Prepare them for a break with the traditional academic.
      People become the core of the world.
5.3 Renaissance (exercise)

The author of the Encyclopedia of Theology is Thomas Aquinas.
Magellan was the first man to sail around the world.
The 15-16-century translation campaign was to translate the Greek into Latin
Both the Ptolemy system and Aristotle's system believe that the Earth is at the center of the universe and is stationary.

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Fifth chapter The origin of European science and technology civilization

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