How to Learn Linux (1)

Source: Internet
Author: User

Linux is too difficult to use! (Click with one mouse to enter/etc)
Learning Linux, have you forgotten the way of thinking in windows?
How to install software? What is that pile of files?
Are you still learning Linux?
Enter Linux and press a few times. Restart to enter win
How hard have you been to learn about Linux?

First of all, I would like to quote a sentence that someone else said: Unless you have been living in a cave for the past decade, you must have heard of Linux.

Yes. Now I have heard of Linux, and there are a lot of users with basic Linux operations. However, there are really few things to do with Linux, which leads to the current situation: linux forums are very popular, but Linux talents in China are still in short supply. why did this happen? There are only two reasons for correction: float!

If you come to a forum to check and vote, check whether there are more than one regular Linux textbook in the Forum. I think this number cannot exceed 30%. I am afraid this number is less than 10%. if we further investigate how many people have quietly studied operating systems, computer networks, and other specialized courses that are closely related to Linux, we are afraid that only 3% of the numbers will be lost.

This reminds me of Zhongguancun in the IT bubble age before and after 98 years. in the streets and alleys of Zhongguancun, IT elites are everywhere who are eager to distribute. they wear a mirror and clear their heads. The closed ports are network, security, information, hackers, code, and industry. there are three words behind the T-shirt: Don't bother me! However, in the end, only those who are willing to learn with peace of mind will survive in the IT world.

Now the same is true for Chinese people who are studying Linux. All the people who are studying Linux are willing to share their ideas about how amazing they are to learn how to use Linux. after learning a little bit of fur, I think it is very good. however, it is difficult for enterprises to find suitable Linux talents. therefore, I would like to express my views on the current situation.

First of all, this article is intended for those who want to become a Linux master and want to use Linux to do things. if you only want to be a cainiao, you can choose Linux on your computer that is started on both systems when you are okay, and then you will be happy if you are okay. in addition, I want to explain that I am still at a low level compared with the real cool. I have not read the kernel source code, I don't know how Linux works, and so on. But by exploring, I have at least found the path to the master. therefore, I would like to say a few words.

1. Linux is not a toy

If you want to learn about Linux, you must be aware of this point. now there are many people who claim to be Linux fans, but most of their tasks are still done using Windows, while Linux is just a casual system. they know some basic Linux operations, and know how to play with Linux. They also insist that Linux is good because they often hear others say that Linux is good. as long as some people say that Linux is worse than windows, they will immediately refute it. They also look down on people who use Windows and think that Windows users are at a low level. however, most of the time I used my computer, I still used Windows and put all the important files in the Windows partition, because they only used Linux as a toy and didn't really understand it.
The essence of Linux. if you really want to learn about Linux and use Linux to make a difference, forget the way you think about windows and feel and get used to Linux, one day, you will truly experience His mysteries, So that you like him and use him from the bottom of your heart, instead of using him to catch up with fashion or show off to others.

2. Do you have a good introductory textbook?

"If you haven't read a Linux installation and getting started, don't go to the beginner's Forum! Because you are not qualified to ask questions! "This is my extreme opinion.

If you are determined to learn Linux now, the first thing you need to do is to pick a good book at the bookstore. instead of going to the Forum community to ask what version to use and how to learn Linux. A good entry-level teaching material allows you to quickly understand the Linux operating methods and basic usage of the system. it is also written by our predecessors, who can help you build a framework for learning Linux and have a general understanding of Linux. it is like laying a solid foundation and setting up a concrete frame before building a building. in the future, we will be able to add bricks and tiles to the framework and finally build a building. those who want to learn Linux quickly, do not want to read books, and just want to rely on mixed forums to learn Linux knowledge are like building a building. Today, the first layer should be built, and then the first layer should be fully painted, the decoration is good, the furniture can be purchased, and the second floor will be created the next day. in this way, it is hard to learn Linux without overall planning. The final result is to waste your time and others' time.
If you don't believe it, you can let the truth tell you that, within one year, you and one of your friends have learned Linux from 0 at the same time, and the computer basics are almost the same. you can buy a few good books and watch and experiment on your own, so that your friends can learn about Linux in various forums all day. maybe at the beginning, your friends will know more than you know, but after a year, your level will certainly be above your friends. in the beginner's stage, do not ask questions on the Forum. Reading more books is fundamental. Even if you are not asking questions, you must first check the information to solve them. I can't ask again. Experts will not despise cainiao, because every master comes from cainiao, and they all know the difficulties of cainiao. however, experts will look down on those who do not want to learn to solve the problem rather than get the answer. such a person will be scolded in the heart as an idiot who does not deserve to use Linux.

You need the following types of books:
A good introductory textbook-> A Linux instruction reference manual-> Linux System Management Manual-> a book that explains Linux system principles.

In the beginning, you only need to get started with teaching materials. in addition, it is not necessary to install a video card driver, a game, or software all day long. if you cannot access the Internet on your computer, you can only read books. read the book slowly and keep it steady. it will be integrated slowly. at this time, you will go to the Linux beginner's forum to see if you are already a master.

In addition, you should select an entry-level teaching material at the beginning, but you cannot read only one book, because some books may not have it. therefore, we should select a teaching material to finish reading it. let's take a look at two or three tutorials. as an extension and consolidation of the knowledge of the first book. when reading a book, if you do not understand anything, do not rush to the Forum to ask, read it carefully several times, it really does not matter, put the problem there. don't give up. This spirit is good, but the method is wrong. even if you continue to learn, you may be able to read the content after reading the book, and then you will be enlightened by the content you do not understand. this is a common situation in Linux.

In addition, many entry books are for non-technical users. (I refer to those who are not interested in Linux and just want to use them to access the Internet. Those who listen to music and type are not technical users, but those who are interested in Linux as technical users)
Almost all of these introductory books for non-technical users are illustrations, explaining how to operate on the GUI. these books cannot help you become a master. instead, it will make it hard to get rid of the habit of relying on the mouse and graphic interface. therefore, if you cannot read these books, you must purchase books that begin with the basic commands of the system's basic organization. I have read more than a dozen chapters in the first Linux getting started book, but he has roughly explained the knowledge of a single interface since Chapter 1. I am very grateful for this book, which made me break away from the thinking style of Windows from the very beginning and will be of great help for further study.

After completing the above content, you have completed the process of building a ground-based concrete frame. You can continue to learn more.

3. Have you read the documents that come with the system?

After completing the course of getting started, you can read other documents and then go to the Forum's essence area to add bricks to the building framework you have built. of course, the first thing to read is the system's own documents.

The vast majority of Linux releases come with very detailed documentation. for example, I have been using RedHat, which provides detailed documents for different levels of people from system installation to system security. it is more useful to read these documents than to read the essence of any forum. books and documents are like three meals a day that you can't leave every day. The essence of documents in the forum area is like snacks and fruits. you can choose not to eat snacks or fruits, but never to eat dinner.

Of course, you cannot read the document for reading the document. You must read and verify the test as described in the document. Otherwise, you will forget to read it.

In addition, if you really want to learn Linux, do not be stingy or afraid to lose data and dare not do experiments. I suggest you buy a small second-hand hard drive and release it. don't be afraid to lose data and dare not do it. If you don't learn the skills, it will be big if you will become a Linux system administrator or a network administrator who will not lose data at that time.

4. Learning Linux is not a free market.

I often see some people asking which versions of Linux are good. In fact, as long as you study carefully, No matter what version is good. you should know that all users who develop Linux releases are those who have read the Linux kernel code and are extremely proficient in Linux principles, and every development team has tested and released the release. this is especially true for internationally renowned brands. therefore, it is meaningless to discuss what versions are good. The key is whether you really want to learn them. however, in order to avoid increasing the number of people, it is best to choose a version with many people, such as RedHat manrake Suse. one or two Linux versions in China are also good, but Linux in China is developed for non-technical users. Therefore, if you want to become a master, we recommend that you do not use the Chinese version.
Learning Linux is not a free market. You have to stay calm and learn the selected version. do not change the version today and upgrade it tomorrow. this is not good for you. I have met some people who claim to have used more than a dozen or even dozens of types of Linux. The first thing I can talk about is that I understand a lot, but if you ask him to build a web server in Linux and build a Linux gateway, he will not do anything. they wasted all their time on version conversion.

5. Can you understand English documents?

I am a little stingy to talk about this problem because my English is poor. however, at least I can read General Computer documents without permission. computer English is very simple. As long as you are familiar with computer professional English, you can easily read computer documents after graduating from high school. if your English is too bad and you cannot even understand the simplest computer English documents, please learn English as soon as you study Linux. maybe you said, you can read the translation documents. When I was a rookie, I thought so too. however, later I discovered that if you want to learn more about Linux, it is too difficult to understand the document. the best written documents are all written in English, and the first published technical information is also written in English. even non-English-speaking people publish technical documents, which are first translated into English and published in international academic journals and on the Internet. let's take a look at the official websites of major software and hardware manufacturers. Which of them does not use English as their main website?
People who use windows for a long time will not get used to this. Installing a software requires reading documents for half a day. It should be too easy to use Windows. however, if you want to learn Linux, you must read various documents. Most documents are written in English. I found that many people even don't even read man documents. If they don't use any commands, they will go to the Forum to ask, and pretend to be pitiful and beg for a command. it is better to look at man documents at these times. Even if you translate words into Chinese one by one, it is better to look at man documents by yourself, because others' answers are not as detailed as man documents. when installing a new software, read readme first, then install and then read the FAQ, and finally install the software. In this case, you will know why. otherwise, the instruction documents are not read, and it is a waste of time to find the answer when a problem occurs!
The ancients said that speed is not up!

6. Forget the thinking style of windows.

Ideological changes are more useful than temporary technological advances because they help you speed up learning. many people now use Linux. however, they use the Linux method as the windows method. it's all about windows. in this way, we cannot comprehend the essence of Linux and experience its superiority. A friend I saw a few days ago was about to delete Mandrake 10, which had just been installed for less than two days. I asked him why. He said it was too slow to handle it, but it was still windows fast. then I noticed that he used Linux, and all his operations carried the shadows of windows. he even used the most basic operations like moving files with the mouse, which is of course slow! Finally, I have to say, delete it. You are not suitable for Linux. Linux is not used like this. you can see how these advanced Linux users operate. generally, they all open an xterm or rxvt terminal on X, and more than 80% of the operations are completed using commands on this terminal, because
The command lines in Linux are very powerful and fast. The combination of several simple commands can complete very complex operations. for example, find is a common Linux Command. If you look at man's documentation, beginners will surely find it too complex to use it, but once you learn it, you will be able to give up on him. this feature is too powerful. When it works with the exec parameter or redirects to the xargs and grep commands through pipelines, it can perform very complex operations, if you use a graphical interface tool to perform the same operation, it may take more than a dozen minutes. therefore, Linux experts often say: how can we survive without finding and grep. however, most of Linux beginners are affected by windows. They all like to use graphical interfaces to perform some basic operations. I am not saying that the graphic interface is not good. but because of the differences in Linux and Windows design ideas, their operation methods are also very different. in Windows, graphical interface operations are faster than command-making,
Linux is an operating system composed of command lines. Its essence lies in command lines! No matter what level the graphic interface develops, this principle will not change!

7. Learn more commands after getting started

After reading one or two introductory books, you should expand your knowledge and learn more about Linux commands, but do not systematically learn Linux commands at the beginner stage, in the beginner stage, you only need to learn the commands mentioned in the book. it is impossible to become a master by learning various commands, but it is impossible to become a master without command. this is like learning English. I don't know any grammar. I can't learn English only when I hold a word manual, but I can't improve my vocabulary.

The best way to learn commands in Linux is to learn bash Script Programming. bash scripts are easier to learn than other languages, but are very powerful. by learning bash programming, you can master a large number of Linux commands. in addition, it is necessary to purchase a command reference manual. You can query commands that you do not know how to use at any time, which is faster than the man document. it is especially suitable for people who do not understand man documents in poor English.

In Linux, commands can be divided into basic system commands and application commands. the basic system commands are supported by all UNIX-type systems. They do not change everywhere, as long as they are UNIX-type systems. such as LS, RM, rmdir, CP, CD, MV, Cat, etc. there are about 200 such basic commands, which must be mastered. I bought a <RedHat 7 INSTRUCTION reference manual>, which is very good, according to the frequently-used Index classification of commands, he marked the three stars as the most frequently-used commands and must master them, the second of the two stars, you only need to know about one star. Although FC3 is now available, the basic Unix commands have not changed for decades! In addition, some commands are Linux-specific or executable files of an application, such as the xmms player. you only need to know this. It doesn't matter if you don't know it. some commands are rarely used, so they are often unable to remember their usage. For these commands, you should at least know the command and have an impression in your mind. When you need to use it, check the manual, but you must never know the existence of this command!

8. Learn to manage the system

After having basic knowledge and a certain amount of command usage, you can learn more about the management system. these content will be available in the entry book, but will not be very in-depth. to thoroughly manage the learning system, you need to buy a similar book. reading books and doing experiments can make rapid progress. learning to configure various network servers and building a network using Linux is a good way to learn about Linux system management and network management. at this stage, you can check the information on the Internet frequently, read the official website documents and FAQs of the released software, and read the articles in the Forum's essence area. but it cannot put the cart before the horse upside down. Reading more books is still fundamental. books and official documents allow you to learn systematically, but forums allow you to learn a little bit of knowledge and tips. I often come to the Forum to see it, because even a newbie may also find some tips you don't know. I can learn these tips from the Forum. however, the ratio of reading documents to viewing forums is no less.
. You can ask questions on the forum once. but don't go to the Forum frequently when you are a beginner, because all the questions you want to ask are written in the Book. Be patient and you will soon be able to see them.

9. Understand the System Structure

You can understand the system structure after you have some system management knowledge, know the configuration files in/etc, and know how to configure the general network server. understanding the system structure is not about what folders you want to see, but about some principles. for example, how the system is guided and those things are started after the boot. which are the most basic library files in the system, and what is the use. the best way to learn the system structure is to build a Linux system by yourself. There is no better way to learn the system structure than to build a Linux system. LFS (Linux from strach) can teach you to compile a system from the source code. by compiling a system by yourself, you can build a Linux system structure, know what files are used for, and how they coordinate work. of course, there are still many things to do before you reach the LFS level, such as how to compile and install the software released by the source code and compile the new kernel. at the LFS level
On a Linux forum, you can be called a "master! At this point, it is equivalent to having basically been built into a collision building, but it still needs to be painted and decorated, and the real detail is still in the back!

Always remember the truth that there are people out of the world. even with the LFS level, you are still a newbie to those who have read the Linux kernel code for Linux system development. therefore, please keep an empty mind at all times. even if there is only one star on the forum, it may be a potential and real expert! Most real experts are engaged in R & D work at ordinary times. Where can I go to the Forum! There are many students who haven't graduated from the university, and they are all on the forum.

10. Professional Courses

If you are not a computer professional and want to learn Linux well, you must take professional courses. it is necessary to learn computer principles, operating systems, computer networks, and other professional courses. why did I start to learn Linux at the same time? Some people learned about Linux very quickly and became masters in less than half a year. Some people did not know how to play it for a year or two or a cainiao? Because those who learn fast have the foundation, they have all learned professional courses. in the same document, people without a basic knowledge can read it three times without understanding it. Just scan the basic knowledge twice to understand it! This is the difference between professional and non-professional! Therefore, to reach a higher level, you must learn basic professional courses.

11. Keep an empty-hearted Learning Attitude

I want to repeat the principle of someone out of the world!
Maintaining an open-minded learning attitude will not only allow you to learn more, but also make you respected.

In the Linux world, if you want to rely on mixed forums, publish water stickers, and change the stars to a higher level, it is impossible to win the respect of others by speaking a few cool words to cainiao. even a newbie can tell the quality of your answers to the question to know how many levels you actually have. in addition, when you become a "master", you can also learn a lot from "cainiao. because there are many problems that you have never thought about before, and you think you will, but there will be difficulties in actual situations. cainiao are often better at discovering such problems. this is what Chinese people often call "Teaching and Learning "!

In the Linux world, the more advanced the people are, the more modest they are, because they know that they still have many unknown ones, and those who want to shake the water are self-righteous, because they still don't know what else they don't know! Let's take a look at embedded development and Unix Forum. Many of them have years of Linux experience and are proficient in Linux and UNIX, but everyone is very humble and respectful.

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