New users talk about Linux, new users linux

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags arch linux

New users talk about Linux, new users linux


What is Linux?

Differences between Linux and UNIX

Comparison between Linux and Windows

What is the Linux release?

Linux application field

Linux version Selection

How to Learn Linux?

Linux System Configuration

Differences between Package Manager installation and source code Installation

Common Linux commands

Package dependency problems

Linux Storage System


What is Linux?

Linux is a free and open-source UNIX-like operating system. As long as the GNU General Public License is followed, all individuals and organizations can freely use all the underlying source code of Linux, and can freely modify and re-release it. Most Linux systems also include programs such as X Windows that provide GUI interfaces.


Differences between Linux and UNIX

The biggest difference between Linux and UNIX is that the former is free software for source code development, while the latter is a traditional commercial software that implements intellectual property protection for source code. Linux is based on UNIX. The core of Linux is free, the core code is open, and the core of UNIX is not open.


Comparison between Linux and Windows

The popular language is that Linux is more open and suitable for programmers, because you can understand every detail of Linux.


What is the Linux release?

Strictly speaking, Linux only indicates the operating system kernel, but Linux kernel is usually used to express this meaning. Linux is often used to refer to the complete Linux kernel-based operating system, including GUI components and many other utilities. Some organizations, companies, and individuals have integrated these releases. The well-known Linux releases include Ubuntu, RedHat, CentOS, and Suse.

A typical Linux release includes Linux kernel, some GNU libraries and tools, command line shell, graphic interface X Window System, and corresponding desktop environments, such as KDE or GNOME, it also contains thousands of applications from office packages, compilers, text editors, games, children's education software, to scientific tools.

Many Linux distributions are dazzling. For new users, we recommend Ubuntu, which is easy to use, and Debian is recommended for stable releases.

Linux branch Diagram


Linux application field

In general, Linux has a wide range of applications and is not suitable for common users. Because Linux is not doing well in the desktop field, more operations need to be performed on terminals. However, it has been improved in recent years. I think it is more beautiful than Windows, but its stability and ease of use are still inferior to Windows. In fact, the desktop environment must be continuously improved. Ubuntu has a lot of amazing desktop effects.

The Linux platform works in the high-end server field. Because the Linux kernel is stable and open source code, users do not have to pay a large fee, such as Windows. Therefore, Linux has received support from many world-renowned server vendors. In Linux distribution kits, companies like Redhat charge for services, you can buy the technical support they provide, or use the CentOS operating system for free. However, everyone knows about the operating system environment in China. Currently, common server operating systems include UNIX, Linux, and Windows. According to the survey, the Linux operating system's share in the server market has exceeded 50%.

In the embedded field, the Linux kernel can be customized and tailored according to specific application scenarios, providing drivers for dedicated hardware and developing them on this basis.


Linux version Selection

It is best for new users to start with Ubuntu, which is also the choice of most users. The interface is very good, the software is rich, and the installation is also convenient. For stability, Debian is recommended. You need to configure and adjust the system settings, install or update the programs you need, which is of great help for basic understanding of Linux system operations. You can also choose Fedora, which is the Personal desktop branch of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Among them, there are many cutting-edge Linux technologies, and debian and Ubuntu are not one branch. If you want to understand the details of the Linux system and have a deeper understanding, you can choose Arch Linux. From the beginning of the project, you need to calm down and study the installation process. By configuring system settings, optimize System Performance configurations to gain a better understanding of Linux systems.


How to Learn Linux?

It is not difficult to answer this question, but many people do not stick to it. First of all, make sure that you really want to learn and want to learn Linux. If you haven't used Linux before, you can first install a Linux release version in the virtual machine. We recommend Ubuntu here, be sure not to think Ubuntu is not authentic. There is no error in getting started from here. Next, I will find a basic Linux tutorial, such as *** learning about Linux from getting started to proficient, and learning about Linux in 30 days ...... this type of books can be read without interruption. It does not matter if you forget the previous ones, as long as you have encountered a problem, remember that you have learned but forgot this effect. Then, install your Ubuntu on the physical machine and study it with another book. In this case, you need to practice more, if you encounter problems, you should not try to reinstall the system. Instead, you should try to solve the problem so that you can improve yourself. In addition, remember to take notes. We recommend that you take notes because of Linux, Windows, and web pages. Remember to use it more than three days. This is enough to get you started. As for the results after getting started, you can see what your requirements are. Basically, it IS development or O & M. Otherwise, I would not think of using Linux, by the way, I want to show off, but I don't think it really makes any sense. Is it that you are so arrogant? The bubble will eventually break.



Linux System Configuration

Yum and apt-get sources:

Yum is a software installation Manager based on rpm packages. It is usually used in release linux such as redhat, fedora, centos, and SUSE. The rpm package can be automatically downloaded and installed from the specified server, and the dependency can be resolved automatically. You can easily add, delete, and update software packages, and configure multiple software resource libraries at the same time. The configuration file is in/etc/yum. conf.

CentOS 163 software source:

Back up/etc/yum. repos. d/CentOS-Base.repo first

Mv/etc/yum. repos. d/CentOS-Base.repo/etc/yum. repos. d/CentOS-Base.repo.backup

Download the corresponding version of the repo file and put it in/etc/yum. repos. d/(back up the file before the operation)




Yum clean all

Yum makecache

Generate Cache



Apt-get is a linux Command, applicable to deb package-managed operating systems. It is mainly used to automatically search, install, upgrade, and uninstall software or operating systems from the software warehouse on the Internet. Is a package management tool for debian and Ubuntu distributions, similar to yum.

Debian 163 Source

Deb wheezy main non-free contrib

Deb wheezy-proposed-updates main contrib non-free

Deb-src maid main non-free contrib

Deb-src wheezy-proposed-updates main contrib non-free

Deb wheezy/updates main contrib non-free

Deb-src wheezy/updates main contrib non-free


Kali software source

Vim/etc/apt/sources. list

Paste the following post.

Deb kali main non-free contrib

Deb-src kali main non-free contrib

Deb kali/updates main contrib non-free


Apt-get update.


Differences between Package Manager installation and source code Installation

The package manager is easy to install and can be used easily. If the source code needs to be compiled manually, many problems may occur, such as the package dependency problem.

The software version installed in the package manager is old, and the compilation parameters are not suitable for your own business. The source code installation is relatively flexible and you can specify the version, module, path, and so on.

If you are a newbie or are recommended to install it through the Package Manager, you only need to know the relevant management commands. It is also appropriate to get started with development. If development is relatively advanced, you may need to install the source code.

The final goal is to select a good solution.


Common Linux commands

Man: at any time, if you are not sure about a command line, you can enter "man + command" to understand what this command can do.

Ls: List Directory content.

Pwd: display the full path of the current working directory on the terminal.

Cd: to change your current directory.

Mkdir: Create a new directory.

Cp: copy or rename a file.

Mv: Move a file.

Find and locate: Search for files.

Kill: Quickly shut down a process.

Passwd: change the password. -9 indicates that the process is forced to stop immediately.

Md5sum: Calculate and verify the MD5 information signature.

History: The query history command.

Sudo :( super user do) command allows authorized users to execute commands of super users or other users.

Touch: Create a new file, or update the file access and modification time to the current time.

Chmod: Modify the object ACL.

Chown: Change the file owner and user group.

Apt: APT is an advanced Package Manager developed for Debian systems (such as Ubuntu and Kubuntu). On the Gnu/Linux system, it automatically and intelligently searches, installs, upgrades, and solves dependency problems for packages.

Find: find file or folder command: find/-name filename

Chkconfig: chkconfig -- list | grep vsftpd indicates the level at which the instance is started by default.

Chkconfig vsftpd on

Chkconfig -- list | grep vsftpd

Ps-aux | grep fiefox: show all process statuses-ef view Process Information

Netstat-tp # view network connection commands

Service -- status-all # view system service status

At present, let's summarize so much.


Package dependency problems

Whether it's a novice Linux or a veteran, package dependencies may occur more or less during installation and compilation of software packages. The dependency problem is that the program depends on the program code shared library, and there is no shared library. Every time a programmer develops a new program, these basic system operations must be rewritten from the beginning. When compiling a program, the programmer links his code to these libraries. If the link is static, the compiled shared library object code is added to the program execution file. If the link is dynamic, the compiled shared library object code is only required to be loaded by the programmer at runtime. Dynamic executable files depend on the correct shared library or shared object for operations. Rpm dependency tries to forcibly implement the shared object requirement of dynamic executable files during installation so that no problems related to the dynamic link process will occur when the program runs in the future.

That is to say, the dependency problem is automatically solved during installation through the package manager, and the dependency program is installed at the same time. If the source code is installed, you need to solve the dependency problem yourself.


Linux Storage System

In Linux, common files and directory files are stored on disks or tapes called block physical devices. A Linux system supports several physical disks. Each physical disk can define one or more file systems. Linux file systems are mainly ext4, ext3, and Windows fat32, ntfs are different.

Linux and unix operating systems manage everything in the system as files. In Windows, our common hardware devices and disk partitions are regarded as files in linux and unix. Access to devices and partitions is to read and write the corresponding files.

The mount point is actually the entry directory of the Disk File System in linux. It is similar to the drive letters C:, D:, and E: Used in Windows to access different partitions. In fact, winxp also supports mounting a disk partition to a folder, but we are used to the drive letter operations such as C: And D:. Generally, partitions are not mounted to folders. Mount point


In Windows, the physical address is separated first, and then the directory is created on the partition. in Windows, all paths start with a drive letter, such as C: // program file.

The opposite is true for Linux, where a directory is first available and then the physical address is mapped to the directory. In Linux, all paths start from the root directory. By default, Linux can be divided into three partitions: boot partition, swap partition, and root partition.



Questions about linux forums and websites

Linux website

New linux Programming

First familiar with the command line (shell), skilled in using the text editor, learn to read the man manual. (Of course, if IDE is used, it is similar to windows ).
Then I will study c Programming in linux ....
Otherwise everything is confused ....
========================================================== ======
(Text Editor + gcc + gdb)
1: Use a text editor with ease.
2: Use the gcc compiler
3: Learn to use gdb to debug programs (simple to use)
4: If you want to write a larger program, learn makefile again.
5: Of course, you must write programs on the linux platform and be familiar with some linux system calls.
========================================================== ======
The red flag you use is not recommended by anyone who writes programs in linux;
Some people say that this release version is not uncommon;
You just want to put redhat on a windows coat and then use it for the attacker ..
To tell the truth, if you want to write a program on linux, change it. Especially when getting started, it is best to install fedora with "everything available" (the default installation software on this release version seems to be the most up-to-date. In this way, you may encounter fewer problems during your learning process ..

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