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2nd Chapter: Installation Guide
2.1 Pre-Installation Preparation
1, collecting system data: In order to be able to successfully install and set up the Linux system, you must put the following information for the installation of the system to use:
HDD: Quantity, capacity and type;
Memory: The amount of memory installed on your computer;
CD-ROM: interface type (IDE, SCSI);
SCSI card: The model number of the card;
Network card: The model of the network card;
Mouse: The type of mouse (serial port, PS/2, bus type), protocol (Microsoft,logitech, MouseMan, etc.), the number of keystrokes, the serial mouse also need to know which serial port it is connected to;
Display Card: Displays the model number of the card (or the chipset it uses), displays the amount of memory, (most PCI bus cards can be automatically identified by the installer.)
Monitor: Model number, and range of horizontal and vertical refresh frequencies.
You can use Windows Control Panel-〉 Device Manager to obtain the appropriate information, of course, you can also check the corresponding random data.
2, check the CMOS settings:
Anti vrius:disable turns off this option to prevent crashes during installation because the installer is writing the main boot fan.
Swap a,b:disable to avoid possible problems when booting up.
Boot sque:cdrom,a,c the computer to boot from the CD.
Memory hole:disable If it is not turned off, Linux can only recognize 16M of memory.
3, understand the Linux hard disk partition of the name design and file system knowledge:
Linux installs at least two partitions: the Linux native (file) partition and the Linux swap (swap) partition. The primary partition is used as a file for storing Linux, and the swap partition provides virtual memory when running Linux.
Swap partitions Each 16~32m can have up to 8, depending on how much memory can be determined. In general, it is OK to build a 16M interchange partition.
The file partitions are determined according to the needs and size of the hard disk and should not be less than 200M in general.
Since we are most exposed to the DOS operating system, most people are accustomed to using symbols similar to \\\ ' c:\\\ ' to identify the hard disk partitions, but this is not the case in Linux. Linux's naming design is more flexible than other operating systems and can express more information. Linux identifies hard disk partitions by combination of letters and numbers, such as "hda1", which means that the first two letters of the partition name indicate the type of device on which the partition is located, such as HD refers to the IDE hard disk, SD (refers to the SCSI hard disk), the third letter partition in which device, in the order of A,b,c,d, If the HDA is the IDE's 1-port primary hard drive, the IDE's 2-port primary hard disk should be HDC, the final number on the device's partition order, the first four partitions (primary or extended partitions) with numbers 1 to 4, and logical partitions starting at 5, for example: Hda3 represents the third primary partition or extended partition on the first IDE hard disk.
In a Linux file system, there are several file partitions, all of which are assembled in a tree-shaped directory structure. For example, you can assign a partition to/(the root directory) to use, a partition assigned to the/usr directory, but after you enter the Linux system, you do not feel that they are in different partitions, you just feel in a tree. However, if you have only one file partition, be sure to use it for the/(root directory).
4, for the hard drive to install Linux preparation:
Generally speaking, the hard drive on the computer is the same as mine already used for Ms-dos/win operating system partitions. To be able to install Linux, you have to redistribute hard disk space for Linux. I immediately borrowed a friend's hard drive, the data back down, and then reload the system. However, there are three alternative ways:
1 Move the data on the last logical disk in the MSDOS to the other partitions, remove the logical disk from the partition tool, and use this part of the space for Linux.
2 the hard disk partition, this is the most direct and most troublesome one method. The specific actions are as follows:
. Backing up users ' files
. Boot system with MS-DOS system disk
. Remove the original partition with FDISK, rebuild the new partition, and leave the space assigned to Linux as not allocated to any one partition
. Reinstall the original user system
3 use some partitioning tools to repartition the hard drive without deleting the original data. such as zoning magicians.
2.2 Install red Hat Linux from CDROM 7.1
We can install Red Hat Linux 7.1 system via CD-ROM, hard disk, network, the most common way is to use CD-ROM installation. Using a CD-ROM installation is no more than three requirements:
1 Your motherboard support CD-ROM boot
2 You have the CD-ROM drive
3 You have red Hat Linux 7.1 installation CD
Normally, this is no problem. I also recommend that you use the CD-ROM installation, so this is simple. With the growing number of applications under the Linux system, a single disc cannot be accommodated, the Red Hat Linux 7.1 installation CD has two, the first one can be launched directly from the CD, including most of the package and some installation tools. The second disc is a number of additional packages. This time, however, the Red Hat company has been specifically improved and the installer can read data from multiple discs. When you install, you will notice that you are prompted to replace the second disc. Now let's start the red Hat Linux 7.1 installation tour together.
The first step: Choose installation mode
If you plug in the first CD and let the computer start from CDROM, there will be a concise welcome message. At this point, you can choose a different installation mode:
1 Graphics Mode: Press ENTER directly, the whole installation process is like Windows, and you can use mouse operation. But at this point Red Hat seems to be very picky about the graphics card, some of the screen is too large, can not find the button, and some will not be able to display the graphical interface. If this is the case, you can press the hot start key to re-enter the text mode for installation.
2 text mode: Enter text, then press ENTER. Will enter the text mode of the installation interface, have some experience of people or use this method is better.
3) Expert mode: input expert, then press ENTER. In this case, the installer seems to have no brain, and everything is up to you to make a decision. Do not use this approach unless you are familiar with Linux and have some special hardware installers that are not configured properly.
4 Rescue mode: This is not used during the first installation, it is used only when the original Linux system does not start normally. In this way, you will enter a miniature Linux system and provide many tools to restore Linux for your use.
5 Drive Disk Mode: If you have a special hardware drive, you need to provide it to the Linux system when you install it, you enter "Linux dd" and press ENTER, and the installer will provide you with the opportunity to insert the drive diskette.
It is recommended that you use text mode for installation.
Step two: Select a language
Red Hat Linux 7.1 offers 18 different languages, but there is no Chinese to choose from. Then continue.
Note: Red Hat Company has recently launched the Chinese version, you can find a try.
Step Three: Select the keyboard
Select us here to continue.
Note: The author has tried to use the Logitech Itouch Wireless keyboard of Logitech under Red Hat Linux 7.1, so the normal 104 keyboard will not be a problem.
Fourth Step: Choose the Installation method
Red Hat Linux 7.1 offers five installation methods for Workstation,server,laptop,custom,upgrade Existing (workstations, servers, laptops, user-defined, upgrade-older versions). We can choose the installation method according to our actual needs.
1) Workstation: workstation mode. This method is recommended for general users. Workstation type installation clears all existing Linux partitions on all hard drives and ignores non-Linux partitions such as Windows 98. This is a very simple installation, and if you have Windows 98 on your machine, it will automatically complete the Lilo dual-boot configuration after installation. However, if your machine is originally NT, then do not use this method, or your NT may no longer start.
2 Server System: How to do this. Warning: Installing this way will kill all information on all partitions on the hard drive. This is definitely not a joke! Many beginners have paid the price of blood and tears. Usually you need to build a network server on an empty PC to select it.
3) Laptop: Portable machine, notebook mode. Pen as the name suggests, this is recommended when you install on a laptop computer.
4 Custom System: Customized installation. For Linux has a certain understanding of friends, it is recommended to use this method, the free construction of Linux. This is a brave way to install Linux for the first time.
5 Upgrade Existing System: Upgrade existing systems. If you have an older version of Red Hat Linux on the hard way, this is your best choice.
It is recommended that you use "Custom Install".
Fifth step: Hard disk partitioning
First, you will be asked to choose a different partitioning tool: Disk Druid and Fdisk, and it is recommended that you use Disk Druid.
The top of the main interface of Disk Druid is the \\\ ' Current disk partitions\\\ ' area, which lists the information for each hard disk partition. Each line consists of five items: Mount Point-Specifies the Linux system directory for the partition, Device-the device name of the hard disk partition, requested-the minimum space that is requested for the partition definition, Actual-the space currently allocated to the partition; The type of partition.
In the middle is the \\\ ' Drive summaries\\\ ' area, a row corresponding to a physical hard disk, each row consists of six items: Drive-The device name of the hard disk, Geom [c/h/s]-The physical information of the hard disk, including the number of cylinders, heads, and sectors; Total- All available space on the hard disk; Used-hard disk allocated space; free--hard disk unallocated space; Bar Graph--The hard disk has a space representation diagram.
The bottom is the button area of Disk Druid, which consists of five buttons: Add-Apply for a new partition; Edit-modifies the properties of the partition selected in the \\\ ' current Disk partitions\\\ ' area; Delete-delete \\\ ' Current Disk partitions\\\ ' area select partition; Ok--Confirm partition operation, rewrite hard disk partition table, back--quit without saving changes, return to previous screen, start again.
I recommend a separate root partition for Linux, a swap partition (recommended 64M, 128M, or 256M), which is:
tab to select the Add button and press ENTER, and a dialog box titled \\\ ' Edit New partition\\\ ' will appear on the screen. First, in the mount point item, enter the system directory for this partition: "/" (root), then enter the size of the partition in the Megs item, and select the appropriate partition type with the cursor and the down key keys in the type. We selected Linux file partition Linux native, and finally press OK to confirm. This allows us to successfully build a partition for Linux. Of course, if your hard disk space allows, you can set up one or more partitions for Linux use. Then add a swap partition to Linux in the same way, except for the mount point item to leave it blank and select Linux Swap in the type project.
Note: If you choose a graphical interface for the previous installation, you will provide a graphical partition interface that is convenient to use, and you can use the automatic partitioning method. Let Setup create partitions from itself.
You need to be cautious in doing this step, and don't accidentally delete the original partition, that's a bad thing. Confirm that there are no errors, press the OK button to continue. Then, follow the prompts to format the new Linux partition for use.
Sixth step: Lilo configuration
LILO, the Linux Loader, is the Linux boot, which is responsible for starting the Linux operating system. We can configure it to implement dual-boot. First, the installer will let you fill out what kernel parameters need to be passed to Lilo, which is usually not needed. Next, you will be asked where you want to install Lilo, usually with two choices: 1 The main boot area (MBR) of the first hard disk, and 2 the bootable fan of the Linux partition.
If you want to use Lilo to do dual boot, you need to choose the first, if you want to use Linux boot floppy disk or other system boot to boot Linux, then choose the second.
Seventh Step: Set host name
Pick a name for your machine.
Eighth Step: Select system security Level
This is also red Hat Linux 7. 1 offers a new option that offers three choices:
1 High: If you choose the high level, then all the network from outside the question will be banned;
2) Medium: The default level, select this level, the network access to the outside is limited to the network services provided by the system;
3 No firewall: Minimum security, any outside network access will be allowed.
Nineth Step: Common option settings
Next, set the mouse, select the kind of language you need to support (note that this is provided in Chinese), and the time zone (in the graphical interface should be the point of the, and in the text mode should choose PRC).
Tenth Step: User settings
1 First set the system administrator (is root user) password, system administrator is the highest authority of the system, owns the system, so this password is very important;
2 Then the installer provides an additional user tool that you can easily add to the system user.
3 finally is about the user authentication configuration:
A. Shadow passwords: The default is selected, please do not modify. This function is used to protect password security;
B. Use MD5 password encryption: The default is also selected, please do not modify, it is also the protection of password security;
C. Use NIS: When you want to authenticate users through NIS servers on the network, please fill in the relevant information;
D. Use LDAP: When you want to authenticate the user through the LDAP server on the network, fill in the relevant information;
E. Use Kerberos: When you want to use the Kerberos system for user authentication, fill in the relevant information;
11th Step: Select Package
This step is the most important step in the installation process, you can choose the software you need according to the prompts. The installer divides all the software into a number of classes:
Printer Support: Printer Support
X Window system:x Window System
Gnome: Desktop Manager Gnome
KDE: Desktop manager KDE
Mail/www/news Tools: Some of the most common tool to send and receive mail, Web browsing, news reading
Dos/windows Connectivity: Provides DOS and Windows compatible tools
Graphics manipulation: Graphic operation software
Games: Game Software
Multimedia Support: Multimedia support software
Laptop Support: Laptop-specific support software
Networked Workstation: Network workstation tools, such as Telnet, FTP and other clients
Dialup Workstation: Dial the Internet tool
News server: Press server
NFS Server: Network File system server
SMB (Samba) Server:samba (that is, the NetBIOS protocol) server system
IPX/NETWARE™CONNECTIVITY:IPX protocol Support Software
Anonymous FTP server: anonymous FTP servers
SQL server:postgresql and MySQL database server
Web server:web Server (Apache)
DNS Name server: domain name servers
Network Management Workstation: Network management workstation, providing some SNMP support
Authoring/publishing: Software for publishing
Emacs: The famous integrated editing software
Development: Development Kit
Kernel Development: Kernel development package, including kernel source program
Utilities: Some common tools, such as Linuxconf
Everything: All packages, if your Linux partition is large enough (above 2400M), then you can select it and install all the software.
Note: Under the selection interface, there is an option, which lists the detailed software installation list when selected, and you can make some choices.
After you select the package you want to install, the system will make its own package dependencies check, and then start a copy of the file. Then you can have a rest. But unlike before, when copying to half, you need to change the disc!
12th step: Make the Startup disk
After the installation is complete, you will be prompted to make a Linux boot floppy disk. It is not very useful, but for beginners it is better to make a spare. Therefore, it can be used in the following situations:
1 ready to put Lilo in the Linux partition, you can boot Linux via floppy disk;
2 the LILO program installed on the MBR is overwritten when you install Windows, you can use this floppy disk to boot, then run "/sbin/lilo", and then write the LILO program on the MBR;
3 When the system crashes, you can start with a Linux boot floppy and do some recovery.
Step 13th: Copy Files
The next step is the longest and most central process: copying files. The Linux installer copies all of your selected packages to the hard drive partition. Note that you need to change the second disc during the installation process.
14th Step: Configure the graphics card/x Window
Next, the installer will automatically detect your video card, monitor, because Red Hat Linux 7.1 with the latest XFREE86 4.0, so the support for the display card better, most of the graphics card can be identified, because it is not recognized, it has to wait for the installation after the configuration.
If your graphics card, display is lucky to be recognized, then the installer will require you to choose the resolution of the graphics interface, if your graphics card is very good, then choose 800*600*24 bit color or 1024*768*24 bit color, as I use the video card is too old, you have to choose 800*600*16 bit color. You can also choose from a variety of (after starting, you can use Ctrl+alt + and-to switch).
After setting the resolution, the installer will test X window, and if your choice is normal, then you can see the beautiful X window, so you can easily press OK to say OK.
When the OK button is pressed, the installer asks if your Linux system will enter X Window as soon as it starts, and the default is yes. But I do not like, here Select "No", so start Linux will enter the character status, Need X window when the STARTX command to start manually.
OK, here we go, Red Hat Linux 7.1 will prompt you to remove the disc, restart your computer, and the penguin with the Little Red Hat is in your home.
Note: Red Hat Linux 7.1 will run a program called Kudzu on its first startup to complete some hardware additions, usually the NIC and sound card. The operation is very simple, you only need to select the Configure button, the system will help you to complete the configuration of these hardware.
2.3 Introduction of other installation methods
If you don't have an optical drive, there are several ways you can do this:
1 installation from the FTP site
2 Installation from Server for NFS
3 installing from SMB shared volumes
4) from the hard drive installation
1. Make Linux Startup Disk
If you use these installation methods, you first have to make two Linux boot disks.
1 on the installation CD, locate the image file of the Linux boot disk, the BOOT.IMG (Startup disk) and the SUPP.IMG (expansion disk) of these two files in the/images directory.
2 to find the tool RAWRITE.EXE to make the imaging disk from/images,/install or/dosutils catalogue.
3 Copy the image file and RAWRITE.EXE into the same directory, and then execute the rawrite on the DOS command line:
Enter disk image source file name: Enter the image file name here
Enter target diskette drive: Enter the destination disk here Furu A:
2. Installing from an FTP site
To install this way, you must meet one of the following conditions:
1 your machine is connected with the FTP server which holds the installation disk in the form of LAN;
2 There is an installation disk on your LAN FTP server.
Be aware that your FTP server must support long file names before it can be successfully installed. You need to use Linux boot disk and expansion disk to boot, and configure a valid domain name server or specify the FTP server IP address, to install.
3. Installing from Server for NFS
If you have an NFS server on your local area network, you can copy the installation disk to an NFS server and then start with a Linux boot disk to access the NFS server for installation. Again, this requires that the NFS server be able to support long filenames.
4. Installing from SMB shared volumes
Place the installation disk on a Windows 9x/nt/2000 server that supports shared volumes, and then start using the Linux boot disk with the expansion disk to install by accessing the installation disk in the shared volume.
5. Install from hard disk
This approach is suitable for users who download the installation disk from the Internet, first of all, you can copy red Hat Linux package files to your hard disk:
1 All files should be placed on a hard disk partition;
2 Put all the content in the Redhat directory;
3) and then copy the package that will be installed to another subdirectory RPMs
You can then start the system installation with the Linux boot disk and the expansion disk.
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