Mac os down folder (with Linux section) __linux

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags documentation format definition system log temporary file storage
Detailed Mac hard drive folders (add Linux part reference

★ Detailed Mac hard disk in each folder
Ways to show hidden files
With the "terminal", the advantage is that no third-party tools are required, the downside is that if the command is wrong, there will be side effects. The commands are as follows (note the spaces in them):
Showing: Defaults write appleshowallfiles-bool true
Hiding: Defaults write Appleshowallfiles-bool false
After you restart the Finder, you have an effect.
Turn on your hard drive
You will find that there are four folders (in general, hidden folders are not visible, and there may be more, such as the Developer folder when x code is installed). There are-applications (applications), systems (System), users (user), Database (library). There are a number of folders in each of the four folders

Let's start by introducing these four folders
Applications: This is, of course, the location of the various software.
System: Contains systems software installed by Apple. This resource is necessary for the system to function properly and is located in the boot file, where users are not allowed to add, delete, or change these resources. [General users please stay away from this folder]
Library: system resources such as fonts, ColorSync configuration, preferences, and Plug-ins should all be installed in the appropriate subdirectories in the Library directory.
User: Contains resources that are proprietary to a user. There is also a library folder, different with the top of the library, is designed for your account service, which is placed in your own personalized fonts, configuration files, etc.
"~/library/application Support", this represents a directory, where the "~" is the content of your personal folders, that is, the finder's left Small house icon folder

Below to introduce the specific (Applications folder is not more said)
Applications contains applications that are available only to the current user.
Desktop contains the desktop items that the Finder displays on the currently logged-on user's desktop.
Documents contain the user's personal documentation.
Download contains a variety of documents to download.
The library contains application settings, preferences, and other user-specific system resources (similar to the contents of the/library folder, as explained below)
Movies contains QuickTime and other formats for digital movies.
Music contains digital musical files (. aiff,. mp3,. M4P and other formats).
Pictures contains image files in various formats.
Public contains content that the user needs to share with other users. By default, other users can access this directory.
Sites contains a Web page for the user's personal site. If you need other users to be able to access these pages, you need to enable Web sharing.

With [] is the same folder in the ~/library (personal User resource pool)
[Application Support] contains application-related data and supporting files, such as Third-party plug-ins, help applications, templates, and additional resource files used by applications that are not needed to support running. By convention, all of this content will be stored in subdirectories named after the application name.

This folder in the ~/library is more useful to the user, most of the software related resource files can be found here, delete some software, it is best to turn over here, the software related to the files are cleared. Some software reinstall may not function normally (such as Mplayerx, QQ, etc.), to clean up here will receive good results

[Assistants] contains programs that help users with configuration or other tasks.
[Audio] contains audio plug-ins as well as device drivers.
[caches] contains cached data that can be regenerated as needed. Applications can never rely on the existence of cached files. The cached file should be stored in a directory that matches the identity of the directory name domain application package. Cached files can also be divided into user or session-specific subdirectories, as needed. (Refer to the multiuser environment in the Mac OS X document)
[Colorpickers] contains resources for selecting colors, depending on some model, such as HLS (color angle, saturation, brightness) selector, or RGB selector.
[ColorSync] contains the ColorSync configuration and scripts.
[Components] contains system packages and extensions.

Contextual menu items contain plug-ins for extending system-level menus.

[Dictionaries] contains the system's own dictionary files.

Desktop pictures Desktop Picture directory.
Documentation contains documentation files and an Apple Help pack for computer users and administrators to refer to. (The Apple helper package is in the Help subdirectory.) In the local domain, this directory contains the Help packages that Apple publishes (not including the developer documentation).
The extensions includes device drivers and other kernel extensions. (exists only in the system domain.) )

[Favorites] contains aliases to frequently accessed folders, files, or Web sites. (exists only in the user domain.) )

Fonts contains the font files that are used for display and printing.
The frameworks contains frames and shared libraries. The frameworks directory in the system domain is used only for the framework provided by Apple. Developers need to install their own customized frameworks in the local domain or in user domains.

[Image Capture] stores standard drivers for multiple DC vendors, with a breakdown of two eucalyptus clips, including devices, where Apple divides the various DCs into 8 different types of drives. In addition, it also holds a variety of cameras and scanner-related drivers, examples of the same PTP (picture Transfer Protocol), Twain, and so on.
[Input Methods] contains installed Input method, you can in this directory or ~/library/input Methods to remove their installed input method
[Internet Plug-ins] contains plug-ins, libraries, and filters that are required for Web browser content.
[itunes] third-party itunes plugins and libraries
[Java] contains the Java runtime environment.
[Keyboard Layouts] contains a keyboard definition.
[Keychains] contains a keychain file.
[Logs] contains log files for the console and system services. Users can also browse these logs using console applications.
[Mail] contains a mailbox file

Modem Scripts
Modem script, which is the driver of the cat.
The functional extensions and libraries of Perl programs, such as Cocoa Conler, require this functionality.

[Preferencepanes] contains plug-ins for system parameter applications. You can find the corresponding entry in your system preferences.
[Preferences] contains the user parameter settings. Refer to the Run-time Configuration guide for information about user parameters. When there is a problem with the software configuration, it is possible to resolve the problem by deleting the corresponding configuration file for the directory.
[Printers] in the system and local domain, this directory contains the printer driver, the PPD plug-in, and the library used to configure the printer. In the user domain, this directory contains the printer configuration available to the user.
[Quicklook] contains a quick View plugin.

Contains the QuickTime components and extensions.

[Receipts] An alias for the. PKG installation package installed, but not the. PKG installation package itself. For example, when the system is upgraded or installed. pkg. or vpc the. pkg package when installing.
[Screen savers] includes a screensaver.
[Scripting Additions] contains script and script resources that extend the functionality of the AppleScript.
[Services] (exists only with the personal folder) contains a service script file, you can look at the Automator service

Scripts contains the script files required by the various programs

[Sounds] (exists only in personal folders)
Contains the system alarm sound.
[Speech] contains the related resource files for the speech.
[spelling] contains the spelling profile.

Startupitems contains systems that run at the time of system import and third party scripts and programs. (Please refer to the System Startup program topic for more information on the start step of the system import time.)
User Pictures user account, users display a picture of the file.
Updates contains installation files that are automatically updated by the system. The files inside are automatically deleted by default.
Web server contains the content of Web servers. This directory contains the CGI scripts and Web pages used by the Web server

[Widgets] contains widget gadgets that have been installed

Because the same is the library directory, and the above duplicate is not written
CFM, Code Fragment Manager, is equivalent to a common library used by old Mac OS applications. To ensure consistency of the Mac OS environment. stored in the OS X is extremely important in the file Eucalyptus---carbonlib, is the implementation of charcoal software must not be owed to the file eucalyptus. There are also Discrecordinglib (CD/R-RW libraries), Opengllib (OpenGL), Stbclib (C language), TWAINSOURCEMANAGER.SHLB (Twain corresponds), Veclib ( AltiVec) and other libraries, are stored here.

As a storage system used by various XML files Eucalyptus, and for its format definition of the file eucalyptus. The Mac OS X data form of the instrument, respectively, is managed by three eucalyptus, respectively, PROPERTYLIST.DTD, KEYBOARDLAYOUT.DTD and sdef.dtd in three stalls. And the DTD, the full name is the document Type Definition. In addition, the. plist file is also written by XML.

In fact, this is used to store hardware drivers, Apple does not say that the driver is driver, but called extension.

It is mainly used to store the data that OS X corresponds to and supports in the file Eucalyptus format. Examples of the same standard AppleShare (Apple File Share standard), ISO 9660/FTP/HFS up to the network, such as samba, etc.

/core services/
This is one of the features of OS X, this part is information about the dock.

This is special because it is an application rather than a folder, is responsible for controlling all the resources on the OS.
All of the files that are related to Mac OS help are stored here

is to search for the function. It corresponds to a multinational language.

The full name is secure Sockets Layer. is a set of communications encryption technology, generally used on the Web server, the password will be transmitted by the encryption signal processing, thereby reducing the likelihood of successful third party theft of information. Typically applies to URLs that start at the beginning of HTTPS. MAC OS x's built-in Web Server---Apache, also contains this service.
= = a few hidden folders on the hard drive = =
1) bin--Storage has basic UNIX instructions
2 The Sbin--unix system instruction storage Place, is the comparison advanced instruction
3) etc--system setting file Eucalyptus storage Place
4 var--changes frequently in the file eucalyptus, are placed in this, such as the log file Eucalyptus
5) tmp--System of the temporary archive
6) Usr--unix's user-specific profile Eucalyptus folder

★LINUX directory structure and main contents
The "/" root directory section has the following subdirectories:
The/usr directory contains all the commands, libraries, documents, and other files. These files will not be changed during normal operation. This directory also contains the main applications of your Linux distribution, such as Netscape.
The/var directory contains files that were changed during normal operation: spool files, log files, lock files, temporary files, and page format files.
The/home directory contains user files: parameter settings files, personalized files, documents, data, emails, cached data, and so on. This directory should be retained at the system level.
The/proc directory contains the entire illusory file. They do not actually exist on the disk or occupy any space. (You can display their size with ls–l) When you view these files, you are actually accessing information in memory that is used to access the system
/bin the execution files (binaries) that are required for system startup, which can be used by ordinary users.
/sbin System execution files (binary), which are not intended to be used by ordinary users. (normal users can still use them, but specify a directory.) )
/ETC the operating system's configuration file directory.
/root the home directory of the system administrator (also known as the superuser or root user).
/dev Device file directory. Linux is used as a file, so the hardware is abstracted, easy to read and write, network sharing, and temporary loading into the file system. Under normal circumstances, the device will have a separate subdirectory. The contents of these devices will appear in separate subdirectories. Linux does not have a so-called driver.
/lib a shared library of programs and core modules in the root file system directory.
/boot the file used to bootstrap the loader (LILO or GRUB). These files are loaded first when the computer is started (if there are multiple operating systems that may allow you to choose which operating system to start). This directory will also contain the Linux kernel (compressed file vmlinuz), but the Linux kernel can also exist elsewhere, as long as you configure LILO and Lilo knows where the Linux kernel is.
/opt optional applications, such as KDE under REDHAT 5.2 (REDHAT 6.0, KDE is placed in other xwindows applications, and the main execution program is in the/usr/bin directory)
/tmp temporary file. The directory will be automatically cleaned up.
/lost+found files recovered on file system repair

The more important parts of the "/usr" directory are:
/USR/X11R6 x-windows System (version one, release 6)
/usr/x11 with/USR/X11R6 (/USR/X11R6 symbolic Connection)
/usr/x11r6/bin a large number of small x-windows applications (and possibly some symbolic connections to large execution files in other subdirectories).
/usr/doc Linux documentation (in an updated system, this directory is moved to/usr/share/doc).
/usr/share is independent of your computer structure's data, such as the words in a dictionary.
/usr/bin and/usr/sbin resemble directories (/bin and/sbin) corresponding to the "/" root directory, but are not used for basic startup (for example, in emergency maintenance). Most of the commands are in this directory.
/usr/local applications that are installed by local administrators (and may also have separate subdirectories for each application). After "main" is installed, this directory may be empty. The contents of this directory should exist after reinstalling or upgrading the operating system.
/usr/local/bin may be a small application installed by a user, and some symbolic connections to large applications in the/usr/local directory.

Contents of/proc Directory:
/proc/cpuinfo information about the processor, such as type, manufacturer, model, and performance.
/proc/devices the list of all devices configured by the currently running kernel.
/PROC/DMA The DMA channel that is currently in use. /proc/filesystems the file system that is currently running the kernel.
/proc/interrupts is using the interrupt, and how many interrupts there have been.
/proc/ioports the I/O port that is currently in use.
For example, use the following command to read the CPU information of the system.

Bin is the abbreviation for binary. This directory follows the structure of the UNIX system and holds the commands most frequently used by users. such as CP, LS, cat, and so on.
Here are some of the core files used to start Linux.
Dev is the abbreviation for device (equipment). This directory is the external device for all Linux, with functions similar to the. SYS and WIN under DOS. In Linux, devices and files are accessed in the same way. For example:/dev/hda represents the first physical IDE hard disk.
This directory is used to store the configuration files and subdirectories required for system administration.
User's home directory, such as a user named Wang, his home directory is/home/wang can also be expressed in ~wang.
This directory holds the most basic dynamic link shared library of the system, which acts like a. dll file in Windows. Almost all applications need to use these shared libraries.
This directory is usually empty, and when the system shuts down, it becomes a refuge for homeless files. Yes, a bit similar to the DOS. chk file.
This directory is empty and the system provides this directory to allow users to temporarily mount other file systems.
This directory is a virtual directory, which is the mapping of system memory, we can access this directory directly to obtain system information. In other words, the contents of this directory are not on the hard disk but in memory.
The home directory of the system administrator (also known as the Super User). As the owner of the system, there must be some privileges. such as owning a single directory.
S is the meaning of super user, which means that the management program used by the system administrator is stored here.
This directory, needless to say, must be a place to store some temporary files.

This is the largest directory, and the applications and files we use are almost all stored in this directory. Contains the following subdirectories;
A directory for storing X-window;
There are many applications stored;
Some of the management programs that are used for super users are here;
This is the base of Linux documentation;
Linux to develop and compile the application required header files, find here;
Store some common dynamic link shared libraries and static archives;
This is provided to the general user's/usr directory, where the installation of software is most appropriate;
Man is a synonym for help in Linux, and this is the directory where help documents are stored;
Linux Open source code exists in this directory, enthusiasts do not let go oh.

This directory holds things that are constantly expanding, and in order to maintain the relative stability of/usr, directories that are often modified can be placed in this directory, and many system administrators actually do so. Incidentally, the system log file is in the/var/log directory.

In summary: The user should have the file under the/home/user_login_name directory (and its subdirectories).
In most cases, local administrators install additional software in the/usr/local directory and sign up to the main execution program under/usr/local/bin.

All settings of the system are in the/ETC directory.
Do not modify any content in the root directory ("/") or the/usr directory unless you really know what to do. These directories are best aligned with Linux publishing.
Most tools and applications are installed in the directory:/bin,/usr/sbin,/sbin,/usr/x11/bin,/usr/local/bin.
All files are under a single directory tree. There's no such thing as a "driver."

A brief analysis of ★linux directory structure
Linux inherits the clear features of the UNIX operating system. The file structure under Linux is very organized. However, the above advantages can only be realized when you are quite familiar with Linux. Now, bugs are simply introducing the directory structure under Linux.

We already know that every Linux has a kernel (vmlinuz), and we add modules to the kernel that can accomplish a variety of specific functions, each of which is embodied in various directories in Linux. Of course, there are small differences in the catalogues of different distributions, but the main structure is the same. We also need to combine Linux's functional modules with a variety of applications so that your Linux system can serve you. The kernel of the system is stored in the/vmlinuz directory. Remember when we were configuring Lilo to mention this kernel?

It is obvious that the bin is a binary (binary) English abbreviation. In the general system, you can find the Linux common commands in this directory. In some versions you will also find some of the same directories as the root directory.

stored in this directory are the programs to be used when the system starts. We'll use some of this information when we're using Lilo to boot Linux.

Dev is the initials of the device (device). This directory is important to all users. Because the directory contains all the external devices used in the Linux system. But this is not a driver for external devices. This is different from our usual Windows, DOS operating system. It is actually a port to access these external devices. We can access these external devices very conveniently, and access to a file, a directory without any distinction. For example: We type in the system: Cd/dev/cdrom we can see the files in the CD drive. In the same way, we type: Cd/dev/mouse can look at the relevant files of the mouse. In this directory, there is a null device, which has no meaning in itself. If you write a file or content to this directory, they have nothing to go back to.

This directory is empty when you just installed the system. You can hang the optical drive file system in this directory. For example: Mount/dev/cdrom/cdrom

Etc This directory is one of the most important directories in the Linux system. A variety of configuration files and subdirectories are stored in this directory for system administration. We want to use the network profile, file system, x system configuration files, device configuration information, set user information, etc. are in this directory. Later, the worm will also explain the contents of this directory in detail.

This directory is used to store system administrator's system management programs.

If we build a user, the username is "xx", then there is a corresponding/home/xx path in the/home directory to hold the user's home directory.

Lib is the library English abbreviation. This directory is used to store the system's dynamically connected shared libraries. Almost all applications use shared libraries in this directory. Therefore, do not easily do what this directory operation, once there is a problem, your system can not work, then you do not say bug did not remind you AH.

This directory is empty in most cases. But if you're working on a sudden blackout, or not shutting down in a normal way, when you restart the machine, some files will not be able to find where it should be, and for those files, the system places them in this directory, like providing a temporary shelter for the homeless.

This directory is also empty in general. You can temporarily hang another file system in this directory.

You can get system information in this directory. This information is in memory, generated by the system itself.

If you are logged in as a superuser, this is the home directory of the super user.

A temporary file that is used to store the execution of different programs.

This is the directory in the Linux system that occupies the largest amount of hard disk space. Many of the user's applications and files are stored in this directory. ===================================================
★linux the structure of the folder and the use of the description:
/bin: Binary executable command.
/dev: Device special files.
/ETC: System administration and configuration files.
/ETC/RC.D: Startup configuration files and scripts.
/home: Use the head of household directory, such as user's main directory is/home/user, you can use ~user said.
/LIB: The standard programming library, also known as the dynamic Link shared library, functions like a. dll file in Windows.
/sbin: System Management commands, where the Administrator program that is used by system administrators is stored.
/tmp: A public temporary file storage point.
/root: The system administrator's home directory.
/MNT: The system provides this directory to allow users to temporarily mount other file systems.
/lost+found: This directory is usually empty, the system is not normal shutdown and leave the "homeless" file is here.
/proc: Virtual directory, is the system memory mapping. You can access this directory directly to obtain system information.
/var: The overflow area of some large files, such as log files for various services.
/usr: The largest directory, the applications and files to use are almost all in this directory. which contains:
/USR/X11R6: A directory for storing Xwindow.
/usr/bin: A multitude of applications.
/usr/sbin: Some of the management programs for super users.
/usr/doc:linux document.
/usr/include:linux the header files needed to develop and compile the application.
/usr/lib: A commonly used dynamic-link library and package configuration file.
/usr/man: Help document.
/USR/SRC: Source code, the Linux kernel code is placed in the/usr/src/linux.
/usr/local/bin: Locally added command.
/usr/local/lib: Locally added Coogan file system.

Typically, the root file system takes up less space because most of the files do not need to be changed frequently, and a strict file and a small infrequently changing file system are not susceptible to damage. In addition to a possible system boot image called the/vmlinuz standard, the root directory generally does not contain any files. All other files are in subdirectories of the root file system.
1./bin Directory
The/bin directory contains commands that are required to boot up or may be used by ordinary users (possibly after boot startup). These commands are binary file executable program (bin is the abbreviation of binary), many are important system files in the system.
2./sbin Directory
The/sbin directory is similar to/bin, and is also used to store binary files. Because most of these files are mostly system administrators use the basic System program, so although ordinary users are necessary and allowed to use, but generally not for ordinary users.
3./ETC Directory
The/ETC directory contains a variety of system configuration files, including user information file/etc/passwd, System initialization file/ETC/RC, and so on. Linux is the only way to run the files properly.
4./root Directory
The/root directory is a superuser's directory.
5./lib Directory
The/lib directory is the shared library required by the program on the root file system, and holds the shared files required for the root file system program to run. These files contain code that can be shared by many programs to prevent each program from containing copies of the same subroutine, making the executable file smaller and less space-saving.
6./lib/modules Directory
The/lib/modules directory contains system cores that can load various modules, especially those needed to reboot the system when the damaged system is restored (for example, network and file system drivers).
7./dev Directory
The/dev directory stores device files, which are device drivers, through which users access external devices. For example, users can access the mouse input by accessing the/dev/mouse, just as they would access other files.
8./tmp Directory
The/tmp directory stores the information and data generated by the program at run time. However, after boot startup, the running program is best to use/var/tmp instead of/tmp, because the former may have a larger disk space.
9./boot Directory
The/boot directory holds files used by the boot loader (bootstraploader), such as Lilo,
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