Introduction to 10 commonly used Linux systems

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags comparable versions centos root access

A Mandriva
Mandriva formerly known as Mandrake, was first created by Gaël Duval and released in July 1998. Remember the first two years when the domestic just began to popularize Linux, Mandrake very popular. Speaking of the history of Mandrake, in fact, the first Mandrake developers are based on the development of Redhat. Redhat defaults to the GNOME desktop system, and Mandrake changes it to KDE. And since Linux is generally difficult to install, it is not suitable for first contact with Linux novice, so Mandrake also simplifies the installation system. I think this is one of the reasons why Mandrake was so prosperous at home. Mandrake does have a lot of work to do with ease of use, including hardware testing by default.
The development of Mandrake is completely transparent, including "cooker". When the system has a new test version, it can be found on the cooker. The new version of Mandrake was released quickly, but slowed since 9.0. It is expected to extend the viability of the version to ensure stability and security.
Benefits: Friendly interface, graphic Configuration tool, large community technical support, NTFS partition size change
Disadvantage: Partial version of the bug more, the latest version only first released to the Mandrake club members
Package Management system: URPMI (RPM)
Free Download: FTP instant download, ISO in the release within a few weeks after delivery
Official homepage:">

Two Red Hat
At home, even the world's Linux users are most familiar with the most heard of the detailed distribution must be Red hat. Red hat was first created by Bob Young and Marcewing in 1995. The company has only recently begun to enter a profitable era, thanks to the cost of red Hat Enterprise Linux (Rhel,redhat's Enterprise Edition). The Orthodox Red Hat version has already stopped technical support, and the final version is Red Hat 9.0. As a result, Red Hat is now divided into two series: the Redhat company offers fee-based technical support and updated Red Hat Enterprise Linux, as well as free fedora Core developed by the community.

FedoraCore1 was released at the end of 2003, and FC's location is desktop users. FC provides the latest package, while its version update cycle is also very short, only six months. The latest version is FC3, and FC4 is scheduled to be released this June. This is why the use of Fedora Core is not generally recommended on servers.
The version that applies to the server is red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is a fee-based operating system. As a result, many enterprises or space providers at home and abroad choose CentOS. CentOS can be considered a clone of Rhel, but its greatest benefit is free! Rookie oil The current server will use the CentOS 3.4.
Advantages: A large number of users, excellent community technical support, many innovative
Disadvantage: Free version (Fedora Core) version life cycle is too short, multimedia support is poor
Package Management System: Up2date (RPM), YUM (RPM)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Three SUSE
SuSE is the most famous Linux distribution in Germany and enjoys a high reputation throughout the world. SuSE's proprietary software package management System YaST also received great acclaim. SuSE was acquired by Novell at the end of 2003. The release after SuSE was confusing, for example, the 9.0 version was charged, while the 10.0 version (perhaps due to various pressures) was released free of charge. This makes some users confused and uses other distributions instead. However, afterward, SuSE is still a very professional, excellent distribution.
Advantages: Professional, Easy-to-use yast package Management System
Disadvantage: FTP publishing is usually 1-3 months later than the retail version
Package Management System: YaST (RPM), third party apt (rpm) Software Library (repository)
Free Download: Depends on version
Official homepage:

Four Debian Gnu/linux
Debian is the operating system used before the rookie oil server. Debian was first created by Ianmurdock in 1993. So far, the most compliant Linux system is the GNU specification. The Debian system is divided into three versions (branch): stable, testing and unstable. As of May 2005, the specific versions of these three versions are: Woody, Sarge and SID. Among them, unstable is the latest beta version, which includes the latest packages, but also has a relatively large number of bugs for desktop users. Testing's version is tested in unstable, relatively stable, and supports a number of new technologies (such as SMP). Woody is typically used only for servers, most of which are outdated, but both stable and secure are very high. Rookie oil was previously used in Debian Sarge.
Why are so many users obsessed with Debian (including the author)? Apt-get/dpkg is one of the reasons. Dpkg is a unique package management tool in the Debian series and is hailed as the most powerful of all Linux package management tools, such as RPM! With Apt-get, installing, upgrading, removing, and managing software on Debian is exceptionally easy. Many Debian users have joked that Debian is keeping them lazy, because as long as the "Apt-get Upgrade && apt-get Update" is simply tapped, all the software on the machine is automatically updated ...
Advantages: Follow the GNU specification, 100% free, excellent network and community resources, powerful Apt-get
Disadvantage: Installation is relatively difficult, stable branch of the software is extremely outdated
Package Management system: APT (DEB)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Five Ubuntu
The author of the desktop computer will use Ubuntu. In short, Ubuntu is a near-perfect Linux operating system that has all the benefits of Debian and the benefits it reinforces, according to the author. :)
Ubuntu is a relatively new release, but its presence may change the way many potential users view Linux. It may have been thought that Linux was hard to install and difficult to use, but after the advent of Ubuntu, it all became history. Ubuntu is based on Debiansid, so this is what the author says, Ubuntu has all the benefits of Debian, including Apt-get. However, not only that, Ubuntu's default GNOME desktop system will also make Ubuntu's interface simple and gorgeous. Of course, if you're a KDE supporter, Kubuntu is just as good for you!
Ubuntu installation is very user-friendly, as long as you follow the prompts step-by-step, installation and Windows are just as easy! Also, Ubuntu is hailed as one of the best and most comprehensive Linux distributions for hardware support, many of which are not available on other distributions, or that are not available on the default configuration, and are easily handled on Ubuntu. Also, Ubuntu uses its own enhanced kernel (kernel) to enhance security. Also, Ubuntu does not have direct root access by default, and must obtain root permissions from the first user created through Su or sudo
(This may not be convenient, but it undoubtedly increases security and avoids the user being careless and damaging the system). Ubuntu's version cycle is six months, making up for the slow pace of Debian updates.
Advantages: Highly popular forum provides excellent resources and technical support, fixed version update cycle and technical support, can be directly upgraded from Debian Woody
Disadvantage: No mature business model has been established
Package Management system: APT (DEB)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Six Gentoo
Gentoo was originally created by Daniel Robbins (one of the former Stampedelinux and FreeBSD developers). Due to the developer's familiarity with FreeBSD, Gentoo has a reputation as a ports system that is comparable to FreeBSD.
--portage. (Ports and Portage are all systems for online update software, similar to Apt-get, but still very different) Gentoo's first stable version was released in 2002.
Gentoo is known for its highly customizable nature: because it is a source-based (source-based) distribution. Although you can choose a precompiled package at installation time, most users who use Gentoo choose to compile them manually. This is why Gentoo is suitable for use by veterans with experience with Linux. Note, however, that it takes a lot of time to compile the software, so if all of your software compiles yourself and installs larger packages such as the KDE desktop system, it may take days to compile ...
Advantages: Highly customizable, complete use of manuals, comparable to ports portage system, suitable for "smug" master use ^ ^
Disadvantage: Compile time consuming, slow installation
Package Management system: Portage (SRC)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Seven Slackware
Slackware was founded in 1992 by Patrick Volkerding. It should be the oldest Linux distribution. Once Slackware very popular, but when Linux becomes more and more popular, the user's technical level is more and more wide (more novice), Slackware gradually by the new people forget. While other mainstream distributions emphasize ease of use, Slackware still stubbornly pursues the most original efficiencies-all configurations are made through configuration files. Nonetheless, Slackware is still popular (most of them are experienced Linux veterans). Slackware is stable and secure, so there are still a large number of loyal users. The chances of making new bugs are much lower because slackware try to use the original packages without any modifications. The Slackware version has a longer update cycle (approximately 1 years), but the new version of the software is still available to users for downloading.
Advantages: Very stable, safe, highly adhere to the UNIX specifications
Disadvantage: All configurations are edited by the file, and the automatic hardware detection capability is poor
Package Management system: Slackware Package Management (TGZ)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Eight Knoppix
The Knoppix, developed by Klaus Knopper of Germany, is a Debian based distribution. Knoppix strictly calculate is a LiveCD Linux, the so-called LIVECD is the entire operating system on a CD-ROM, as long as the boot from the CD, you can have a complete Linux system! No installation required! Of course, Knoppix can also be easily installed on the hard drive. Its powerful hardware detection capabilities, system repair capabilities, real-time compression transmission technology, are greatly praised. It can be said that in the LiveCD world, Knoppix is no one can!
Advantages: No installation can run directly on the CD, excellent hardware detection capabilities, can be used as a system first aid disk
Disadvantage: LiveCD due to the data read speed limit of the optical disk caused the performance to drop greatly
Package Management system: APT (DEB)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Mepis was established by Warren Woodford in 2003. Mepis, although just built soon, is spreading quickly among Linux users. In short, Mepis is a product of a collection of Debian SIDs and Knoppix. Users can use it as a LiveCD, or use a regular graphical interface for installation.
Mepis Default integration installs many commonly used programs, such as Java Runtime environment, Flash plug-ins, nvidia accelerator drivers, and so on. Users can easily install the system immediately after the start to use, rather than looking around for information such as
How to download, how to install, and how to configure these software. This not only brings convenience to the Linux novice, but also saves a considerable amount of time to the veteran.
Advantages: LiveCD and conventional installation of dual-use, excellent hardware detection capabilities, pre-installed a lot of practical software
Disadvantage: The establishment time is not long, the default interface is somewhat shabby
Package Management system: APT (DEB)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

Ten Xandros
Xandros is built on Corel Linux, which has become history. The Corel Linux Company was forced to terminate the development of corellinux because of financial difficulties, and Xandros bought the Corel Linux department in time to launch a new Xandros Desktop in October 2002.
Xandros's selling point is that it's extremely simple to install and use, so its market positioning is for those who don't have any experience with Linux or who are accustomed to using Windows. Xandros's standard and enhanced editions are commercial software, priced at $ $ and $ $99 respectively. But you can still download it to a free public release here.
Advantages: Suitable for completely inexperienced novice, after installation can immediately put into use, with a very good tool
Disadvantage: Commercial software
Package Management system: Xandros Networks (Deb) or APT (Deb) (optional, but no technical support)
Free Download: Public release
Official homepage:

11 FreeBSD
    The first thing to emphasize is that FreeBSD is not a Linux system!
    However, why do I introduce FreeBSD? Because FreeBSD's users are also quite large, many of its features are similar to Linux. In fact, Linux and BSD (Berkeley softwaredistribution) are the evolutionary branches of UNIX. Also, quite a few features and features in Linux, such as the BIND software for configuring DNS, are taken from BSD. FreeBSD is one of the most popular distributions in the BSD family, with the largest number of users. The FreeBSD system was used before MEZOC. Founded in 1993, FreeBSD has a long history. FreeBSD has two branches: stable and current. As the name suggests, stable is a stable version, while current is a beta version of the new technology added. In addition, FreeBSD will publish new versions irregularly, called Release,stable and Current, with their release versions. For example, 4.11-release and 5.3-release, please note that this does not mean that the latter is newer than the former version. This only represents the former (a small version of the number) is the stable version, the latter (digital version) is the current version.
    FreeBSD is suitable for desktop users in addition to being a server system. However, given the compatibility of software, it is not advisable for a general user to choose FreeBSD as a desktop system. As a server, FreeBSD is pretty good. It has been said that the same server hardware configuration, running the same vbulletin forum, FreeBSD use less resources than Linux. This is why many space merchants strongly esteem FreeBSD. :)
    Benefits: fast, very stable, excellent manual, ports system
    Disadvantage: Hardware is less supported than Linux, and software compatibility is a problem for desktop systems

Package Management system: Ports (TBZ)
Free Download: Yes
Official homepage:

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