JavaScript Basic Collection _ Regular Expressions (vii)

Source: Internet
Author: User

This series primarily records JavaScript, where beginners are more likely to be mistaken.

This article is dedicated to the regular expression, I believe you will often use in programming!

Strings are the most data structure involved in programming, and the need to manipulate strings is almost ubiquitous. For example, to determine whether a string is a legitimate email address, although you can programmatically extract @ the substring before and after, and then judge whether it is a word and domain name, but this is not only cumbersome, and code is difficult to reuse.

A regular expression is a powerful weapon used to match strings. Its design idea is to use a descriptive language to define a rule for a string, and any string that conforms to the rule, we think it "matches", otherwise the string is illegal.

So the way we judge whether a string is a legitimate email is:

    1. Create a regular expression that matches the email;

    2. Use the regular expression to match the user's input to determine whether it is legal.

Because the regular expression is also represented by a string, we first know how to describe the character with characters.

In regular expressions, if a character is given directly, it is exactly the exact match. To match a \d number, \w you can match a letter or a number, so:

    • ‘00\d‘Can match ‘007‘ , but cannot match ‘00A‘ ;

    • ‘\d\d\d‘can match ‘010‘ ;

    • ‘\w\w‘can match ‘js‘ ;

.Can match any character, so:

    • ‘js.‘Can match ‘jsp‘ , ‘jss‘ , and ‘js!‘ so on.

To match a variable-length character, in a regular expression, with a representation of * any character (including 0), with a representation of + at least one character, representing ? 0 or 1 characters, with a representation of {n} n characters, represented by {n,m} n-m characters:

Take a look at a complex example: \d{3}\s+\d{3,8} .

Let's read from left to right:

    1. \d{3}Indicates a match of 3 digits, for example ‘010‘ ;

    2. \sCan match a space (also including tab and other white space characters), so that \s+ there is at least one space, such as matching ‘ ‘ , ‘\t\t‘ etc.;

    3. \d{3,8}Represents a 3-8 number, for example ‘1234567‘ .

Together, the above regular expression can match a telephone number with an area code separated by any space.

What if you want to match ‘010-12345‘ a number like this? Because ‘-‘ it is a special character, it is escaped in the regular expression, ‘\‘ so the above is \d{3}\-\d{3,8} .

However, there is still no match ‘010 - 12345‘ because there are spaces. So we need more complex ways of matching.

Advanced

To make a more accurate match, you can use a [] representation range, such as:

    • [0-9a-zA-Z\_]Can match a number, letter, or underscore;

    • [0-9a-zA-Z\_]+Can match a string of at least one number, letter, or underscore, for example, and ‘a100‘ ‘0_Z‘ ‘js2015‘ so on;

    • [a-zA-Z\_\$][0-9a-zA-Z\_\$]*You can match a string consisting of a number, letter, or underscore, or $, which is the name of the variable allowed by JavaScript, by a letter or underscore, or $.

    • [a-zA-Z\_\$][0-9a-zA-Z\_\$]{0, 19}More precisely limit the length of a variable to 1-20 characters (1 characters before + 19 characters later).

A|BCan match A or B, so (J|j)ava(S|s)cript you can match ‘JavaScript‘ , ‘Javascript‘ , ‘javaScript‘ or ‘javascript‘ .

^Represents the beginning of a row, ^\d indicating that a number must begin.

$Represents the end of a line, indicating that it \d$ must end with a number.

You may have noticed it, but you can match it, js ‘jsp‘ but plus ^js$ it turns into an entire line match, it only matches ‘js‘ .

Regexp

With the knowledge of readiness, we can use regular expressions in JavaScript.

JavaScript has two ways of creating a regular expression:

The first way is by /正则表达式/ writing it directly, and the second way is by new RegExp(‘正则表达式‘) creating a RegExp object.

The two formulations are the same:

var re1 = /ABC\-001/;var re2 = new RegExp(‘ABC\\-001‘);re1; // /ABC\-001/re2; // /ABC\-001/

Note that if you use the second notation because of the escape problem of the string, the two of the string \\ is actually one \ .

Let's look at how to tell if a regular expression matches:

/^\d{3}\-\d{3,8}$/;re.test(‘010-12345‘); // truere.test(‘010-1234x‘); // falsere.test(‘010 12345‘); // false

The method of the RegExp object test() is used to test whether a given string conforms to a condition.

Slicing a string

Using regular expressions to slice a string is more flexible than a fixed character, see the normal segmentation code:

‘a b   c‘.split(‘ ‘); // [‘a‘, ‘b‘, ‘‘, ‘‘, ‘c‘]

Well, you can't recognize contiguous spaces, try using regular expressions:

‘a b   c‘.split(/\s+/); // [‘a‘, ‘b‘, ‘c‘]

No matter how many spaces can be divided normally. Add to try , :

‘a,b, c  d‘.split(/[\s\,]+/); // [‘a‘, ‘b‘, ‘c‘, ‘d‘]

Try again ; :

‘a,b;; c  d‘.split(/[\s\,\;]+/); // [‘a‘, ‘b‘, ‘c‘, ‘d‘]

If the user enters a set of tags, next time remember to use regular expressions to convert the nonstandard input into the correct array.

Group

In addition to simply judging whether a match is matched, the regular expression also has the power to extract substrings. The () Grouping (group) to be extracted is represented by the. Like what:

^(\d{3})-(\d{3,8})$Two groups are defined separately, and the area code and local numbers can be extracted directly from the matching string:

var re = /^(\d{3})-(\d{3,8})$/;re.exec(‘010-12345‘); // [‘010-12345‘, ‘010‘, ‘12345‘]re.exec(‘010 12345‘); // null

If a group is defined in a regular expression, you can extract the substring from the RegExp object using a exec() method.

exec()After the match succeeds, the method returns one Array , the first element is the entire string to which the regular expression matches, and the subsequent string represents the successful substring.

exec()Method is returned when a match fails null .

Extracting substrings is useful. Look at a more vicious example:

var re = /^(0[0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-3]|[0-9])\:(0[0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-9]|3[0-9]|4[0-9]|5[0-9]|[0-9])\:(0[0-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-9]|3[0-9]|4[0-9]|5[0-9]|[0-9])$/;re.exec(‘19:05:30‘); // [‘19:05:30‘, ‘19‘, ‘05‘, ‘30‘]

This regular expression can directly identify the legal time. However, there are times when it is not possible to fully validate with regular expressions, such as identifying dates:

var re = /^(0[1-9]|1[0-2]|[0-9])-(0[1-9]|1[0-9]|2[0-9]|3[0-1]|[0-9])$/;

For ‘2-30‘ , ‘4-31‘ such illegal date, with regular or can not be recognized, or write out to be very difficult, then need to program with identification.

Greedy match

In particular, a regular match is a greedy match by default, which is to match as many characters as possible. For example, match the following numbers 0 :

var re = /^(\d+)(0*)$/;re.exec(‘102300‘); // [‘102300‘, ‘102300‘, ‘‘]

Because \d+ of the greedy match, directly the back of 0 all matching, the result 0* can only match the empty string.

\d+a non-greedy match (that is, as few matches as possible) must be used in order to match the latter 0 and add a ? \d+ non-greedy match to it:

var re = /^(\d+?)(0*)$/;re.exec(‘102300‘); // [‘102300‘, ‘1023‘, ‘00‘]
Global Search

JavaScript regular expressions also have several special flags, most commonly used g to represent global matches:

var r1 = /test/g;// 等价于:var r2 = new RegExp(‘test‘, ‘g‘);

A global match can execute exec() the method multiple times to search for a matching string. When we specify a g flag, each time it is run exec() , the regular expression itself updates the lastIndex property, representing the last index to which it was last matched:

var s = ‘JavaScript, VBScript, JScript and ECMAScript‘;var re=/[a-zA-Z]+Script/g;// 使用全局匹配:re.exec(s); // [‘JavaScript‘]re.lastIndex; // 10re.exec(s); // [‘VBScript‘]re.lastIndex; // 20re.exec(s); // [‘JScript‘]re.lastIndex; // 29re.exec(s); // [‘ECMAScript‘]re.lastIndex; // 44re.exec(s); // null,直到结束仍没有匹配到

The global match is similar to a search and therefore cannot be used, so it /^...$/ will only match at most once.

The regular expression can also specify i flags, which indicate that the case is ignored, and the flag indicates that a m multiline match is performed.

JavaScript Basic Collection _ Regular Expressions (vii)

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