Getting Started with Linux basics-File system Architecture (IV)

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Author: User

Program Compilation Method :

Dynamic Links:

Dynamic linking saves system resources

Static compilation:

The compiled file volume is larger than the dynamic link and can be ported to any server running, but may have more resources

Type of process:

Terminal: Hardware device, associating a user interface

Terminal-Related: booting through the terminal

Independent of Terminal: auto-start during Operation Boot-up

Fhs:filesystem Hierarchy Standard

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/bin: Basic command Program Files available to all users;
/sbin: A tool program for use in system management;
/boot: Each static file that the bootloader must use: Kernel, Initramfs (INITRD), grub, etc.;

/dev: Store special files or device files;

There are two types of devices: Character devices (linear devices), block devices (random devices);

/etc: The configuration file of the system program, can only be static;
/home: The central location of the general family directory; The home directory of each ordinary user is the default subdirectory with the same name as the user name in this directory,/home/username;
/root: Administrator's home directory;

/lib: Provides a shared library for system startup or applications on the root file system (/bin,/sbin, etc.) and provides kernel modules for the kernel*: Dynamically linked C library;

ld*: Runtime linker/loader;

Modules: The directory used to store kernel modules;

/LIB64:64-bit system-specific path for storing 64-bit shared libraries;
/media: Portable Device mount point, CDROM, floppy, etc.
/MNT: Temporary mount point for other file systems;
/OPT: Installation location of the additional application, optional path;
/SRV: Data provided by the current host for the service
/tmp: A directory for temporary files that can be generated by the program that will generate the temporary file, a write operation for the user, and special permissions;

/USR:USR Hierarchy, globally shared read-only data path;

Bin, Sbin

LIB, lib64

INCLUDE:C program header file;

Share: Storage location of schema-specific files such as command-book pages and self-documenting documents

Local: another level directory;

Installation location of the X11r6:x-window program

SRC: Where the program source files are stored

/usr/local:local hierarchy, which allows the system administrator to install local applications, and is typically used to install third-party programs;

/var:/var Hierarchy, a directory that stores data that is often changed;

Cacheapplication Cache data (application caching)

Libvariable State information (program status data)

Localvariable data for/usr/local (changes available for/usr/local)

Locklock files

Loglog Files and directories

Optvariable Data for/opt

Rundata relevant to running processes (data running process changes)

Spoolapplication Spool Data

Tmptemporary files preserved between system reboots

/proc: A memory-based virtual file system used to store information about the kernel and processes, many of which are kernel parameters such as Net.ipv4.ip_forward, virtual Net/ipv4/ip_forward, and stored in/proc/sys/, so its full path is /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward;
/SYS:SYSFS virtual file system provides a better way to access kernel data than proc; its main function is to provide a unified model interface for managing Linux devices;


File types on Linux systems:

-: regular documents; that is F;

D:directory, directory files;

B:block device, block devices file, support random access in "block" units

C:character device, character equipment file, support for linear access in "character" units

Major number: The main device ID that identifies the device type, and then determines which driver to load

Minor number: The secondary device numbers used to identify different devices in the same type;

8-bit binary: 0-255

L:symbolic link, symbolic Links file;

P:pipe, Named Pipes;

S:socket, socket file;

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Getting Started with Linux basics-File system Architecture (IV)

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