1.ICANN with IANA iana,internet assigned Numbers Authority, Chinese for Internet digital distribution agency. Icann,internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, Chinese for Internet name and digital address distribution agency. The United States Government agreed in 2016 to formally hand over the IANA to Icann,icann, a neutral non-profit organization. The main task of the ICANN's IANA is the supreme authority of the Internet domain Name System (DNS), which holds the absolute power to design, maintain and address resource allocation for the Internet (Internet) domain Name System. IANA commissioned all domain names to be administered by the domain name registrar, such as VeriSign. The national and regional top-level domains (Country code top-level DOMAINS,CCTLD) are entrusted to the national Domain name registration Authority by IANA, such as German denic, British Nominet, China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), etc.
2. Domain name registration process domain name registrant registrant in order to register a domain name, the domain name must be registered in nearly 1000 of ICANN's authorized registrars. The domain registrar will check whether the domain name is available and establish a WHOIS record according to the information provided by the registrant. The registrant may also register the domain name through the distributor's affiliate. The organizations/individuals involved in the process of registering a domain name and the relationships between them are shown in the following illustration:
Where Icann/iana is the international management of DNS, Registry operator is a registry operator, registrar is a domain name registrar, reseller is a distributor, registrant is a domain name registration of individuals or organizations. (1) Domain registrant registrant domain name registrant means the person or organization registering the domain name. When registering a domain name, a registrant usually needs to submit an application to a domain registrar or its distributor online. The registrant is bound by the terms and conditions stipulated by the Registrar of its registered domain name, for example, by complying with a code of conduct or, in the course of using a domain name, by protecting the Registrar and the Board from any legal action or civil action resulting from the use of domain names. In these terms and conditions, the registrant needs to perform certain duties, such as payment of registration fees, timely submission of accurate data updates, etc. In addition to registering the domain name, the registrant also needs to place its domain name on the domain name server so that the domain name can be accessed on the Internet. If the Registrar does not provide a domain name Server service, or if the registrant does not choose the appropriate service provided by the Registrar, the registrant will need to purchase or search for a managed server. (2) Domain Registrar Registrar domain name registrars refer to ICANN-mandated organizations and are authorized by the registry operator to sell domain names. They are bound by the Registrar's Licensing Agreement (RAA) signed with ICANN and the agreements they have signed with the registry operator. The Registrar's responsibilities are clearly defined in the RAA, including maintaining WHOIS data, submitting data to the Registrar, supporting public WHOIS query services, ensuring that the registrant's details are managed by a third party, and complying with the conditions associated with the end of the registration period in RAA. Some registrars may choose to complete their registration through a distributor. Distributors are affiliated with registrars or have contracts with registrars, and usually provide other services, such as network hosting, email, and so on. Distributors who sell services to registrars are bound by the agreements they have signed with the Registrar, and they are not an authorized agency of ICANN. However, the Registrar who provides the service to the Distributor is still the guarantor of domain name registration and is responsible for the sale of the domain name by the Distributor. (3) Registry operator Registry operator (not quite clear) my understanding refers to the root domain server operating units, such as A.root-servers.org's verisign,l.root-servers.net ICANN. The registry operator is responsible for maintaining the registration of each top-level domain. The responsibilities of a registry operator include accepting a registration request (whether the request comes from a registrar ordirectly from the registrant), maintain the necessary registration database, and provide a domain name server to publish domain archive data on the Internet (for example, information about the location of the domain name).
3. Common domain name Registrars markmonitor GoDaddy network Solutions million nets
New Network 35 interconnection ...
4.whois Introduction and WHOIS information Query WHOIS protocol is a Transmission Control protocol, also known as TCP based transactional query/response agreement, which is widely used to provide information services to Internet users. This protocol was originally used to provide "white page" services and to register domain name information, and is now used to provide a large number of information services. The protocol provides its content in a readable form. WHOIS data Services provided by registrars and registries are referred to as "WHOIS services" or "Registered Data Directory Services". In addition to the WHOIS services provided by registrars and registries, ICANN has now developed a new set of WHOIS services to simplify WHOIS query procedures. ICANN's WHOIS service is a public search tool that allows you to search the registry and Registrar's database to obtain contact details for all domain name owners signing gtld. There are probably two ways to query whois information: (1) The form of a Web page, for example:
(2) by WHOIS command
Note: The information returned by the WHOIS service is the name server information that is used to indicate the authoritative servers for domain name resolution.
Learning Materials Reference: Https://whois.icann.org/zh/%E5%9F%9F%E5%90%8D%E6%B3%A8%E5%86%8C%E6%B5%81%E7%A8%8B