HTML5 knowledge Points: Hypertext Markup Language programming

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags html comment opening and closing tags rfc sublime text

Hypertext Markup Language, an application under the standard Universal Markup Language.

" hypertext " means that the page can contain pictures, links, or even music, programs and other non-text elements.

The structure of Hypertext Markup Language includes the header section (English: Head), and the "Subject" section (English: Body), where the "Head" section provides information about the Web page, and the "subject" part provides the specific content of the Web page.

Detailed Introduction

1. Origin

A hypermedia document on the World Wide Web is called a page (Foreign Language: page). A page that is an organization or an individual that places a start point on the World Wide Web is called a home (Foreign Language: Homepage) or homepage, and the home page usually includes pointers to other related pages or other nodes (hyperlinks), so-called hyperlinks, which are a Uniform Resource Locator (Uniform Resource Locator, foreign language abbreviation: URL) pointer, by activating (clicking) it, allows the browser to easily get new pages. This is one of the most important reasons for the extensive use of HTML. The organic collection of a series of pages that logically will be treated as a whole is called a website (website or site). Hypertext Markup Language (abbreviation: HTML) is a markup language designed for "Web page creation and other information that can be seen in a Web browser."

The essence of a Web page is a Hypertext Markup language that can create powerful Web pages by combining other web technologies such as scripting languages, public gateway interfaces, components, and so on. Thus, the Hypertext Markup language is the basis for World Wide Web programming, meaning that the World Wide Web is based on hypertext. The Hypertext Markup language is referred to as Hyper-text markup language because the text contains the so-called "HYPERLINK" point.

2. definition

Super Text Markup Language is an application under the standard Universal Markup Language, it is also a specification, a standard,

It marks each part of the Web page you want to display with a marker symbol. The Web page file itself is a text file, by adding a marker in a text file, you can tell the browser how to display the content (such as: How the text is handled, how the picture is arranged, how the image is displayed, etc.). The browser reads the Web page file sequentially, and then interprets and displays the contents of its tag according to the marker, and the mark that writes the error does not indicate its error, and does not stop its interpretation execution, the author can only display the effect to analyze the cause of the error and the error site. It is important to note, however, that for different browsers, there may be different interpretations of the same marker, which may result in differing displays.

Language Features

Hypertext Markup Language document production is not very complex, but powerful, supporting different data formats of the file set, which is one of the reasons for the prevalence of the World Wide Web (WWW), its main features are as follows:

1. simplicity: Super Text Markup language version upgrades are super-set, which makes them more flexible and convenient.

2. Scalability : The wide application of Super Text markup language has brought about the enhancement function, the addition of identifiers and so on, the Super Text markup language takes sub-class elements, which guarantees the system extension.

3. platform Independence: Although the PC is a big business, but with a lot of other machines such as Mac, the Hypertext Markup language can be used on a wide range of platforms, which is another reason why the World Wide Web (WWW) prevails.

4. Versatility: In addition, HTML is the universal language of the network, a simple, universal, all-in-one markup language. It allows web-makers to create complex pages of text and images that can be browsed by anyone else on the web, regardless of the type of computer or browser used.

How to Write


It is actually text, it needs to be interpreted by the browser, its editor can be broadly divided into three kinds,

Basic text, document editing software, using Microsoft's own Notepad or WordPad can be written, of course, if you use WPS to write, also can. However, use the. htm or. html as the extension, so that the browser can recognize the direct interpretation of the execution.

Recommended Editor: Dreamweaver, Hbuilder, Sublime text Code Editor.

Overall structure

A Web page corresponds to more than one HTML file, and the Hypertext Markup Language file is an extension or. html (Foreign language abbreviation) for the. HTM (disk operating system DOS limit). You can use any text editor that generates a TXT type source file to produce a Hypertext Markup language file, using only the modified file suffix.

Standard Hypertext Markup Language files have a basic overall structure, and the tags are generally paired (except for some tags, such as:<br/>), which is the beginning and end of the Hypertext Markup Language file and the head and body of the hyper-text markup language. There are three double markers for confirmation of the overall structure of a page.

It is the beginning of the file, and

Head content

Set the document title and other information that does not appear in the page, such as direction direction, language code Language Code (Entity definition!). Entity% i18n), meta information in the specified dictionary, and so on.

Main content

<body></body>; The actual content displayed in the Web page is contained between the 2 body markers. Body markers are also known as entity tags.

Development history

Hypertext Markup Language (first edition)-published as a working group on Internet Engineering (IETF) in June 1993 (not a standard):

HTML 2.0--released in November 1995 as RFC 1866, declared obsolete after RFC 2854 was released in June 2000

HTML 3.2--January 14, 1997, the recommended standard

HTML 4.0--December 18, 1997, the recommended standard

HTML 4.01 (minor improvements)--December 24, 1999, the recommended standard

HTML 5--October 28, 2014, the recommended standard [4]

( See Resources in this section )

ISO/IEC 15445:2000 ("ISO HTML")-released on May 15, 2000, based on strict HTML 4.01 syntax, is the standard of the International Organization for Standardization and IEC.

Wijmo is a control package based on HTML5, JQuery, CSS3, and SVG to meet the needs of building today's web systems. Based on Wijmo, your system will run faster and smoother, with a more compelling look. All new controls in Wijmo are packaged with new and improved themes based on the latest UI design trends. A graceful, professional appearance of controls will make your application stand out. For example, the 6 themes built into the ComponentOne Studio for ASP. NET Wijmo Control Package, you can use more than 30 topics provided by the JQuery UI project, and even use Themeroller to create your own system theme.

HTML does not have version 1.0 because there are many different versions at that time. Some people think that the Tim Berners-Lee version should be the first edition, this version does not have an IMG element. The subsequent development work, known as Html+, began in 1993 and was originally designed to be "a superset of HTML". The first formal specification, which distinguishes it from the various HTML standards at the time, uses 2.0 as its version number. The development of html+ continues, but it has never been a standard.

The HTML3.0 specification was proposed by the then-established company in March 1995 to provide a number of new features, such as tables, text wrapping and the display of complex mathematical elements. Although it was designed to be compatible with version 2.0, the work to achieve this standard was too complex at the time, and standard development was discontinued due to a lack of browser support when the draft was expired in September 1995. Version 3.1 was never formally presented, and the next proposed version was the development of HTML 3.2 codenamed Wilbur, which removed most of the new features in 3.0, but added many specific browsers, such as elements and attributes of Netscape and mosaic. HTML support for mathematical formulas finally becomes another standard MathML.

HTML 4.0 also joins a number of specific browser elements and attributes, but it also begins to "clean up" the standard, marking some elements and attributes as obsolete and suggesting that they are no longer used. The future of HTML will be better combined with CSS.

The predecessor of the HTML 5 draft was called Web Applications 1.0. was introduced in 2004 by WHATWG, was accepted by the company in 2007, and set up a new HTML team. On January 22, 2008, the first formal draft was issued.

xhtml1.0--, published on January 26, 2000, is the recommended standard for the publication, which was later revised on August 1, 2002.

XHTML 1.1, published on May 31, 2001, the recommended standard.

XHTML 2.0,W3C Working Draft.

XHTML 5, updated from XHTML 1.x, is based on the draft HTML 5.

HTML4.01 is a common version.

Related requirements

? HTML has some conventions or default requirements when editing Hypertext Markup language files and using related markers.

The file extension of the Text markup Language source program uses the HTM (the language abbreviation for the disk operating system DOS limit) or HTML (foreign language abbreviation for extension) to facilitate the operation of system or program identification, except for the custom kanji extension. When using a text editor, be careful to modify the extension. The commonly used image files have the extension gif and JPG.

Hypertext Markup Language source program is a text file, its column width can be unlimited, that is, multiple tags can be written in one line, or even the entire file can be written as a line, if written in multiple lines, the browser generally ignores the carriage return in the file (except for the tag designation); The spaces in the file are usually not displayed in the source program. Full spaces can use special symbols (entity characters) "(note that this letter must be lowercase, square spaces)" for non-wrapping spaces, for file paths when using the symbol "/" delimited, file names and path descriptions can also be enclosed without quotation marks.

The markup element in the marker is enclosed in angle brackets, the element with a slash indicates the end of the tag description, and most of the tokens must be used in pairs to denote the beginning and end of the action; The markup element ignores the case, that is, it works the same, but the full space can use the special symbol "(note that this letter must be lowercase, square Many markup elements have attribute descriptions, which can be further qualified with parameters, and any number of parameters or attribute item descriptions are not allowed in the order, and are separated by spaces; The contents of a markup element may be written in multiple lines.

Marker symbols, including angle brackets, markup elements, attribute items, and so on, must use a half-width Western character, rather than full-width characters.

The HTML comment starts with the "<!--" sign, ending with the symbol "--", such as <!--comment content. The comment content can be inserted anywhere in the text. Any marker that inserts an exclamation point at its top is identified as a comment and is not displayed.

Common entities

XHTML Common Tags

1. Text title (H1-H6)


2. Paragraph (p)

<p> paragraph text content </p>

Identify a paragraph (paragraph with paragraph spacing between paragraphs)

3. Bold

Bold with two marks

1.<b> Bold Content </b>

2.<strong> Bold Content </strong>

4. Tilt

Tilt Mark



5. List (UL,OL,DL)

There are three kinds of lists in HTML: unordered list, sequence table, custom list

* Unordered List

Unordered list consists of:







* Ordered list

A sequence table consists of:







* Custom List


<dt> nouns </dt>

<dd> Interpretation </dd>



6. Insert Picture

7, the application of hyperlinks


<a href= "destination file path and full name/connection address" title= "hint text" > link text/Picture </a>

8. the function and composition of data tables

Function: Display data

<table width= "value" height= "value" border= "value" bgcolor= "value" cellspacing= "value" cellpadding= "value" >






Note: A TR represents a row; a TD represents a column (a cell)

* Related properties of data tables

1) width= "Table width"

2) height= "Table height"

3) border= "table border"

4) bgcolor= "Table background color"

5) cellspacing= "spacing between cells and cells"

6) cellpadding= "Space between cell and content"

7) Alignment: Align= "Left/center/right";

8) Merge Cell properties:

? 9, the application of the form

The function of a form: to collect information from a user;

1. Form Box

<form name= "form name" method= "Post/get" action= "" >


1) text box

<input type= "text" value= "Default value"/>

2) Password box <input type= "password"/>

3) Submit button

<input type= "Submit" value= "button content"/>

4) Reset button

<input type= "Reset" value= "button content"/>

5) Single box/radio button

<input type= "Radio" name= "RAL"/>

<input type= "Radio" name= "RAL"/>

<input type= "Radio" Name= "RAL" checked= "checked"/> (default selected;)

6) check box

<input type= "checkbox" name= "like"/>

<input type= "checkbox" Name= "like" disabled= "Disabled"/> (disabled= "disabled": Disabled)

(checked= "Checked": Selected by default)

7) drop-down menu

<select name= "" >

<option> Menu Contents </option>


8) Multiline text box (text field)

<textarea name= "Textareal" cols= "character width" rows= "line Count" >


9) button

<input name= "'" type= "button" value= "buttons contents"/>

(The difference between him and the submit is that the submit button acts as a submit message, and button only acts as a jump and does not commit.) )

10. usage of Div

<div id= "id name"/class= "class name" ></div>

Document area, document layout object

11. usage of span

<span></span> text nodes (a small paragraph of text, or a word)

Source: Qian Feng HTML5

HTML5 knowledge Points: Hypertext Markup Language programming

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