Interview Summary------black box, white box test related _ interview

Source: Internet
Author: User
Black box, white box test

Black-Box testing: Known product functional design specifications, can be tested to verify that each implementation of the function to meet the requirements.
White box test: The internal working process of a known product can be tested to verify that each internal operation meets the design specifications and that all internal components are inspected.

Black-Box testing (also called functional testing or data-driven testing)
Black-Box testing of software means that testing is done at the interface of the software. This method is the test object as a black box, the tester does not consider the internal logic structure and internal characteristics of the program, only according to the requirements of the program specifications, check the function of the program to meet its functional description.

Black-Box testing is mainly to identify the following types of errors:
1, whether there is an incorrect or missing function.
2, in the interface, the input is correct to accept. Can output the correct result.
3, whether there is a data structure error or external information (such as data file) Access errors.
4, performance is able to meet the requirements.
5, whether there is initialization or termination of the error.

Black Box test Method:
1. Equivalence class partitioning (equivalence class refers to a set of input fields that represent the equivalent of each input condition in the collection for errors in the disclosure program)
2. The Boundary value analysis method: Lists the unit function, the input, the State and the control legal boundary value, the design test case, contains the whole boundary value the method.
3. Causal map:
4. False Inference Method
5. Decision Table Method
6. State Migration Method
7. Orthogonal experimental method

White box test (also known as structural test or logical drive test)
White-Box testing of software is a detailed examination of the software's procedural details. This approach is to treat the test object as an open box that allows testers to design or select test Cases and test all logical paths of the program using the logical structure of the program and the relevant information. By checking the state of the program at different points, determine whether the actual state is consistent with the expected state. So white-box testing is also known as structural testing or logic-driven testing.
White box testing is mainly to the program module to do the following check:
1, to the program module of all the Independent execution path test at least once.
2, for all the logical decision, take "true" and take "false" two kinds of situation can be measured at least once.
3. Execute the loop body within the bounds of the loop and the boundary of the operation.
4, test the effectiveness of the internal data structure, and so on.

White Box test method:
1. Code Review method
2. Static structure Analysis method
3. Static Mass Measurement method
4. Logical coverage method (statement coverage, decision coverage, conditional coverage, decision/condition coverage, conditional combination coverage and path coverage)
5. Basic Path test method
6. Domain Test
7. Symbol Test
8.Z Path Overlay
9. Program Variation
The above facts show that software testing has a fatal flaw, that is, the test is incomplete, not thorough. Because any program can only perform a limited number of tests (as opposed to a large amount of exhaustive), it is not possible to indicate that there are no errors in the program when no errors are found.

Three, gray box test
Grey box test, which is between the white box test and the black box test, it can be understood that the gray box test focus on the output for the correctness of the input, but also pay attention to the internal performance, but this concern is not as detailed and complete as the white box, only through a number of representational phenomena, events, signs to determine the internal state of operation, and sometimes the output is correct , but the internal is actually wrong, this situation is very much, if each time through the white box test to operate, the efficiency will be very low, so need to take such a gray box method.

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