[NO000037] Operating system operating systems operating system history and Hardware overview historical OS & summaries!

Source: Internet
Author: User

Bacon: A Brief History of the intelligent operating system of reading history

(1955-1965) computer is very expensive, ancient gods machine IBM7094, the cost of more than 2.5 million U.S. dollars

    • Principles of computer use: Focus only on computing
    • Batching operating System (batch system)
    • Typical representative: Ibsys

From Ibsys to os/360 (1965-1980)

Computers start to enter multiple industries: Scientific Computing (IBM 7094), Bank (IBM 1401)

    • Need to get a computer to do a variety of things
    • Multi-Channel program (multiprogramming)
    • switching and scheduling between jobs becomes the core: because there are both IO tasks and computational tasks, the CPU needs to be busy (multi-process architecture and process management Concepts sprout!)
    • Typical representative: IBM os/360 (360 for full service), development cycle 5,000-person
From os/360 to Multics (1965-1980)

Computers enter multiple industries and the number of users increases

    • If everyone starts a job, quickly switch between jobs
    • Time-sharing System (timesharing)
    • Representative: MIT MULTICS (multiplexed information and computer Service)
    • The core is still a task switch , but the idea of resource reuse has a great impact on the operating system, and virtual memory is a kind of reuse
From Multics to Unix (1980-1990)

Miniaturization of Computers appeared, PDP-1 $120,000 per unit, less than 7094 of 5%

    • More and more individuals can use the computer
    • 1969: Ken Thompson of Bell Labs, Dennis Ritchi, etc. develop a simplified multics on a PDP-7 that is not being used, which is later Unix
    • UNIX is a simplified multics, the core concept is similar, but more flexible and successful
From UNIX to Linux (1990-2000)

1981, IBM launches IBM PC; PC begins to spread

    • Many people can use computers and access Unix
    • 1987 Andrew Tanenbaum released Minix (very similar to Unix) for teaching
    • Linus Torvalds to learn Minix on 386SX compatible microcomputer, made small Linux released in 1991
    • In 1994, Linux 1.0 was released and implemented under the GPL, and in the Internet World after 1998

      A historic Linux

Ibsys->os/360-> multics-> Unix-Linux

Core ideas, Technology

    • The user executes the program to use the computer (the idea of matching von Neumann)
    • As a manager, the operating system to make a number of programs reasonable advance, is the process management
    • Multi-process (user) push requires memory reuse, etc.

      Multi-process structure is the basic Atlas of operating system!

      for operating systems, implementing concepts is far more important than understanding concepts!

Software implementation

    • For operating systems, implementation is important Os/360->unix
    • Need real swarm intelligence UNIX->linux

History is multi-line: PC vs. dos

The birth of a PC will certainly lead to flowering. IBM introduced a PC, naturally to the machine with an operating system

    • 1975 Digital Research developed the operating system for Altair 8800 cp/m
    • cp/m: Write command for user, execute command corresponding program, single task execution
    • 1980 appeared 8086 16-bit chip, developed Qdos (Quick and Dirty OS) on the basis of cp/m
From Qdos to MS-DOS

Bill Gates is entering the history stage ...

    • In 1975, 22-year-old Paul Allen and 20-year-old Bill Gates developed the BASIC interpreter for Altair 8800, creating a Microsoft
    • 1977 Bill Gates develops fat management disks
    • QDOS's success lies in the inclusion of basic and fat in cp/m ( file management and programming environments ...). Users are concerned about!)
    • In 1980, IBM wanted to authorize the use of cp/m with the digital company agreement, but did not achieve, turn to and Microsoft cooperation; 1981 Microsoft bought Qdos, renamed MS-DOS (Disk OS), and IBM PC
From MS-DOS to Windows

MS-DOS disks, files, commands are easy to use, but seem to be more convenient

    • In 1989, MS-DOS 4.0 appeared, supported the mouse and keyboard, when Microsoft had decided to abandon MS-DOS
    • Soon after Windows 3.0 was a big success
    • Then it was out of hand, with the XP, Vista, Win 7, win 8, win 10 ...
    • The importance of the file, development environment, and graphical interface for the OS
And I want to talk about Mac OS and iOS

In 1984, Apple launched a PC (Macintosh), or Mac machine, which uses IBM, Intel, or AMD for its processor, with the core of screen, power, etc.

    • Publish system X systems with Mac machines, and come up with a GUI
    • Renamed after System 7 for Mac OS 8
    • Released in 2007 iOS, the core is still Mac OS, designed for mobile devices such as gestures, etc.
    • Mac OS Core is UNIX, focusing on interface, files, media and other user-related content
cp/m, qdos-> ms-dos-> WindowsIOS, Mac OS, System -I, Unix

Summarizing history: history begins to make people wiser.

Core ideas, Technology

    • is still the basic structure used by program execution, multi-process, and program execution to drive other devices
    • But the user's sense of use is doubly important: a variety of files, programming environments, graphical interfaces

Software implementation

    • How to store code through files, execute code, manipulate screens ...
    • How to make files and actions icon, click or touch ...

Computer hardware, operating system, boot, interface ...

Temperature: Operating system to manage hardware, convenient for us to use ...

Temperature: The Device Management table was initialized, waiting for the user's device to be used (system call), to expand it into device details

void Main (void)

{Mem_init ();

Trap_init ();


Sched_init ();

Buffer_init ();

Hd_init ();

Floppy_init ();

STI ();

Move_to_user_mode ();

if (!fork ()) {init ();}


You can tell the new ...

To manage hardware resources

User-friendly use of hardware resources

[NO000037] Operating system operating systems operating system history and Hardware overview historical OS & summaries!

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