SQL/plus command

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags dname trims
1. Execute an SQL script file
SQL> Start file_name
SQL> @ file_name
We can save multiple SQL statements in a text file, so that when we want to execute all the SQL statements in this file, we can use any of the following commands, which is similar to batch processing in DOS.
2. Edit the current input.
SQL> Edit
3. Run the last SQL statement again.
4. output the displayed content to the specified file.
SQL> spool file_name
All content on the screen is included in this file, including the SQL statement you entered.
5. Disable spool output
SQL> spool off
The output content is displayed in the output file only when spool output is disabled.
6. display the structure of a table
SQL> DESC table_name
7. Col command:
It mainly formats the display of columns.
This command has the following options:
Col [umn] [{Column | expr} [option...]
The option can be the following clause:
Ali [as] alias
CLE [ar]
Fold_a [fter]
Fold_ B [efore]
For [Mat] format
Hea [Ding] Text
Jus [cipher] {L [EFT] | C [enter] | C [entre] | r [ight]}
Like {expr | alias}
Newl [ine]
New_v [alue] variable
Nopri [nt] | pri [nt]
Nul [l] Text
Old_v [alue] variable
On | off
Wra [pped] | wor [d_wrapped] | Tru [ncated]
1). Change the default Column Title
Column column_name heading column_heading
For example:
SQL> select * from Dept;
Deptno dname Loc
10 Accounting New York
SQL> Col loc heading location
SQL> select * from Dept;
Deptno dname location
10 Accounting New York
2) Change the column name to the new column name "employee name" and put the new column name on two rows:
SQL> select * from EMP
Department name salary
10 AAA 11
SQL> column ename heading 'employee | name'
SQL> select * from EMP
Department name salary
10 AAA 11
Note: The Col heading turn into two lines from one line.
3). Change the display length of the column:
For [Mat] format
SQL> select empno, ename, job from EMP;
Empno ename job
7369 Smith clerk
7499 Allen salesman
7521 ward salesman
SQL> Col ename format A40
Empno ename job
7369 Smith clerk
7499 Allen salesman
7521 ward salesman
4). Set the column title alignment
Jus [cipher] {L [EFT] | C [enter] | C [entre] | r [ight]}
SQL> Col ename justify Center
Empno ename job
7369 Smith clerk
7499 Allen salesman
7521 ward salesman
For number-type columns, the column title is on the right by default, and for other types of columns, the column title is on the left by default.
5). prevent a column from being displayed on the screen.
Nopri [nt] | pri [nt]
SQL> Col job noprint
Empno ename
7369 Smith
7499 Allen
7521 ward
6). format the display of number columns:
SQL> column Sal format $99,990
Department name Salary Commission
30 Allen $1,600 300
7). If the column value is null when the column value is displayed, replace the null value with the text value.
Comm NUL [l] Text
SQL> Col comm NUL [l] Text
8). Set the rewinding Method for a column.
Wra [pped] | wor [d_wrapped] | Tru [ncated]
How are you?
SQL> Col col1 format A5
SQL> Col col1 wrapped
Re yo
SQL> Col col1 word_wrapped
SQL> Col col1 word_wrapped
9). display the current display attribute value of the column
SQL> column column_name
10). Set the display attribute of all columns to the default value.
SQL> clear Columns
8. Block the same value displayed in a column
Break on break_column
SQL> Break on deptno
SQL> select deptno, ename, Sal
From EMP
Where Sal <1, 2500
Order by deptno;
Deptno ename Sal
10 Clark 2450
Miller 1300
20 Smith 800
Adams 1100
9. The display of the same values displayed in a column is shielded above. Each time the column value changes, N blank rows are inserted before the value changes.
Break on break_column skip n
SQL> Break on deptno skip 1
Deptno ename Sal
10 Clark 2450
Miller 1300
20 Smith 800
Adams 1100
10. Display break settings
SQL> Break
11. Delete settings 6 and 7
SQL> clear breaks
12. set command:
This command contains many sub-commands:
Set system_variable Value
System_variable value can be one of the following clauses:
APPI [nfo] {on | off | text}
Array [size] {15 | n}
Auto [Commit] {on | off | Imm [ediate] | n}
Autop [RINT] {on | off}
Autorecovery [ON | Off]
Autot [race] {on | off | trace [only]} [exp [lain] [stat [istics]
BlO [ckterminator] {. | c}
Cmds [EP] {; | c | on | off}
Colsep {_ | text}
COM [patibility] {V7 | V8 | native}
CON [Cat] {. | c | on | off}
Copyc [ommit] {0 | n}
Copytypecheck {on | off}
Def [ine] {& | c | on | off}
Describe [depth {1 | n | all}] [linenum {on | off}] [indent {on | off}]
Echo {on | off}
Editf [Ile] file_name [. Ext]
EMB [edded] {on | off}
ESC [Ape] {| c | on | off}
Feed [Back] {6 | n | on | off}
Flagger {off | entry | intermed [Iate] | full}
Flu [sh] {on | off}
Hea [Ding] {on | off}
Heads [EP] {| c | on | off}
Instance [instance_path | Local]
LIN [esize] {80 | n}
Lobof [fset] {n | 1}
Logsource [pathname]
Long {80 | n}
Longc [hunksize] {80 | n}
Mark [Up] HTML [ON | off] [head text] [body text] [entmap {on | off}] [Spool
{On | off}] [pre [format] {on | off}]
Newp [age] {1 | n | none}
Null text
Numf [ormat] format
Num [width] {10 | n}
Pages [ize] {24 | n}
Pau [se] {on | off | text}
Recsep {WR [apped] | EA [CH] | off}
Recsepchar {_ | c}
Serverout [put] {on | off} [size N] [for [Mat] {wra [pped] | wor [D _
Wrapped] | Tru [ncated]}]
Shift [inout] {vis [visible] | inv [isible]}
Show [mode] {on | off}
Sqlbl [anklines] {on | off}
Sqlc [ASE] {mix [ed] | lo [wer] | up [per]}
Sqlco [ntinue] {> | text}
Sqln [umber] {on | off}
Sqlpre [Fix] {# | c}
Sqlp [rompt] {SQL> | text}
Sqlt [erminator] {; | c | on | off}
SUF [Fix] {SQL | text}
Tab {on | off}
Term [out] {on | off}
Ti [Me] {on | off}
TIMI [ng] {on | off}
Trim [out] {on | off}
Trims [pool] {on | off}
Und [erline] {-| c | on | off}
Ver [ify] {on | off}
Wra [p] {on | off}
1) set whether the current session will automatically submit the modified data
SQL> set auto [Commit] {on | off | Imm [ediate] | n}
2) Whether to display the SQL statements being executed in the script when you run an SQL script using the start command
SQL> set echo {on | off}
3). Whether to display the number of rows queried or modified by the current SQL statement
SQL> Set feed [Back] {6 | n | on | off}
By default, only rows with more than 6 results are displayed. If set feedback 1 is returned, no matter how many rows are queried. When it is off, the number of queried rows is not displayed.
4). Whether to display the column title
SQL> set hea [Ding] {on | off}
When set heading off, Column Titles are not displayed on each page, instead of blank rows.
5) set the number of characters that a row can hold
SQL> set LiN [esize] {80 | n}
If the output content of a row is greater than the number of characters that can be accommodated in a set row, the line is displayed.
6). Set the separation between pages
SQL> set newp [age] {1 | n | none}
When set Newpage 0, a small black box is displayed at the beginning of each page.
When set Newpage N is set, there are n blank lines between the page and the page.
When set Newpage none is set, there is no interval between the page and the page.
7). Replace the null value with the text value during display.
SQL> set null text
8). Set the number of rows on a page.
SQL> set pages [ize] {24 | n}
If it is set to 0, all output content is one page and the column title is not displayed.
9). Whether to display the output information using the dbms_output.put_line package.
SQL> set serverout [put] {on | off}
When writing a stored procedure, we sometimes use dbms_output.put_line to output necessary information to debug the stored procedure. The information can be displayed on the screen only after the serveroutput variable is set to on.
10) Whether to intercept the SQL statement when the length of the SQL statement is greater than linesize.
SQL> set wra [p] {on | off}
When the length of the output line is greater than the length of the Set line (set with the set linesize n command), when set wrap on, more than the characters of the output line will be displayed in another line, otherwise, the output line is removed from the output line and will not be displayed.
11). Whether to display the output content on the screen is mainly used in combination with spool.
SQL> set term [out] {on | off}
When you use the spool command to output the content in a large table to a file, it takes a lot of time to output the content on the screen. After setting set termspool off, the output content is saved only in the output file and not displayed on the screen, greatly improving the spool speed.
12) Remove unnecessary spaces behind each line in the spool output.
SQL> set trims [out] {on | off}
13) display the execution time of each SQL statement
Set timing {on | off}
14. Modify the first string in the current row of SQL Buffer
C [hange]/old_value/new_value
1 * select * from Dept
1 * select * from EMP
15. Edit the SQL statement in SQL Buffer
16. display the SQL statements in SQL Buffer. List n displays the nth row in SQL Buffer and makes the nth row the current row.
L [ist] [N]
17. Add one or more rows under the current row of SQL Buffer
I [nput]
18. Add the specified text to the current row of the SQL Buffer.
A [ppend]
SQL> select deptno,
2 dname
3 from Dept;
Deptno dname
10 Accounting
20 research
30 sales
40 operations
SQL> L 2
2 * dname
SQL> A, Loc
2 * dname, Loc
1 select deptno,
2 dname, Loc
3 * from Dept
Deptno dname Loc
10 Accounting New York
20 research Dallas
30 sales Chicago
40 operations Boston
19. Save the SQL statement in SQL Buffer to a file.
Save file_name
20. Import SQL statements in a file into SQL Buffer
Get file_name
21. Execute the SQL statement that has just been executed again
Run or/
22. Execute a stored procedure
Execute procedure_name
23. Connect to the specified database in SQL * Plus
Connect user_name/passwd @ db_alias
24. Set the top title of each report
25. Set the end title of each report
26. Write a comment
Remark [text]
27. output the specified information or an empty row to the screen.
Prompt [text]
28. Pause the execution process and wait for the user to respond.
Pause [text]
SQL> pause adjust paper and press return to continue.
29. copy some data from a database to another database (for example, copy data from one table to another)
Copy {from database | to database | from database to database}
{Append | create | insert | replace} destination_table
[(Column,...)] using query
SQL> copy from Scott/tiger @ hq to John/chrome @ West
Create emp_temp
Using select * from EMP
30. If you do not exit SQL * Plus, execute an operating system command in SQL * Plus:
SQL> host hostname
This command may be supported in windows.
31. In SQL * Plus, switch to the operating system command prompt. After running the operating system command, you can switch back to SQL * Plus :!
$ Hostname
$ Exit
This command is not supported in windows.
32. display the help of the SQL * Plus command
How to install the Help file:
SQL> @? /Sqlplus/admin/help/hlpbld. SQL? /Sqlplus/admin/help /? /Sqlplus/admin/help/helpus. SQL
SQL> Help Index
33. display the SQL * Plus System variable value or SQL * Plus environment variable value
Sho [w] Option
Where option represents one of the following terms or clses:
Err [ors] [{function | procedure | package body |
Trigger | View | type body} [schema.] Name]
Parameters [parameter_name]
Rel [statement]
Repf [Ooter]
Reph [eader]
Spoo [l]
1). display the value of the current environment variable:
Show all
2). displays the error information of the currently created function, stored procedure, trigger, package, and other objects.
When an error occurs in creating a function or stored procedure, you can use this command to view the error and related error information at that place, modify the information, and compile the code again.
3). display the value of the initialization parameter:
Show parameters [parameter_name]
4). display the database version:
Show rel [Rules]
5). display the SGA size
Show SGA
6). display the current user name
Show user

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