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First, what is primary key, foreign key:
A record in a relational database has several properties, and if one of the attribute groups (note the group) uniquely identifies a record, the attribute group can be a primary key such as:
Student form (school number, name, gender, Class)
Each student's number is unique, and the number is a primary key.
User table (user name, password, logon level)
Where the username is unique, the username is a primary key
On-Machine record form (card number, school number, name, serial number)
A single attribute in the on-machine record table cannot uniquely identify a record, the combination of the number and the name can uniquely identify a record, so the attribute group for the number and name is a primary key
The serial number in the on-machine record table is not the primary key of the score table, but it corresponds to the school number in the student's table, and the student's form is the primary key of the student's table, then the school number in the score table is the foreign key of the student's table.
The primary key and foreign keys are defined primarily to maintain the integrity of the relational database, summarizing:
A primary key is a unique identifier that determines a record, for example, a record includes an ID number, a name, and an age. The ID number is the only one who can be sure of you, and others may have duplicates, so the ID number is the primary key.
A foreign key is used to associate with another table. is a field that determines the record of another table to keep the data consistent. For example, a field in Table A, which is the primary key of table B, can be a foreign key to table A.
difference between primary key, foreign key and index
What is the difference between a primary key, a foreign key, and an index?
Definition: Uniquely identifies a record, cannot have duplicates, a foreign key that is not allowed to be an empty table is the primary key of another table, the foreign key can have duplicate, can be null value the field has no duplicate values, but can have a null value
Role: Used to ensure that data integrity is used to connect with other tables is to improve the speed of query sorting
Number: A primary key can have only one table with multiple foreign keys. A table can have multiple unique indexes
What is the difference between a clustered index and a nonclustered index?
The clustered index must be a unique index. However, a unique index is not necessarily a clustered index.
Clustered indexes, where the data is stored directly in the index page, and the nonclustered index stores the index on the index page, which points to the data for the specialized data page.
third, the design principle of primary key and foreign key in database
Primary and foreign keys are binders that organize multiple tables into a valid relational database. The design of primary keys and foreign keys has a decisive impact on the performance and availability of physical databases.
The database schema must be converted from theoretical logical design to actual physical design. And the structure of primary key and foreign key is the crux of this design process. Once the designed database is used in the production environment, it is difficult to modify these keys, so it is necessary and worthwhile to design primary and foreign keys at the development stage.
A relational database relies on a primary key---it is the cornerstone of the physical schema of the database. Primary keys are only available on a physical level for two purposes:
1. Uniquely identifies a row.
2. As an object that can be referenced effectively by a foreign key.
Based on these two uses, here are some of the principles I follow when designing a primary key at the physical level:
1. The primary key should be meaningless to the user. If a user sees data in a connection table that represents a many-to-many relationship and complains that it is useless, it proves that its primary key is well designed.
2. Primary keys should be single-column to increase the efficiency of connection and filtering operations.
Note: People who use composite keys usually have two reasons to justify themselves, both of which are wrong. The first is that the primary key should have practical meaning, however, making the primary key meaningful is only convenient for destroying the database artificially. The second is using this method to use two foreign keys as primary keys in a connection table that describes a many-to-many relationship. I also object to this practice, on the grounds that composite primary keys often lead to undesirable foreign keys, i.e. when the join table becomes another from the table's primary table, and the second method above becomes part of the table's primary key, However, this table may again become the main table from the table, and its primary key may be other from the table's primary key, so passed, the more the more the table, the primary key will contain more columns.
3. Never update the primary key. In fact, because a primary key has no other purpose than to uniquely identify a row, there is no reason to update it. If the primary key needs to be updated, it is a violation of the principle that the primary key should not be meaningful to the user.
Note: This principle is not applicable to data that needs to be collated when data conversion or multiple database merging is often required.
4. Primary keys should not contain dynamically changing data, such as timestamps, creation time columns, modification time columns, and so on.
5. The primary key should be automatically generated by the computer. If a person intervenes to create a primary key, it has a meaning other than a single line of identification. Once you cross this line, you may have the motivation to think about modifying the primary key, so that the key means that the system uses to link record rows and manage records rows falls into the hands of people who do not know the database design.
Four, database primary key selection policy
When we build a database, we need to specify a primary key for each table, which is a property or group of attributes that uniquely identifies a row in a table, one table can have only one primary key, but can have multiple candidate indexes. Because a primary key can uniquely identify a row of records, you can ensure that no confusedly errors occur when you perform data updates and deletions. Of course, other fields can help us eliminate sharing conflicts when we do these things, but that's not what we're talking about here. primary keys, in addition to the above, often form referential integrity constraints with foreign keys to prevent data inconsistency. Therefore, the database in the design, the primary key plays a very important role.
Common database primary Key selection methods are:
• Auto-Grow field
• Manual Growth Field
• "Comb (Combine)" type
1 Auto-Grow fields
Many database designers prefer to use an automatic growth field because it is simple to use. Auto-grow fields allow us to add data to the database, regardless of the primary key value, after the record is inserted, the database system will automatically assign a value to ensure that there is absolutely no duplication. If you use a SQL Server database, we can also use the @ @Identity global variable to get the primary key value of the system allocation after the record is inserted.
While the automatic growth field saves us a lot of tedious work, there is a potential problem with it, which is that in data buffering mode, it is difficult to fill in the value of the primary key and the foreign key in advance.
Suppose there are two tables:
Order (OrderID, OrderDate)
Orderdetial (OrderID, LineNum, ProductID, Price)
OrderID in the Order table are fields that grow automatically. Now we need to enter an order, including inserting a record in the Orders table and inserting several records into the OrderDetail table. Because the OrderID in the Order table is a field that is automatically growing, we cannot know the value of the record before it is formally inserted into the database, and only after the update can we see what value the database assigns to it. This can cause the following contradictions to occur:
First, in order to add the correct value to the OrderDetail OrderID field, you must first update the order table to get the OrderID value that the system assigns to it, and then populate the OrderDetail table with this OrderID. Finally, update the Oderdetail table. However, to ensure data consistency, order and OrderDetail must be updated at the same time under transaction protection, ensuring that both tables are more successful at the same time. Obviously, they are contradictory to each other.
In addition, when we need to replicate data between multiple databases (SQL Server's data distribution, subscription mechanism allows us to replicate data between libraries), auto-growing fields can cause primary key conflicts when data is merged. When you imagine that an order table in a database replicates a database to an OrderID in another library, should it automatically grow?
Ado. NET allows us to set a field to an automatic growth field in the dataset, but remember that the automatic growth field is just a placeholder, and when the database is updated, the value generated by the database automatically replaces the value assigned by Ado.net. So in order to prevent users from misunderstanding, we recommend that you set the auto growth initial value and increment in Ado.net to 1. Furthermore In Ado.net, we can create DataRelation for two tables, when two table updates of a cascading relationship exist, the value of the corresponding key in the other table after one table is updated will also change automatically, which can greatly reduce the problem of automatically growing fields when updating between two tables with cascading relationships.
2 Manual growth fields
Now that the automatic growth field can be such a hassle, we might consider using a manually-grown field, which means that the value of the primary key needs to be maintained on its own, usually by creating a separate table to store the current primary key value. In the example above, we create a new table called Intkey, which contains two fields, KeyName and keyvalue. Just like a Hashtable, give a keyname, you can know what the current keyvalue is, and then manually implement key value data increment. In SQL Server, you can write a stored procedure to automate the process of taking a key value. The code is as follows:
@KeyValue intoutput as UPDATE intkey SET @KeyValue =keyvalue = keyvalue + 1 WHERE keyname = @KeyName Go
In this way, by invoking the stored procedure, we can get the latest key value to ensure that no duplication occurs. If you set the OrderID field to a manual growth field, our program can be implemented by calling the stored procedure first, obtaining a OrderID, and then using this OrderID to populate the order table with the OrderDetail table, and then update the two tables under transaction protection.
When you use a manual growth field as a primary key to replicate data between databases, you can ensure that key value conflicts do not occur during data consolidation, as long as we assign different primary key value segments to different databases. However, the use of manual growth fields increases the roundtrip of the network, and we must obtain the current primary key value by adding a database access, which increases the load on the network and the database, which can be a big disadvantage when in a low or disconnected network environment. At the same time, the manual maintenance of the primary key also consider the concurrency of various factors such as conflict, which will increase the complexity of the system.
3 using uniqueidentifier
SQL Server provides us with a uniqueidentifier data type and provides a build function newid () that uses NEWID () to generate a unique uniqueidentifier. UniqueIdentifier occupies 16 bytes in the database and the probability of duplication is so small that it can be considered to be 0. We often see the same from the registry
The thing is actually a uniqueidentifier,windows use it to make COM components and interface identification to prevent duplication. In the. NET tube uniqueidentifier is called a GUID (Global Unique Identifier). You can use the following command to generate a GUID in C #:
Guid u =system.guid.newguid ();
For the above mentioned order and OrderDetail procedures, if you choose uniqueidentifier as the primary key, we can avoid the above mentioned to increase the network roundtrip problem. Use the program to generate the GUID directly to populate the primary key, regardless of whether there will be duplicates.
The uniqueidentifier field also has a serious flaw: first, it is 16 bytes long, 4 times times the length of an integer, and consumes a lot of storage space. More seriously, uniqueidentifier generation has no regularity, and it is a time-consuming operation to build an index on it (most databases have indexes on the primary key). Someone has done experiments, inserting the same amount of data, using uniqueidentifier data is slower than the use of integer data, so, for efficiency reasons, avoid using uniqueidentifier database as primary key value.
4 Using the "Comb (Combine)" type
Since the above three kinds of primary key type selection strategy have their own shortcomings, then in the end there is no good way to solve it? The answer is yes. By using the comb type (there is no comb type in the database, which is designed by Jimmy Nilsson in the article "The cost of GUIDs asprimary Keys"), a good balance can be found between the three.
The basic design idea of the comb data type is this: since uniqueidentifier data is inefficient because of the lack of regularity, which affects the performance of the system, can we keep the first 10 bytes of uniqueidentifier by the way of combination, The latter 6 bytes represent the time of the GUID generation (DateTime), so that we combine the time information with the uniqueidentifier to increase the indexing efficiency while preserving the uniqueness of the uniqueidentifier. Some people may worry that uniqueidentifier reduced to 10 bytes will result in duplication of data, in fact, do not worry, the 6-byte time precision can reach 1/300 seconds, two comb type data exactly the same probability is in this 1/ It is almost impossible that the first 10 bytes of the two GUIDs generated in 300 seconds are exactly the same. Using SQL commands in SQL Server to implement this idea is:
SET @aGuid =cast (CAST (NEWID () as BINARY (10))
+ CAST (GETDATE () as BINARY (6)) as uniqueidentifier)
After testing, the use of comb key than the use of int master key, in the search, insert, UPDATE, Delete, and other operations are still slow, but more than the type of unidentifier faster.
The above is a simple introduction to the primary key and foreign key in the SQL database, if there is discrepancy, please forgive!
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