In and out, kotlinout

Source: Internet
Author: User

In and out, kotlinout

Value | thinking | Resonance

Summary: When Using Generics in Kotlin, you will notice that in and out are introduced, which may be difficult for unfamiliar developers to understand. Formally speaking, this is a way to define inverter and collaborative changes. This article will explain how to understand and remember them.

How to remember in & out?

Out (covariant)

If your class returns generics as internal methods, you can use out:

Interface Production <out T> {

Fun produce (): T

It can be called production class/interface, because it is mainly a generce that specifies a generic object. Therefore, you can record it as follows:Produce = output = out.

In (inverter)

If your class uses generic objects as function parameters, you can use in:

Interface Consumer <in T> {

Fun consume (item: T)


It can be called consumer class/interface, because it is mainly used to consume specified generic objects. Therefore, you can record it as follows:Consume = input = in.

Invariant (unchanged)

If you use generics as function parameters and function output, you do not need in or out.

Interface ProductionConsumer <T> {

Fun produce (): T
Fun consume (item: T)


For example

Suppose we have a hamburger object. It is a fast food, of course, a kind of food.

Open class Foodopen class FastFood: Food () class Burger: FastFood ()

1. Hamburg provider

Designed and provided based on the classes and interfaces defined aboveFood, fastfoodAndBurgerClass:

Class FoodStore: Production <Food> {
Override fun produce (): Food {
Println ("Produce food ")

Return Food ()
} Class FastFoodStore: Production <FastFood> {
Override fun produce (): FastFood {
Println ("Produce food ")

Return FastFood ()
} Class InOutBurger: Production <Burger> {
Override fun produce (): Burger {
Println ("Produce burger ")

Return Burger ()

Now, we can assign values as follows:

Val production1: Production <Food> = FoodStore ()
Val production2: Production <Food> = FastFoodStore ()
Val production3: Production <Food> = InOutBurger ()

Obviously, the hamburger store is a fast food store, and of course a food store.

Therefore, for out generics, we can assign values to the objects that use the subclass generics.

If the subclass-Burger generic type is used in turn like below, an error will occur, because the fast food and food stores not only provide the hamburger ).

Val production1: Production <Burger> = FoodStore () // Error
Val production2: Production <Burger> = FastFoodStore () // Error
Val production3: Production <Burger> = InOutBurger ()

2. Hamburger consumer

Let's define the hamburger consumer class based on the above class and interface:

Class Everybody: Consumer <Food> {
Override fun consume (item: Food ){
Println ("Eat food ")
} Class ModernPeople: Consumer <FastFood> {
Override fun consume (item: FastFood ){
Println ("Eat fast food ")
} Class American: Consumer <Burger> {
Override fun consume (item: Burger ){
Println ("Eat burger ")

Now, we canEverybody, ModernPeopleAnd American are both specified to the hamburger Consumer (Consumer <Burger> ):

Val consumer1: Consumer <Burger> = Everybody ()
Val consumer2: Consumer <Burger> = ModernPeople ()
Val consumer3: Consumer <Burger> = American ()

Obviously, the American hamburger consumers are both modern and human.

Therefore, for in generics, we can assign a value to an object that uses the parent generic type to a subclass generic type.

Similarly, if the parent class-Food generic type is used here, an error is returned:

Val consumer1: Consumer <Food> = Everybody ()
Val consumer2: Consumer <Food> = ModernPeople () // Error
Val consumer3: Consumer <Food> = American () // Error

Based on the above content, we can also understand when to use in and out:

  • A parent class generic object can be assigned to a subclass generic object. in is used;

  • A subclass generic object can be assigned a value to the parent class generic object, with an out value.

Original ENGLISH: In and out type variant of Kotlin

Recommended for the old article: Use Kotlin to develop Part 1 of the modern Android Project

▼ Click to read the original text to get the link

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