Linux 124 Lesson 2, managing files from the command line

Source: Internet
Author: User

  • File directory
  • /represents the root directory the entire system is all in the root directory
    /boot Store Boot configuration file recommendations, separate into a partition
    /dev Device file directory such as: CD, HDD
    /etc store all the configuration files
    Home directory file for a normal user
    Home directory where/root management is located
    /run Store dynamic files (non-persistent application data), shut down to empty files
    /TMP holds temporary files and may not be there after one weeks
    /var store dynamic Data files such as:/var/log/messages log file
    /usr storage of installed software programs and library files
    /usr/bin commands to store ordinary users
    /usr/sbin to store administrator commands
    /usr/local Storage of custom software

    which mkdir
    Which Usesradd

    /proc Store kernel parameters and hardware parameters such as: CPU, memory-related information
    Cat/proc/cupinfo Viewing CPU information
    Cat/proc/meminfo Viewing CPU information

    2.pwd View your directory
    CD/switch to the root directory

    How to view the directory path in which you are located
    PWD View Directory
    Whatis pwd
    3.CD Switch Directory
    CD Catalog
    Relative path: The path is the starting point of the current path
    . Represents the current directory
    .. Represents the previous level of the directory
    ~ means to return to your home directory equivalent to the input CD
    Absolute path: Always take root as the starting point of the path
    For example: Cd/home/student takes root as the starting point, which is an absolute path
    Cd.. /home/student relative path

    Cd./student Enter the/student directory under the current directory "./" can be omitted, enter directly into the student

    1. LS Lists all the contents of the current directory
      -l display in long format
      -a displays all files including hidden files and. And.. Including. /. ./.bash Hidden files
      -a show all files including hidden files
      -D Displays all catalog files, used in conjunction with-l
      LS-LD displays the long file format of the current directory
      -h Displays information in K/m/g General and-L combined use
      -R Recursive display

    2. Touch creates an empty file (the timestamp of the file can be refreshed)
      Touch file1 Create a file1 file
      echo 123 echo Hello World > File1
      Cat file1 viewing content in File1
      Ls-l File1 can see time stamp modification
      Touch file1 timestamp will be modified, the contents of the file will not be modified
      Touch file1 file2 file3 Create multiple files
      Touch file{5..9}

    3. mkdir Creating an empty directory
      -P Create a multilevel directory if you do not have a directory before you can create
      Mkdir Dir1 Dir2 Dir3
      Mkdir dir{5..9}
      Mkdir-p a/b/c Create a C directory, and if you do not have B, first create B,
      Ls-r a ls recursive view
    4. MV move file, directory/rename (same path move)
      (When you move a file, the original file's permissions are retained by default)
      Mv file1 dir1/
      Mv.. /file2. /dir2
      Mv File5 File5.old
      Mv File9 Dir9/file99
      MV a dir1/
    5. CP Replication
      -I overwrite replication with prompt information
      -F forced Override
      -R Recursive replication
      -P Retain original property
      CP can also be renamed, duplicated under the same target, can be renamed
      Files and multilevel directories exist in Dir1
      Cp Dir1 dir2/cannot be copied
      Cp-r Dir1 dir2/Recursive replication

    The Cp command adds the-I option by default in the system, so it automatically alerts you if the original file is overwritten
    Alias view command aliases in the system

    CP-RFP Dir1 dir2/

      1. Rm/rmdir Delete directory, file RM must be used with caution

    Rmdir Delete Empty Directory
    Rm Delete a file or directory
    -I overwrite replication with prompt information
    -F forced Override
    -R Recursive replication

    Rm dir1

    Rm file4
    Rm-f File6 does not need to ask whether to delete
    Rm-f-R dir1 Force recursive removal of files and directories
    Rm-r Dir2 Tip whether to delete


      1. File wildcard: path name extension

    Mkdir Dira
    You need to display the folders that dir1,dir2,dir3 these numbers
    Special Character Categories:
    Metacharacters (introduced later)
    redirect > >>
    Pipe symbol |

    Wildcard characters
      Match 0 or more characters
    ? Match any one character
    [List] matches any one of the characters in the list
    [!list] matches any character except List
    {String1,string2,string3,...} Match character creation
    [[:d Igit:]] outside means match a character, which means match a number
    [[: Lower:]] means matching lowercase letters
    [[: Upper:]] means matching uppercase letters
    [[: Alum:]] Indicates a matching number or underscore
    [[: Space:]] indicates matching spaces
    [[:p UNCT:]] means "."
    Ls-ld dir
    matches the Dir folder
    Mkdir Diraa

    Ls-ld dir? A folder that matches one character after Dir
    Ls-ld dir[0-9] 0-9 matches one of the characters

    Mkdir dir{b. F} Create a b-f folder
    Ls-ld Dir[a-z] A A-Z character matches
    Ls-ld dir[! A-z] in addition to a A-Z character match

    Ll file {AA,BB,CC,FF}

    Ls-ld dir[[:d igit:]] Display digital LS-LD dir[0-9]

    Touch File{a. E
    Ls-ld Dir[a-z]
    Ls-ld Dir[a-z]

    (3) Escape character:
    ' Hard escape '
    "" Soft escape
    \ Escape
    Touch xx yy
    Touch "xx yy"
    Touch ' xx yy '
    A=1 Defining variables
    echo a output a
    Echo $a output variable a
    Echo "$a" 1 "" If a special symbol appears, output as a special character
    Echo ' $a ' $a ' if a special symbol appears, as normal character output
    Echo "\ $a" $a as normal character output
    Echo ' \ $a ' \ $a

    Linux 124 Lesson 2, managing files from the command line

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