File system introduction-Restrict File Size by each system

Source: Internet
Author: User

A. fat16 (maximum partition 2 GB, maximum file 2 GB, maximum capacity)

Before explaining the fat16 file system, we must know what fat is? "File Allocation Table" means "File Allocation Table. As the name suggests, it is a table used to record the location of a file. It is very important for hard disk use. If the file allocation table is lost, the data on the hard disk cannot be located and cannot be used. Different operating systems use different file systems, commonly used in the personal computer operating system, MS-DOS 6. fat16 is used for versions X and below; HPFs is used for OS/2; NTFS is used for Windows NT; and fat16 and FAT32 are also provided for users in MS-DOS 7.10 and ROM-DOS 7.10. Among them, we have the most contact with fat16 and FAT32 file systems.
Fat16 File System
Fat16 uses a 16-bit space to represent the configuration file of each sector (sector), so it is called fat16.
Fat16 is inherently limited. Therefore, after a partition exceeds a certain capacity, the cluster size used by fat16 must be expanded to accommodate larger disk space. The so-called cluster is the configuration unit of the disk space, just like a shelf in the library. Each file to be saved to the disk must be configured with a sufficient number of clusters. The relationship between each fat16 partition and the cluster size is shown in the following table:
Partition size fat16 cluster size
16 MB-127 MB 2 kb
128 MB-255 MB 4 kb
256 MB-511 MB 8 KB
512 Mbit/s-1023 Mbit/s 16 KB
1024 MB-2047 MB 32 KB
If you store 50 kb files in a MB partition, because the size of the partition cluster is 16 KB, it requires 4 clusters. If it is a 1 kb file, it must also be stored in a cluster. Can the remaining space in each cluster be used? The answer is no, so when using a disk, it will inevitably lose some disk space.
The fat16 file system has two major disadvantages:
(1) The maximum disk partition size is 2 GB. At present, as long as you purchase a computer, the size of the hard disk must be at least 2 GB, and 3.2 GB, GB or more hard disks are everywhere, and inexpensive. The fat16 file system is no longer able to adapt to the current large-capacity hard disk, and must be partitioned into several disk spaces. The size of the partitioned disk involves the issue of clustering, which is quite influential.
(2) The cluster size is inappropriate. Imagine that if a file of only 1 kb is stored in a MB disk partition, the space occupied is not 1 kb, but 16 KB, which is a waste of 15 kb! Currently, most popular HTML files are 1 kb and 2 kb in size, while dozens of HTML files are often used to create a website. If your hard disk contains 100 such small files, you can waste disk space from 3.1 kb (MB partition) to MB (MB partition ).
These two problems often make the user's choice of "how much partition to save space and make the hard disk more convenient and effective.
During the use of dos2.0, the demand for larger disk management capabilities has emerged. Therefore, in dos3.0, Microsoft launched the new file system fat16. In addition to a partition table with a 16-character length, fat1 ***** fat12 is very similar in other places. In fact, with the increase of 4 characters, the total number of clusters that can be used increases to 65546. When the total number of clusters is less than 4096, The fat12 Partition Table is applied. when the actual number of clusters is more than 4096, The fat16 Partition Table is applied. The new fat16 file system provides 32 MB disk management capabilities. This seems to be big enough at the time. In, the development of hard disks promoted the development of file systems. fat16 after dos4.0 can manage m disks. Then this number continues to grow until 2 GB. In the entire 10 years, 2 GB of disk management capabilities are greatly higher than the actual needs. It should be pointed out that in the Windows 95 system, a unique technology called vfat is used to solve problems such as long file names. The fat16 partition format has a serious disadvantage: the high-capacity disk utilization efficiency is low. In Microsoft's DOS and Windows systems, disk files are distributed in clusters. One cluster is only allocated to one file, regardless of the size of the entire cluster occupied by the file. In this way, even if a small file occupies a cluster, all the remaining cluster space will be idle, resulting in a waste of disk space. Due to the Partition Table capacity limit, the larger the fat16 partition is created, the larger the capacity of each cluster on the disk, resulting in a greater waste.
Use the fat16 file system to maximize the partition size
Summary
Microsoft MS-DOS 4.0 and later versions allow fdisk to partition a hard disk up to 4 gigabytes (GB. However, the MS-DOS File Allocation Table (FAT) file system only supports 2 GB size per partition. Based on this fact, a hard disk of 2 to 4 GB must be divided into multiple partitions, and each partition cannot exceed 2 GB.
Note: Windows 95 OEM service Release versions 2 and later support drives that use FAT32 file systems larger than 2 GB. For more information about the FAT32 file system, see the following Microsoft Knowledge Base Article:
Article ID: 154997 (http://support.microsoft.com/kb/154997/EN-US)
Title: FAT32 File System Description
More information
The maximum number of clusters supported by the FAT file system and the maximum size of the cluster determine the partition limit of 2 GB. The fat file system is limited to 65,525 clusters. The cluster size must be 2 to the power and smaller than 65,536 bytes. The maximum cluster size is 32,768 bytes (32 K ). Multiply the maximum number of clusters (65,525) by the maximum cluster size (32,768) to 2 GB.
Note: to partition the hard disk with fdisk, the hard disk drive must be supported by the rom bios api of the computer, and the latter has the limit of 1024 cylinders.
Because 32 K of each cluster wastes valuable hard disk space, the fat file system is not always the best hard disk management solution. Microsoft Windows NT uses the NT File System (NTFs), which uses another different file/cluster solution. Microsoft OS/2 version 1.3 supports HPFs, which also uses a more conservative way to allocate disk resources.
Note: Microsoft Windows NT also supports fat drives. Windows NT 3.51 supports a fat drive up to 4 GB. MS-DOS or Windows does not support a 2 GB to 4 GB fat drive. In other words, if you want to access the fat drive from a MS-DOS, Windows 95/98, or Windows NT, the fat drive cannot exceed 2 GB. If you only access the fat drive from Windows NT, the drive size can be between 2 GB and 4 GB.

B. FAT32 (maximum partition 32 GB, maximum capacity 2 TB, maximum file 32 GB)

FAT32 is actually a form of file partition table, which is relative to fat16. As we all know, DOS and Windows 95 adopt the fat16 format. As for FAT32, it was the first time that it appeared in windows95osr2. The reason why it was not publicized was that the file system was not mature enough and was still in the test phase. So why should we release FAT32? This is mainly determined by its own superiority.
First, it can greatly save disk space. Files are stored in a cluster on the disk. If a file is stored in the cluster, other files cannot be stored. If the partition size of a disk is 512 MB, the cluster size of the fat16 system is 8 KB, and the cluster size of the FAT32 system is only 4 kb, then, now we store a 3 kb file, and the fat16 system will waste 5 kb space, while FAT32 will waste less. If the partition reaches 1 GB, the cluster of fat16 is 16 KB, and FAT32 is 4 kb, saving more.
Before the introduction of the FAT32 file system, the file system usually used by the PC is fat16. Like MS-DOS, Win 95 and other systems are using the fat16 file system. In Windows 9x, fat16 supports a maximum partition size of 2 GB. We know that the computer stores the information in a zone called a "cluster" on the hard disk. The smaller the cluster used, the higher the information storage efficiency. In the case of fat16, the larger the partition, the larger the cluster, the lower the storage efficiency, and the waste of storage space. With the continuous improvement of computer hardware and applications, the fat16 file system cannot meet the requirements of the system. In this case, the enhanced File System FAT32 is introduced. Compared with fat16, FAT32 has the following features:
1. the maximum advantage of FAT32 compared with fat16 is that it supports 2 TB (2048 GB) disks, but cannot support partitions smaller than MB. FAT32-based Win 2000 supports a maximum partition size of 32 GB, while fat16-based Win 2000 supports a maximum partition size of 4 GB.
2. Because smaller clusters are used, the FAT32 file system can store information more efficiently. For example, if both partitions are 2 GB in size, one partition uses the fat16 file system, and the other uses the FAT32 file system. The cluster size in fat16 is 32 KB, while that in FAT32 is only 4 kb. In this way, the storage efficiency of FAT32 is much higher than that of fat16, which can be improved by 15%.
3. The FAT32 file system can locate the root directory and use the fat backup copy. In addition, the startup records of the FAT32 partition are included in a structure containing key data, reducing the possibility of computer system crashes.
Supplement:
FAT32 Function
Compared with the previous FAT file system implementation, FAT32 provides the following enhancements: • FAT32 supports a 2 TB drive at most.
Note: Microsoft Windows 2000 only supports FAT32 partitions with a maximum size of 32 GB.
• FAT32 can be used more efficiently. FAT32 uses a small cluster (that is, a 4 kb cluster is used for drives smaller than 8 GB), compared to a large fat or fat16 drive, you can increase the disk space usage by 10% to 15%.
• FAT32 is more stable and reliable. FAT32 can locate the root folder again, and it uses the backup copy of the file allocation table instead of the default copy. In addition, boot records on the FAT32 drive are extended, including copies of backup of key data structures. Therefore, compared with the existing fat16 drive, the FAT32 drive is not susceptible to spof.
• FAT32 is more flexible. The root folder on the FAT32 drive is a normal cluster chain, so it can be anywhere on the drive. Previously, the limit on the number of root folders no longer exists. In addition, you can disable the File Allocation Table image so that the File Allocation Table copy is not the first file allocation table is active. These functions allow you to dynamically reset the size of the FAT32 partition. However, although FAT32 is designed to allow this feature, Microsoft will not implement it in the initial version.
FAT32 compatibility considerations
To maximize compatibility with existing programs, networks, and device drivers, FAT32 does not change the existing windows architecture, internal data structures, and application programming interfaces (APIS) as much as possible) and the format on the disk. However, because it now requires 4 bytes to store the cluster value, many internal and disk data structures and released APIs have been modified or extended. In some cases, the existing API cannot run on the FAT32 drive. Most programs are not affected by these changes. Existing tools and drivers should continue to run properly on the FAT32 drive. However, MS-DOS block Device Drivers (such as aspidisk. sys) and disk tools need to be modified to support FAT32 drives.
All Microsoft bundled disk tools (formatting, fdisk, fragment, MS-DOS-based and Windows-based disk scans) have been modified and can run normally in FAT32. In addition, Microsoft is working with major device drivers and disk tool vendors to help them modify their products to support FAT32.
Note: Microsoft drivespace or drivespace 3 cannot be used to compress FAT32 volumes.
FAT32 Performance
Converting to a FAT32 file system is the biggest performance enhancement you can achieve on Windows 98-based computers.
Dual-boot computer
Currently, in Microsoft operating systems, only Windows 95 osr2, Windows 98, Windows 2000, and Windows ME can access the FAT32 volume. The original versions of MS-dos, Windows 95, and Windows NT 4.0 do not recognize FAT32 partitions, and they cannot be started from the FAT32 volume. Additionally, FAT32 volumes cannot be accessed correctly if you start your computer with another operating system, such as Windows 95 or MS-DOS boot disk.
Windows 95 osr2 and Windows 98 can be started in real mode (for example, to run a game) and can use FAT32 volumes.
Create a FAT32 drive
In Windows 95 osr2, Windows 98, and Windows ME, if you run the fdisk tool on a hard disk larger than 512 MB, fdisk will prompt you whether to enable the support for large disks. If the answer is "yes" (enable large disk support), any partition you create that exceeds 512 MB will be marked as FAT32.
There is also a FAT32 Conversion Tool in Windows 98 and Windows ME that you can use to convert an existing drive to a FAT32 file system. To use the Conversion Tool, follow these steps: 1. Click Start, point to programs, accessories, system tools, and then click drive converter (FAT32 ).
2. click Next.
3. Click the drive you want to convert to FAT32, and then click Next.
4. Follow the instructions on the screen.
Supported Scope
Microsoft will support the FAT32 file system function to enable error-free reading and saving files in real or protected mode. Microsoft supports the real-mode and protection-mode tools in Windows 95.
For legacy (earlier) programs, if they cannot be installed on FAT32 volumes, or they cannot properly save or read files, you must contact the vendor of the software package.
Note: although the FAT32 file system supports a maximum hard disk capacity of 2 TB, some hard disks may be caused by the computer's Basic Input/Output System (BiOS) the int13 interface cannot contain boot partitions larger than 7.8 GB. Contact the hardware manufacturer to determine whether the BIOS of your computer supports the updated int13 extension.
Http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx? SCID = KB; ZH-CN; 184006
In Windows, the FAT32 file system has the following restrictions: • The cluster cannot be 64 kB or larger. If the cluster size is 64 kB or larger, some programs (such as the installer) may encounter errors when calculating disk space.
• A volume must contain at least 65,527 clusters to use the FAT32 file system. You cannot increase the size of the cluster on the volume that uses the FAT32 file system, so that the number of final clusters of the volume is less than 65,527.
• A maximum of 268,435,445 clusters can be attached to a volume using the FAT32 file system. For the space of the file allocation table (FAT), the maximum size of each cluster is 32 KB. Based on this, the maximum disk size calculated is about 8 bytes (TB ).
• The "disk scan" tool included with Microsoft Windows 95 and Microsoft Windows 98 is a 16-bit program. Such a program has a memory block. the maximum size of the memory block is 16 MB minus 64 KB. Therefore, the disk scan tool for Windows 95 or Windows 98 cannot process volumes that use the FAT32 File System (the fat size is greater than 16 MB and 64 KB. Because the fat item on the volume that uses the FAT32 file system uses 4 bytes, Scandisk cannot process the fat on the FAT32 file system that uses the defined number of clusters greater than 4,177,920 (including two reserved clusters. Fat itself is included. The maximum size of each cluster is 32 KB, and the volume size is 127.53 GB ).
• You cannot reduce the size of clusters on the volumes that use the FAT32 file system, so that the final size of fat is greater than 16 MB and 64 KB.
• In Windows 2000, you cannot use the FAT32 File System to format a volume larger than 32 GB. The Windows 2000 fastfat driver can install and support volumes larger than 32 GB using the FAT32 File System (subject to other restrictions), but you cannot use a formatting tool to create such a volume. This phenomenon is caused by design. To create a volume larger than 32 GB, use the NTFS file system.
Note: If you try to format A FAT32 partition greater than 32 GB, the formatting will fail when the process ends and the following error occurs:
Logical Disk Manager: volume size too big.
Http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx? SCID = KB; ZH-CN; 314463
Restrictions on FAT32 file systems in Windows XP
When using the FAT32 File System in Windows XP, note the following restrictions: • The cluster cannot be equal to or greater than 64 KB. If the cluster size is 64 kB or larger, some programs (such as the installer) may incorrectly calculate the disk space.
• FAT32 volumes must contain at least 65,527 clusters. You cannot increase the size of clusters on the volumes that use the FAT32 file system. As a result, the number of clusters on the volumes is smaller than 65,527.
• If the following variables are taken into account, the maximum disk size is approximately 8 TB: the maximum number of clusters allowed for a FAT32 volume is 268,435,445, the maximum size of each cluster is 32 KB, and there is a File Allocation Table (fat) the required space.
• You cannot reduce the cluster size on the FAT32 volume. This will cause the fat size to be greater than 16 MB minus 64 KB.
• During Windows XP installation, you cannot use the FAT32 File System to format volumes larger than 32 GB. Windows XP can mount and support FAT32 volumes larger than 32 GB (subject to other restrictions), but you cannot use the format tool to create a FAT32 volume larger than 32 GB during installation. To Format a volume larger than 32 GB, use the NTFS file system. Another method is to start the disk from Microsoft Windows 98 or Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (me) and then use the format tool included on the disk.
For more information about how to format a hard disk with a Microsoft Windows 98 or Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition (me) boot disk, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:
255867 how to use the fdisk and format tools to partition or repartition the hard disk
Note: When you try to format A FAT32 partition larger than 32 GB during Windows XP installation, the Operation will fail when the formatting process ends and you may receive the following error message:
Logical Disk Manager: volume size too big.
• Neither MS-DOS (original version of Microsoft Windows 95) nor Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 or earlier recognize FAT32 partitions and therefore cannot start from FAT32 volumes.
• You cannot create a file larger than (2 ^ 32)-1 byte (4 GB minus 1 byte) on the FAT32 partition.
In theory, the FAT32 format supports TB disks, that is, the cluster size multiplied by the number of clusters 32 K * (2 ^ 32). However, due to the limitation of hardware and software and other reasons, it is impossible to reach the theoretical value.

C. NTFS (maximum partition 2 TB, maximum capacity, maximum file 2 TB)

NTFS (New Technology File System) is a file system in the Windows NT operating environment and Windows NT Advanced Server network operating system environment. The goal of NTFS is to provide: reliability, which is achieved through fault tolerance features of recoverable capabilities (event tracking) and hot positioning; a platform for adding functionality; Support for POSIX requirements; eliminate restrictions in the fat and HPFs file systems.
NTFS provides long file names, data protection, and recovery, and security through directories and file licenses. NTFS supports large hard disks and storage of files (volumes) on multiple hard disks ). For example, a large company's database may have to go across different hard disks. NTFS provides built-in security features that control the file affiliation and access. Files in NTFS partitions cannot be directly accessed from DoS or other operating systems. If you want to read and write NTFS partition files in DOS, you can use third-party software; now, Linux systems can use NTFS-3G for the perfect read and write NTFS partition, do not have to worry about data loss
Windows 2000 adopts the updated NTFS file system NTFS 5.0, which allows users to operate and manage computers conveniently and quickly like Windows 9X, you can also enjoy the system security brought about by NTFS. NTFS allows a file name to contain up to 256 characters. Although dos users cannot access NTFS partitions, NTFS files can be copied to DoS partitions. Each NTFS file contains a DOS readable file name that can be recognized by the DOS file name format. This file name is generated by NTFS from the start character of the long file name.
Convert command to convert FAT32 into NTFS format lossless
Converts a fat volume to NTFS. Convert volume/Fs: NTFS [/V] [/cvtarea: Filename] [/nosecurity] [/X] volume specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume name, however, the operation cannot be undone.
For example, to convert a disk D to NTFS, run the convert D:/Fs: NTFS command.
[Edit this section] NTFS features
· NTFS supports up to 2 TB of partition size (volume if Dynamic Disk is used. In Windows 2000, FAT32 supports a maximum partition size of 32 GB.
· NTFS is a recoverable file system. On the NTFS partition, users seldom need to run the disk repair program. NTFS ensures partition consistency by using standard transaction processing logs and recovery technologies. When a system failure occurs, NTFS uses log files and checkpoint information to automatically restore the consistency of the file system.
· NTFS supports compression of partitions, folders, and files. Any Windows-based application does not need to decompress the compressed files in the NTFS partition before reading or writing them. When the files are read, the files are automatically decompressed; files are automatically compressed when they are closed or saved.
· NTFS uses smaller clusters to manage disk space more efficiently. In the case of a Windows 2000 FAT32 file system, the partition size is 2 GB ~ 8 GB, the cluster size is 4 kb; the partition size is 8 GB ~ The cluster size is 8 kb when 16 GB is used, and the partition size is between 16 GB and 16 GB ~ 32 GB, the cluster size reaches 16 kb. In Win 2000 NTFS file system, when the partition size is below 2 GB, the cluster size is smaller than the corresponding FAT32 cluster; when the partition size is above 2 GB (2 GB ~ 2 TB), the cluster size is 4 kb. In contrast, NTFS can manage disk space more effectively than FAT32, avoiding disk space waste to the maximum extent.
· On the NTFS partition, you can set access permission for shared resources, folders, and files. The permission setting includes two aspects: first, which groups or users are allowed to access folders, files, and shared resources; the second is the access level that a group or user can access. The access permission setting applies not only to users on the local computer, but also to network users who access files through shared folders on the network. Compared with accessing folders or files in the FAT32 file system, the security is much higher. In addition, in Win 2000 in NTFS format, the Application Audit Policy can audit folders, files, and Active Directory objects. The audit results are recorded in the security log, through security logs, you can view the groups or users who perform operations on folders, files, or active directory objects. In this way, you can find that the system may face illegal access and take appropriate measures, minimize this security risk. These cannot be implemented in the FAT32 file system.
· You can manage the disk quota in the NTFS file system of Win 2000. What is the disk quota? * *** How stupid is it? No ?? Why does Meimei thumb dash occupy the carbon market? Xin Yi and Nd Xin Yi? Are you sure you want to pay? Why does the thumb throttling account for I pomelo? Do you have the best tips? What's worse? Xu Tu is exhausted? Ü? What are the freezing conditions of the attackers ?? Too many tasks? Brother Island team, do you have any problem with the frequency? Commission? Why? 4. What are the milk marks in the batch ?? Groose, stupid, treose, garden awards, Xia, and others? Did you try again? Xiao, Xiao Fei, Xiao Nan low tide view #? Anti-DDoS pro? Bath?
· NTFS uses a "change" log to track changes to the file.
· There are also many things related to system services, such as encrypted file data.
[Edit this section] advantages of NTFS
1. File Systems with error warnings
[3] In the NTFS partition, the first 16 sectors are the Partition Boot sectors, where the Partition Boot Code is stored, followed by the master file table (MFT ), however, if the disk sector where the disk is located is damaged, the NTFS file system intelligently switches the MFT to other sectors of the hard disk to ensure the normal use of the file system, this ensures the normal operation of windows. In the past, fat1 ***** FAT32 fat (File Allocation Table) can only be fixed behind the Partition Boot Sector. if the sector is damaged, the entire file system will be paralyzed.
However, this smart mobile MFT approach is of course not perfect. If an error occurs in the part pointing to MFT in the partition guide code, the NTFS file system will not know where to find MFT, in this case, an error message such as "the disk is not formatted" is reported. To avoid this problem, the partition guide code contains a verification program, which is responsible for error detection.
2. Faster File Reading
I'm afraid many people have heard that the NTFS file system has many new functions in terms of security, but do you know that NTFS is significantly faster than FAT32 in terms of file processing speed?
Readers who know a little about DOS must be familiar with various attributes of Files: Read-only, hidden, and system. In the NTFS file system, these attributes still exist, but they are quite different. Everything is an attribute, and even the file content is an attribute. Are the lists of these attributes? * *** Tan Min-mo? Treasure? The reading book is fading? On the partition TFS, we can see that the file has more attributes.
The file attributes in the NTFS file system can be divided into two types: Resident attributes and resident attributes, which are directly stored in MFT, file names and related time information (such as the Creation Time and modification time) always belong to the resident attribute, while the resident attribute is stored outside the MFT, however, a complex index method is used for indication. If a file or folder is smaller than 1500 bytes (in fact, there are quite a few files or folders of this size in our computer), all their attributes, including the content, will be resident in MFT, MFT is loaded into the memory when Windows is started, so that when you view these files or folders, their contents are already in the cache, naturally, the access speed of files and folders is greatly improved.
3. Disk Self-repair function
NTFS uses a self-healing system to automatically detect and fix logical and physical errors on the hard disk. In the fat1 *** FAT32 era, we need to use the Scandisk program to mark bad sectors on the disk, but when an error is found, data is often written on bad sectors, resulting in losses.
The NTFS file system does not. During each read/write, it checks whether the sector is correct or not. NTFS reports this error when an error is detected during reading. When an error is found when a file is written to a disk, NTFS intelligently stores data in an intact location without any impact. In both cases, NTFS will mark the bad sector to prevent future use. In this mode, disk errors can be detected earlier to avoid catastrophic accidents.
Some people find that, after converting a disk to an NTFS file system, it is difficult to find a disk error using a disk scan program. After the previous introduction, do you know why?
4. "disaster prevention and relief" Event Log Function
In the NTFS file system, any operation can be considered as an "Event ". For example, copying a file from drive C to drive D is an event. The Event Log constantly monitors the entire operation. When it finds the complete file on the target disk-D, it records the next "completed" mark. If a power failure occurs during the replication process, the event log does not record "completed". NTFS can re-complete the event after a call. The purpose of event logs is not to recover losses, but to supervise all events, so that the system can always know which tasks have been completed and those tasks have not been completed, ensure that the system will not be disordered due to power outages and other emergencies, minimizing the damage.
5. NTFS Dynamic Disk Function
Dynamic Disk is a new feature starting with *** in Windows 2000. Windows Server 2003 continues to use this feature. Compared with basic disks, it provides more flexible management and usage features. You can implement data fault tolerance, high-speed read/write operations, and relatively random volume size modification on a dynamic disk, rather than on a basic disk. Dynamic disks do not have a limit on the number of volumes. As long as the disk space permits, you can create any volume in a dynamic disk. Dynamic Disk, we can expand the free disk space of several disks to the same volume to increase the capacity of the large volume. The read/write speed of a basic disk is determined by the hardware. It is impossible to increase the disk efficiency without additional consumption. Create a zone volume on a dynamic disk to read and write multiple disks at the same time, significantly improving disk efficiency.
When using a Windows XP 2000 2003 or other system installation disk to partition a hard disk, it is often found that no matter the size of the hard disk, no matter the partition size, there is always 8 MB of space left. This 8 m space is used to convert to a dynamic disk. When creating a raid, you must have a dynamic disk of no less than 8 m. Therefore, the Windows operating system will automatically leave 8 m space for partitioning.
Basic disks cannot be fault-tolerant. If a disk fails to be backed up in a timely manner, great losses will occur. When you create an image volume on a dynamic disk, all the content is automatically mirrored to the image disk in real time. You do not have to worry about data loss even if the disk fails. Create a partition volume with parity on a dynamic disk to improve performance while adding fault tolerance to the disk.
Dynamic disks provide some features not available in basic disks, such as creating volumes that can span multiple disks (cross-zone volumes and with-zone volumes) and the ability to create Fault-Tolerant volumes (mirror volumes and raid-5 volumes. All volumes on a dynamic disk are dynamic volumes. There are five types of dynamic volumes: simple volumes, cross-zone volumes, with-zone volumes, mirror volumes, and raid-5 volumes. Mirror volumes and raid-5 volumes are fault tolerant and only available on computers running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Advanced Server, Windows 2000 datacenter server, or Windows Server 2003 OS. However, you can also remotely create image volumes and raid-5 volumes on these operating systems by running Windows XP Professional. A maximum of 2,000 dynamic volumes can be created no matter whether the Dynamic Disk uses the primary startup record (MBR) or the guid Partition Table (GPT) Partition style, but the recommended value is 32 or less.
6. What additional functions do I need?
In fact, NTFS also provides disk compression, data encryption, and disk quota (right-click the partition in "My Computer" and parallel "attribute" to go to the "quota" tab to set it) dynamic Disk management and other functions. These functions are described in many newspapers, magazines, and so on.
NTFS provides different access control, *****, and security management functions for different users. If your system is in a single-host environment, such as a home computer, these functions do not make much sense to you.
[Edit this section] NTFS usage notes
NTFS is a series of operating systems supported by Microsoft Windows NT kernel. It is a disk format specially designed for the management security features such as network and disk quotas and file encryption. In addition to using NTFS for users who have installed the NT series in the LAN, with the popularity of windows and XP for the NT kernel desktop system, many individual users have begun to format their partitions as NTFS.
In general, the NTFS format cannot be identified by Windows9X, and there are also differences in installation and operation. Therefore, when using this disk format, note the following:
1. Should the NT kernel always use NTFS?
NTFS is a file system recommended by Microsoft on the NT series. However, there may be some special reasons for using other file systems. If you plan to access a file with another operating system, including the MS-DOS, you should select the boot partition, that is, the C disk in the format of fat (including FAT32) file system. If you are using an NTFS file system and want to perform dual boot with Windows NT, you must install SP4 or a later version for Windows NT before continuing to install Windows 2000 or XP.
Ii. Tips for converting NTFs and other partition formats
One machine uses pq7 to convert a partition from NTFS to FAT32 format. After that, it finds that all the folders with Chinese names on the disk become question marks and cannot be opened. In this case, if you want to switch back, you will find that a disk error is prompted. After you use the Windows disk scan and the DOS chkdsk check, the system still cannot switch. There are hundreds of MB of files downloaded from it, what we have done is totally beyond our grasp.
In fact, if NTFS has a large partition capacity and a large amount of data exists, direct conversion is not only slow, but also dangerous-because in each step, all the conversion tool programs must first read the sector information, copy the information to the temporary directory, convert the format, then read data from the temporary directory and re-write the converted space, and then verify ...... This operation is similar to a low-level formatting hard disk or refreshing the BIOS of the motherboard. In the event of power loss or an instantaneous amount of data is too large, the buffer overflow will cause a crash, after the system is restarted, all information about the partition may be lost, or data in the boot area may be damaged or the hard disk may be damaged.
If there is sufficient space for other partitions on the hard disk, the method of deleting files after copying and then converting the files will get twice the result with half the effort. The specific operation is to first create a directory in another partition, then go to your NTFS partition, select all the files, and use the copy and paste method to transfer data. The data in the NTFS partition is cleared, and the conversion format is much faster and more secure. The conversion from the fat format to the NTFS format is the same. This copy process is much faster than the tedious process of directly converting the partition format to read, write, and verify data. You can copy the data back to the partition after the conversion is complete.
In addition, after clearing the data, we recommend that you use the blank partition in NTFS or fat format of the ghost image to obtain a backup file. If you want to convert the partition format to use it later, it will be faster.
3. Volume of virtual memory (page files) and NTFS
Many people now have dual hard drive systems or even simple raid disk arrays. When using this structure, NTFS must support the volume function. At this time, avoid placing page files and system files in the same partition as possible, and do not place multiple page files in different partitions of the same physical disk drive. Pay special attention to avoid placing page files in Fault-Tolerant drives, such as mirror volumes or raid-5 volumes, because page files do not require fault tolerance and some Fault-Tolerant Systems write data to multiple locations, this results in very slow data write operations.
4. If a VM or disk is used for compression, the NTFS format is not suitable.
When using a virtual machine, after using a CD boot on the NTFS partitioned boot machine, the following prompt appears when installing the operating system:
Please wait while Setup initializes.
Scanning system registry...
Cannot create a temporary directory.
If you have HPFs or NTFS installed on your hard drive, you will need to create an MS-DOS boot partition to set up windows.
For compatibility considerations, virtual machines only have built-in support for the most commonly used hardware and software. Currently, the support for NTFs format is not very good. If you use the Windows 9x patch to read and write NTFS partitions, some long file names or the structure of the files with Chinese names may be damaged; when using ghost for backup and recovery, you may also encounter inexplicable errors. Therefore, it is better to use the NT kernel series windows system on NTFS.
In addition, note that the compressed partition cannot be converted to NTFS. In fact, increasing the capacity of a compressed disk partition in disguise is at the expense of the system speed. In addition, it will cause a lot of trouble for future system maintenance, partition format conversion, and operating system upgrade. Unless it is entirely out of data backup, we recommend that you do not use the partition disk compression function in Windows for other applications.
  
NTFS data recovery

NTFS large hard disk data recovery repair process: the hard disk is only one NTFS partition of the data disk, first in DOS sector editing software to view the LBA0--63 sector, the results found that partition table and 63 sectors are wrong, A large number of sectors have been written with unknown code in the range 1-62. The 87-102 sector is abnormal. First, manually repair the partition table, restore 63 boot sectors, and delete the code in the range 1-62. The process is not processed between the 87-102 slice. Check in windows and the same prompt is displayed. Try to recover software 1. You can see the directory structure and try finaldate again. This software is too unsatisfactory at this time; use recovery software 1 to select a directory for trial recovery. As a result, only two files are restored, and the remaining files are 0 bytes. Analyze the 79-102 slice again. The 79 slice is completely invisible and severely damaged. The 80-86 slice is cleared and the 87-102 slice content is not normal. After some painstaking meditation, some sectors are backed up and cleared, and the backup is placed between 1 and 62 sectors, in case the original data is changed when the test is not performed.
[Edit this section] NTFS-related faults and solutions during website setup
We know that the default permissions of files or folders in the NTFS partition of ipvs 2000/2003 Server are mainly? * *** Does the baseline fail when I recognize a low scale? Why? Saving words qulu? Nternet Guest account. This account is automatically created after IIS is installed. It does not automatically have the access permission for files (folders) in NTFS. In this way, when a user accesses a website, if the content of the website is not stored in the default WWW, it is likely that the website cannot be accessed anonymously because the "Internet guest" cannot be operated. [4]
Troubleshooting
From this point of view, the crux of the problem is that the NTFS partition format is used. As long as the NTFS format is not used in the future, but the traditional FAT32 format is used, isn't the problem solved? Indeed, if FAT32 format is used, the website will no longer be inaccessible due to permission settings. However, another problem also arises. FAT32 partitions do not have security configurations and cannot manage file operation permissions, reducing security and performance.
So what is the best solution? That is to reset permissions for the website folder. Open the Properties window of the target folder where the website files are stored, and switch to the "Security" tab. here we can see that only groups such as administrators, system, and users are displayed. In this case, you need to click "add", click "advanced" in the "select user or group" window, and then click the "Search now" command, in this way, all accounts or group names in the system will be displayed in the search results. You only need to select the "IUSR _ computer name" Account (note, the name is the same as the name of the computer.) Click OK to return to the permission settings window. At this time, we can see the added "Internet Guest account. For a normal static page, you only need to assign permissions with low control capabilities such as "read and run" and "list folder targets". For a dynamic ASP page, to interact with each other, you must have the "modify" and "write" permissions. After assigning the permissions, click "OK" to save the settings.
Such faults may also occur in some dynamic websites. Some Dynamic websites written in ASP, Asp.net, and other languages can convert ASP files into static html files, to speed up access and facilitate search engine indexing. However, if the set permission level is low, an error will occur during conversion.

4. ext3

Maximum file size: 2 TB

Maximum File limit: only limited by the file system size

Maximum partition/file system size: 4 TB

Maximum File Name Length: 255 characters

Default minimum/maximum block size: 1024/4096 bytes

Default inode allocation: 1 for every 4096 bytes

Maximum load before force FS check: 20 (configurable)

5. GFS

6. ext2

Maximum file size: 1 Tb

Maximum File limit: only limited by the file system size

Maximum partition/file system size: 4 TB

Maximum File Name Length: 255 characters

Default minimum/maximum block size: 1024/4096 bytes

Default inode allocation: 1 for every 4096 bytes

Maximum load before force FS check: 20 (configurable)

7. Swap

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