Ubuntu Linux 8.04

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags id3 id3 tag wubi gstreamer
1. system initialization
1. Update source list,
Updae your system.
Switch the source of education network and telecom network:
(For a hard-working user, you only need to replace gutsy in the following source with hard-working)
Sudo gedit/etc/APT/sources. List

Configuring a source is sufficient.
# China University of Science and Technology (CERNET ):
Deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy main multiverse restricted universe
Deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
Deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
Deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-security main multiverse restricted universe
Deb http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-Updates main multiverse restricted universe
Deb-Src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy main multiverse restricted universe
Deb-Src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main multiverse restricted universe
Deb-Src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-proposed main multiverse restricted universe
Deb-Src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-security main multiverse restricted universe
Deb-Src http://debian.ustc.edu.cn/ubuntu/ gutsy-Updates main multiverse restricted universe
# Source of China Telecom cn99
Http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
Deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-security main restricted universe multiverse
Deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-Updates main restricted universe multiverse
Deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
Deb http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Deb-Src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy main restricted universe multiverse
Deb-Src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-security main restricted universe multiverse
Deb-Src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-Updates main restricted universe multiverse
Deb-Src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
Deb-Src http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu/ gutsy-backports main restricted universe multiverse
Http://ubuntu.cn99.com/ubuntu-cn/ gutsy main restricted universe multiverse

Adapt to different network environments:
Sudo CP/etc/APT/sources. LIST/etc/APT/sources. list_edu
Sudo CP/etc/APT/sources. LIST/etc/APT/sources. list_dianxin
Sudo CP/etc/APT/sources. list_edu/etc/APT/sources. List
Sudo CP/etc/APT/sources. list_dianxin/etc/APT/sources. List

Sudo apt-Get update # This step updates your source list, which must be executed after the source is changed
Sudo apt-Get upgrade # This step is to update the software

2.hardyhas been installed on a hard disk. It is perfect to put the isofile and wubi.exe (extracted from ISO) in any directory,
Click wubi.exe in Windows to complete the installation. It will install Ubuntu in a Windows folder without partitioning or affecting Windows files;
It is convenient to uninstall wubi.exe.

3. How to upgrade Ubuntu from the old system to the new system, for example, from ubuntu7.10 to ubuntu8.04
Method 1: command line:
1). Update the existing system
$ Sudo apt-Get update
$ Sudo apt-Get upgrade
2). Modify the source
$ Sudo CP/etc/APT/sources. LIST/etc/APT/sources. list_gutsy
$ Sudo gedit/etc/APT/sources. List
Replace all "gutsy" with "hard"
3). upgrade the system
$ Sudo apt-Get dist-Upgrade
$ Sudo apt-Get upgrade

Method 2: Graphical:
$ Sudo Update-Manager-d
In this way, you can fully system the scripts officially compiled by Ubuntu without manually modifying the source, making it easier and more reliable.

Now, you can view the Ubuntu version:
Sudo lsb_release-

4. automatix: Install the most popular Ubuntu software, which contains some software that is not installed by default, cool! Http://www.getautomatix.com/but no version of hard, wait.

5. Save the downloaded update package. The downloaded package is in this folder:

6. Installation of software packages in various formats:
1) nianqing.tar: tar xf nianqing.tar
2nd release nianqing.tar.gz: Tar zxf nianqing.tar.gz
3rd release nianqing.tar. Z: Tar zxf nianqing.tar. Z
4) solution nianqing. tgz: Tar zxf nianqing. tgz
5) nianqing.bz2: bunzip2 nianqing.bz2
6) nianqing.tar.bz2: Tar jxf nianqing.tar.bz2

7. back up and restore the system: Remember to use sudo. Otherwise, there will be some errors during backup/home. -- exclude = indicates the folder that does not need to be backed up. delete the files in the trash (recycle bin) before backup, the software packages downloaded from var/Cache/APT/archives can also be deleted, and the/media folder should also be excluded.
Sudo tar-cvpzf/Media/sda8/ubuntu_backup.tgz -- exclude =/proc
-- Exclude =/lost + found -- exclude =/mnt -- exclude =/sys -- exclude =/Media/
Restore: it has not been restored yet, ^_^

8.ProgramWhere did I go after installation?
I often cannot find how to enable the program. If I understand how Linux organizes the application, I can easily find it:
1) most commonly found in the "application" menu.
2) preferences generally involve software related to system management, such as partition software, mouse, touchpad, and awn.
3) Panel applets, right-click the Panel to add programs, such as time prompt tools and music panel plug-ins.
4) The software downloaded from the new version can be found through the above three methods. You can download and unzip the software on your own. If you cannot find the program, just pay attention to it:
Generally, it is installed in the/home/user directory by default. The installation instructions show how to start the program from the command line.
5) The. Jar suffix file can be executed directly.
6) All programs can be executed from the command line. Basically, enter the program name. Some programs need to add parameters.
7) create a starter by yourself.
8) others do not know.

Ii. Input Method:
1. Solution to renaming files in Ubuntu 7.10:
One: Right click on the file-> rename, left click to rename the area, and then right click-> input methods-> scim Input Method
2. Permanent method: Modify sudo gedit/etc/X11/xinit/xinput. d/scim with the root permission
Gtk_im_module = xim, qt_im_module = xim
Change the xim in the two lines to scim, save and exit, log out of the system, and try again. Everything works. It does not need to be modified in the future.
3: http://www.chinaitbbs.cn/read.php? Tid-6016.html

2. Delete unnecessary input methods of scim:
Remove the shortcut key for switching the input method.

3. Use scim in an English environment. Method:
The simplest method is to jump to the Chinese environment to install

3. System beautification
1. Do not beautify the font of the hard drive, because the Chinese fonts such as wenquanyi font of the hard drive are already quite perfect.

2. compiz FusionCubeBody Effect:
1) for the hard drive, the system comes with compiz and compiz fusion, which must be processed separately.
First, you are not busy starting the restricted driver of the system. Download the Linux driver of ATI on your own. Visit http://ati.amd.com/support/driver.htmlto select the driver of the restricted driver.
Then refer to thisArticle, Started successfully, http://forlong.blogage.de/article/2007/10/23/fglrx-8423---finally-with-AIGLX-support

2) rough process:
$ sudo apt-Get remove xserver-xgl # Remove xgl (if present)
$ sudo apt-Get remove Xorg-driver-fglrx # Go to system → administration →
restricted drivers manager and choose disable ., then remove the old
Driver (if present ).
$ sudo Rm-F/usr/src/fglrx-kernel *. deb # delete old fglrx Debs (might not be necessary)
$ sudo gedit/etc/default/Linux-restricted-modules-common # blacklist old fglrx module
and insert fglrx-It shoshould look like this then:
disabled_modules = "fglrx"

$ bash. ati-driver-installer-8.42.3-x86.x86_64.run -- buildpkg Ubuntu/gutsy # create. deb packages
$ sudo dpkg-I fglrx-kernel-source_8.42.3-1_i386.deb xorg-driver-fglrx_8.42.3-1_i386.deb # Install. deb packages
$ sudo M-A prepare, update # compile kernel module
$ sudo m-a build, install fglrx-kernel
$ sudo depmod
$ sudo gedit/etc/X11/Xorg. conf # Set up the driver
make sure "fglrx" is set for the driver in the section "device ".
and if present, remove (Whoohoo again)
section "extensions"
Option "composite" "0" # Or "Disable"
as well as
section "serverflags"
Option "aiglx" "off"

$ Sudo reboot

$ Skip_checks = Yes compiz #
$ Mkdir-P ~ /. Config/compiz & Echo skip_checks = Yes> ~ /. Config/compiz-manager #

Enjoy it!

3) set the 3D desktop:
(1) make sure there are more than two desktops
(2) Click "Advanced dekdtop effects Settings" in "system-Preferences" to bring up the "compiz config settings manager" dialog box,
Select "desktop cube", "Rotating cube rotate cube", and "cube inverted cube reflection.
Press CTRL + ALT, and click the left mouse button and drag it to show the cube.
Other functions are slowly explored, but there are conflicts between special effect plug-ins,

4) Flame character
Select compizconfig-> paint fire on the screen.
You can set the flame color in compizconfig-> paint fire on the screen-> fire particle color. Check randomly colored fire to write colorful text.
TIPS: the default shortcut key is SHIFT + win + left mouse button, and shift + win + c is the clear effect.

5) desktop display
Select compizconfig-> Expo
TIPS: the default shortcut is win + E.

6) 3D Window Switching Effect
Select compizconfig-> shift switcher.
Two switching effects can be selected in switcher mode, one is flip3d switching similar to Vista, and the other is coverflow switching similar to Mac.
TIPS: the default shortcut is win + TAB.

7) water drop effect
Check compizconfig-> water effect,
Shift + F9: Switch
CTRL + win + left mouse button: Draw rain

8) cancel the window shake effect: I think people's heads should shake as well.
Cancel compizconfig-> wobbly windows

After installation, install some auxiliary software:
Sudo apt-Get Insall compizconfig-settings-Manager
And compiz-Switch: Switch, download, http://forlong.blogage.de/article/pages/Compiz-Switch

3. Theme beautification:
Collection: sudo apt-Get install gcursor gnome-art drapes ubuntustudio-Look screenlets
How to install theme:
Desktop theme, mouse pointer theme: Installation in appearance. In the source, you can directly apt-Get.

Gcursor mouse topic management, provides five kinds of mouse, In the appearance-"topic custom mouse.
Gnome-Art: GNOME theme, which must be connected to the Internet and be downloaded online. The network speed is very high.
Drapes: automatically replaces desktop wallpaper desktop drapes
Ubuntu studio-Look: Install the Ubuntu studio topic Ubuntu studio-wallpapers in Ubuntu and set it in the appearance to replace the ugly Ubuntu icon:
Screenlets: desktop small panel program

4. Install the floating panel Awn (MAC effect) avant-window-Navigator:
Sudo apt-Get install avant-window-Navigator
Automatic Start upon startup:
System-> preferences-> sessions: Add avant-window-Navigator.

5. How to display the desktop icon (my computer, home directory, and Resource Recycling bucket ):
Application> System Tools> Configuration editor> apps> Nautilus> desktop>
Computer_icon_visible (check)
Home_icon_visible (check)
Trash_icon_visible (check)

Iv. Video tools
Install a multimedia decoder,
Enter the command
Sudo apt-Get install libxine1-ffmpeg libxine1-plugins
Download and install w32codecs and libdvdcss2 on your own. The source does not exist.

Configure the movie player, change gstreamer to xine, and enter the command
Sudo apt-Get remove totem-gstreamer-y
Sudo apt-Get install totem-xine totem-mozilla-y

Install mplayer and its front-end smplayer:
Sudo apt-Get install mplayer-fonts mozilla-mplayer smplayer

Looking at RM or rmvb, the system prompts that the database is loaded or the decoder has a problem:
Sudo ln-S/usr/lib/codecs // usr/local/lib/

Configure Chinese subtitle display (optional)
Ln-SF/usr/share/fonts/TrueType/arphic/uming. TTF ~ /. Mplayer/subfont. TTF
Gedit ~ /. Mplayer/GUI. conf
Sub_cp = "cp936"
Font_text_scale = "4.000000"
Font_osd_scale = "4.000000"
Sub_fuzziness = 2

Download the latest decoder from the mplayer website and install it.

Miro, network media, and Internet TV. Sudo apt-Get install Miro
Gsopcast: network TV, download: http://forum.ubuntu.org.cn/download.php? Id = 28580

The quality of VLC, ELISA, and vlc is better than that of mplayer. In short, the quality of the player in Linux is poor. I don't know what plug-ins or settings are needed to change the image quality. Only the quality of RealPlayer is the same as that of win:
VLC home: http://www.videolan.org/vlc/download-ubuntu.html
Sudo apt-Get install VLC-plugin-ESD mozilla-plugin-VLC ELISA

Install CHRISTINE: supports Avi, WMV, WAV, and good drag and drop operations.

Realplayer10: Check RM. rmvb depends on him.
1) download the installation package (saved)
Download Deb package, address http://search.ustc.edu.cn/ftpsearch.cgi? Q = realplay + Deb & cmd = ftpsearch
2) installation:
Sudo apt-Get install ALSA-OSS
Sudo dpkg-I realplayer_10.0.9-0.1_i386.deb (or double-click installation)
3) Two Configurations:
Sudo gedit/usr/bin/realplay
Find the following statement:
68 while/bin/true; do
69 # restart the player if exit code is 10
70 aoss $ realplaybin "$ @"
71 If [$? -Ne 10]; then
72 break
The change is 70th rows, and an aoss is added in front (without aoss, the speed will be very slow)
Okay, right-click and use realplayer10 to open the rmvb and RM files.
4) if you click RealPlayer in "audio and video" under the Application menu after completing the installation following the preceding steps, and your Ubuntu installation uses the scim input method, it is likely that scim conflicts with RealPlayer,
You also need to perform the following operations:
$ Sudo gedit/usr/lib/realplay-10.0.9/realplay (depending on the version and installation directory)
Add the following line to the first line of the text editor:
Export gtk_im_module = xim

Configure the music player and enter the command
Sudo apt-Get install gstreamer0.10-plugins-uugly gstreamer0.10-FFMPEG gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mpegdemux gstreamer0.10-gnonlin
Gstreamer0.10-Gl is automatically downloaded and installed, but not in the source.

In Linux, the primary solution for playing MP3 is the MP3 tag garbled problem:
The root cause is that most players in Linux use strict encoding standards, but the encoding is messy when we make MP3 by ourselves. GBK, gb18030, and big5 are widely used. Microsoft is compatible with these standards, so the culture is doing well. It can also be found that MP3 files produced in genuine Chinese versions do not have this problem.
We need to manually convert all MP3 tags to International Unicode encoding.
Http://www.myswear.net/forum/viewthread.php? Tid = 7536 & extra = & page = 1

You can use the following four methods to solve the tag garbled problem:
1) Currently, two tools are available to convert tags to unicode encoding, and both support batch conversion. Id3iconv and mid3iconv have the same usage. Zhou Feng wrote id3iconv 0.2.1 in Java and downloaded it on his website.
Java-jar ~ /Id3iconv-0.2.1.jar-e GBK *. MP3 # convert the MP3 file of the current directory (excluding subdirectories), for uppercase MP3, also need Java-jar ~ /Id3iconv-0.2.1.jar-e GBK *. MP3
Find.-INAME "*. MP3"-execdir Java-jar ~ /Id3iconv-0.2.1.jar-e GBK {}\; # If you want to convert all MP3 and MP3 (including subdirectories) under the current directory)

Note the above ~ Id3iconv-0.2.1.jar
The location depends on your own situation. Because the vast majority of MP3 files downloaded on the Internet now use GBK/gb18030 encoding,-e GBK
The parameter indicates converting the GBK encoded tags to unicode encoding. If the MP3 tags are unicode encoded, they are not converted. If you want to convert other encoding files, you can modify them by yourself.
Change the GBK parameter to gb18030 or big5. The converted MP3 tag type is ID3v2 2.4 and the encoding format is UTF-16.

2) there are still some garbled characters.
The MP3 tags on the Internet basically do not comply with the standards. In Windows, you can use the quiet listener. The file attributes include the following:
Read type priority changed to: ID3v2> apev2> id3v1
Change the write type to ID3v2.
ID3v2 encoding type changed to: UTF-8
The padding data is selected when ID3v2 is used for writing.
Then convert the simplified text to the traditional Chinese text, and then convert it back without Garbled text! (This ensures the rewriting of tag data)

3) Win mp3tag function is also very powerful. Reference: http://publish.it168.com/2007/0709/20070709009601.shtml

4) Finally, we found a convenient tag editing tool in Linux: easytag and exfalso
sudo apt-Get install easytag exfalso
reference: http://forum.ubuntu.org.cn/viewtopic.php? T = 98644
select "Settings"-"Preferences" and select "default directory" on the "Browse" page as the folder where you saved the MP3 file, in "ID3 tag
Settings", set the charset "Write ID3 v1.x tag" to "simplified Chinese (gb2312 )"; in "charactor set for
reading ID3 tags", select "None Standard" and set it to "simplified Chinese (gb2312 )".

MP3 player collection:
Sudo apt-Get install sonata decibel-audio-player Banshee exaile quodlibet-ext audacious BMP x
Songbird: Download, http://www.songbirdnest.com
Atunes: Download, http://www.atunes.org, need to install mplayer first, Chinese language menu garbled (because there is no solution to the problem of Java Chinese support, I have instructions on how to solve this problem ), right-click the Java program and select. The function is very powerful. The lyrics are played and the cover is automatically downloaded.
Rhythmbox: sudo apt-Get install gstreamer0.10-fluendo-mp3
Xmms2: No graphic front-end. Try sudo apt-Get install xmms2 xmms2tray gxmms2 abraca.
Beep Media Player: sudo apt-Get install BMP x
Banshee plug-in: Mirage, which can analyze your favorite music and estimate its similarity. Based on the similarity between these types of music, mirage will automatically generate a music playlist for you. Http://hop.at/mirage/download/banshee-mirage_0.2_i386.deb

Music Plugin:
Music Applet: controls the music player from the GNOME panel. It supports many players and is very useful. But does not support Amarok, but it doesn't matter. Amarok has the function of downgrading to the icon bar and does not require plug-ins.
Sudo apt-Get install music-Applet

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