Time Archives: femtosecond, Picosecond, nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds, seconds (from Sina)

Source: Internet
Author: User

The unit of time can be from very small to great, the following description is to convey a feeling of a large time span.

A second (One-zero seconds of One-zero)
The scientists timed the instantaneous events with a few seconds.
Researchers have used stable high-speed lasers to produce light pulses that last only 250 seconds. Although this time interval is too short to imagine, it is still very long compared to the Planck constant. The Planck constant is approximately 10-43 seconds and is considered to be the shortest possible duration.

One femtosecond (One-zero seconds of one out of 10,000 10 of-15 times Square seconds)
An atom in a molecule takes 10 to 100 seconds to complete a typical vibration. It usually takes hundreds of seconds to complete a rapid chemical reaction. The interaction between light and the pigment on the retina (the process of producing the vision) takes about 200 femtosecond.

One picosecond (One-zero seconds of 1 per thousand 10 of-12 times Square seconds)
The fastest transistor runs in a picosecond meter. A rare subatomic particle b quark produced by a high-energy accelerator can exist 1 picosecond before decay. The average presence time of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in room temperature is 3 picosecond.

One nanosecond (One-zero seconds 10-9 second)
The light travels only 30 centimeters (less than one step) in a vacuum in a nanosecond. The microprocessor of the PC executes a command (e.g. adding two numbers) to approximately 2 to 4 nanoseconds. Another rare subatomic particle K-meson has a time of 12 nanoseconds.

One microsecond (one out of 10,000 seconds, 10-6 second)
The light can spread 300 meters at this time, about 3 pitches in length, but the sound waves on the sea level can only spread 1/3 millimeters. The high-speed commercial strobe flashes approximately 1 microseconds at a time. A barrel of explosives began to explode about 24 microseconds after its fuse was burnt.

One millisecond (1 per thousand seconds)
The shortest exposure time for a typical camera is one millisecond. A housefly is winged every three milliseconds, and the bees fan every five milliseconds. As the moon orbits the Earth, it takes about two milliseconds per year to orbit around the planet. In computer science, an interval of 10 milliseconds is called a jiffy.

One-tenth seconds
In the parable, the "Blink of an hour" is one-tenth seconds. The human ear takes a second to discern the sound echo. Flight number 1th, flying away from the solar system, flies about two km from the sun every one-tenth seconds. The Bee Sparrow can beat 7 wings in this time. The tuning fork for A to medium C is vibrating 4 times.

One second
The heartbeat of healthy humans lasts about one second. The average American eats 350 pizzas per second. The Earth rotates around the sun 30 kilometers per second, while the sun travels 274 kilometres in the Milky Way. A second is not enough for the moon to reach the Earth (1.3 seconds). In the traditional sense, one second is one of the 60 points of a 24-day 60-point, but scientists have given a more precise definition: Cesium 133 atomic ground state ultra-fine Energy step transition of 9 192 631 770 cycles duration, called one second.

One minute
The newborn's brain weighs one to two mg a minute. The Shrew Shrew's heartbeat jumps 1000 times a minute. The average person speaks about 150 words or reads about 250 words in a minute. It takes about 8 minutes for light to reach the Earth from the Sun, and about 4 minutes to reach the Earth from the Martian surface when Mars is closest to Earth.

An hour
A single division of replicable cells usually takes an hour. The two-time interval of an old geyser in Yellowstone National Park averages an hour and 16 minutes. From the solar system, the planet Pluto, farthest from us, reaches the Earth for 5 hours and 20 minutes.

One day
For humans, the Earth's rotational cycle (one day) may be the most natural unit of time. The Earth's rotation is now 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds, and the Earth's rotation continues to slow due to the gravitational and other effects of the moon. The human heart beats about 100 000 times a day, and the human lungs inhale about 11 000 liters of air a day. And the blue whale cub can grow about 100 kilograms of fat a day.

One year
This is the time it takes for the Earth to orbit the sun for 365.26 weeks. The average sea level rises by 1 to 2.5 millimeters per year, while North America floats about 3 centimeters a year from Europe. It takes 4.3 of years to reach the Earth from the Star Centauri Alpha star closest to the solar system, about the same time that the ocean surface airflow can surround the earth for a week.

A century
The moon is 3.8 meters away from Earth every other century. Standard die disks and CD-ROM will disappear within a century. The baby is lucky to live to be 100 and the odds are 1/26, while the giant turtle can live for 177 years. The most advanced recordable CD can be used for 200 years.

1 million years
A speed-of-light spaceship will not be able to travel half 1 million years to Andromeda (Andromeda is 2.3 million light-years away). The biggest star with millions of times times brighter than the sun--the blue superstar--will take 1 million years to burn. Since the formation movement, 1 million years later, Los Angeles will drift to the current position of the north-northwest direction of 40 kilometers.

1 billion years
The newly formed Earth has cooled for nearly 1 billion years, producing oceans, producing single-celled organisms and converting the original rich-carbon atmosphere into oxygen-enriched atmospheres. In the meantime the Sun has turned 4 laps around the center of the Milky Way. Because the age of the universe is 120 to 14 billion years old, it is not commonly used for more than 1 billion years. But Cosmology believes the universe will probably expand indefinitely until the last star dies (100 trillion years later) and the last black hole disappears (10,100 years later). Our future is much longer than the way we have gone.

Femtosecond Laser Fs-laser

1 femtosecond is only 10-15 seconds. How fast is it? We know that the speed of light is 3x10 e+8 m/s, and in 1 femtosecond, the light can only go 0.3μm, which is just less than a hair silk 1%.
Femtosecond Lasers have a time resolution of femtosecond, so called femtosecond lasers. When a machine has a certain degree of resolution to time, it can see many of the details of the movement that we normally do not see with the naked eye. For example, we can see a very wonderful world with the help of film and television equipment.
Femtosecond laser on time resolution is much higher than film and television equipment, after the calculation, femtosecond laser has obtained the human in the laboratory can obtain the world's shortest pulse. Through it, we can see faster, more subtle movements, such as the photosynthesis of green plants, the process of cell division, The process of electrons moving around atoms and so on.
However, these processes are not yet able to form images, and femtosecond lasers can only be shown in the form of ripples. However, there are many things that professionals can do with femtosecond lasers, and scientists are currently working on how to use them to examine cancer cells in the body.
Because the femtosecond laser is also extremely high in space resolution, it can catch up with electrons orbiting the nucleus and knock them out, leaving only one isolated nucleus in existence.

Original URL: http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_4e0c9c4701009h5c.html

Time Archives: femtosecond, Picosecond, nanoseconds, microseconds, milliseconds, seconds (from Sina)

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