Linux system Installation

Source: Internet
Author: User

1. System Partitioning (1) Type of partition
    • Primary partition: Can only have up to four
    • Extended partition:
      • There can be up to 1
      • Primary partition plus extended partition up to 4
      • Data cannot be written, can only be used to contain logical partitions, and can contain multiple
    • Logical partitioning: Readable and writable data, can be formatted

This rule is independent of the operating system and is caused by hard drives. Partition of a hard disk to meet the above requirements. If the drive's architecture is not changed, this rule will not change.

(2) formatting

After the hard disk partition needs to be formatted (advanced format), used to specify the user's file system (we put the file on the hard disk needs to be managed, the use of the hard disk needs to be managed, and this manager is the file system), the file system is FAT16,FAT32,NTFS,EXT2,EXT3, EXT4 and so on, Linux can recognize the file system has EXT2,EXT3,EXT4 (default). Linux under the format, the first partition into a number of blocks (each 4KB), our future files are placed in the block, for example, we want to put a small 10kb file into the hard disk, then it will be exclusive 3 blocks (12KB), although the space has surplus, However, other files cannot be used, and the 3 blocks may not be contiguous. So how do you count the usage of block? This requires a partition in the hard disk to put a file allocation table, catalog table things to record.

(3) Hardware Device file name

There is an important idea in Linux: Everything is a file. So, in Linux, hardware devices are also files, and hard drives are no exception. Since it is a file, you have to have a file name, so each device has a file name in the/dev/directory (this is Linux autocomplete). The following is the hardware and the corresponding device file name.


The table in the figure how to understand, then my machine to give an example


My machine is a SATA hard drive, so there is only one SDA in/dev, if add a piece will appear a SDB, and so on. Then my hard drive is divided into three partitions, so the SDA plus 1, 2, tri represents the Tertiary partition. Another point is that the number of the logical partition starts at 5. This can also happen when you execute a command in a diagram.

    • SDA represents a hard drive
    • SD1 represents the primary partition 1
    • SD2 represents an extended partition
    • SD5 represents the first logical partition in an extended partition
(4) Mounting

This step is similar to the allocation letter in Windows. In Windows, we zoned the partition to give each partition a letter (c,d,e,f is usually the case), and Linux is called Mount, to put the partition in a directory, we call the directory as a mount point. This is a bit difficult to understand, the operation of the system partition has not been completed, how can there be a directory? In fact, these directories are empty directories, when we install the operating system will be created, and now we are supposed to have these directories, otherwise, Linux will not be installed properly. Linux requires that a partition be mounted in the root directory. It is necessary to mount a partition (up to 2G) under swap (virtual memory), which we cannot see because it is used for the kernel. Usually we will also mount a partition (200M) under/boot. The directory structure under Linux is a tree-shaped structure, but we can attach a partition to a subdirectory. , if we do not mount the sda2 in/home, then home/home under the creation of a file will be placed in the Sda3, the reverse will be placed in the sda2. The boot partition must be sda1, because there are some data that is required at the start of the disk for the system to start.


(5) Summary



2. Communicating with virtual machines

We will automatically create two virtual network cards after installing VMware.

And we installed the Centos6.5 will appear in the Eth0 network card, what is the relationship between the two, and how to let the virtual machine with our host Tongxu, and even access to the Internet, you can refer to the following links


Linux system Installation

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