1. The content of this article comes from courseware and student notes of famous universities (on campus, I often see someone buying notes at high prices)
2. The instructor does not provide references, so he can only thank you for your reference.
3. I will not answer questions not related to the article, and the article content is also difficult. I am also difficult to answer your questions. If you find a bug, you can use the reply method to help me fix it.
4. This course is basic knowledge of office automation and is applicable to basic computer courses, basic office automation courses, and grade exam 1B,
For more information about the navigation bar of this course, see the navigation bar at the bottom of the page.
Chapter 2: Windows XP
2.1 What is an operating system
2.2 Windows XP Overview
2.3 Basic WindowsXP operations
2.3.1 start and exit Windows XP
2.3.2 Windows XP desktop and Its settings
2.3.3 mouse operation
2.3.4 window and operations
2.3.5 Windows XP dialog box
2.3.6 common shortcut keys for Windows XP
2.3.7 Windows XP Help
2.4 windows Resource Manager
2.4.1 files and folders
2.4.2 Resource Manager
2.4.3 resource manager file management
2.4.4 Resource Manager disk management
2.5 Chinese Input
2.5.1 setting of Chinese Input Method
2.5.2 activate the Chinese Input Method
2.5.3 PinYin Input Method
Pinyin plus Input Method
2.5.4 five-stroke input method
2.5.5 other Chinese Input Methods
2.6 Windows Applications
2.6.1 application installation
2.6.2 start the application
2.6.3 uninstall an application
2.6.4 windows attachment
2.6.5 DOS environment in Windows
2.7 windows device management
2.7.1 windows device management
2.7.2 add new hardware
2.7.3 install a printer
2.1 What is an operating system
The operating system directly controls and manages computer hardware and software resources, so that users can use these
1. Basic functions of the Operating System
① Effectively manage system resources and improve system resource utilization.
② It is convenient for users to use computers and provides users with a simple, clear and easy-to-use friendly interface.
③ Provide users with the development and running environment of application software.
2. Main functional modules of the Operating System
① Processor management module.
② Storage management function module.
③ Device management module.
④ File management module.
⑤ Job management function module.
3. Categories of Operating Systems
① According to the operating system environment, there are: batch processing operating system, time-based operating system, real-time operating system.
② According to the number of users in the operating system, there are: single-user operating system, multi-user operating system, single-host operating system
System and multi-host operating system.
③ According to the hardware structure of the computer, there are network operating systems and distributed operating systems.
2.2 Windows Overview
Windows is a standard operating system developed by Microsoft for microcomputer.
1. Overview of the development of the microcomputer operating system:
① The DOS operating system is difficult to learn and use as a microcomputer command.
② Windows is a Windows microcomputer operating system with weak functions.
③ Windows 95 operating system 16-bit window multi-task microcomputer operating system, user-friendly and powerful. ④ Windows 98 32-bit windows multi-task microcomputer operating system. The user interface is more friendly and more powerful.
⑤ Other Windows Operating System Series Products: Windows NT, Windows ME, Windows 2000
(Professional, server, advanced, server datacenter server), Windows XP (home, professional) Windows Server 2003 (standard, enterprise, datacenter, Web ).
2. Features of Windows XP
① 32-bit multi-user multi-task operating system.
② Friendly graphical user interface.
③ Provides a large number of utilities.
④ Provides the hardware plug-and-play function.
⑤ Provides powerful network functions.
2.3.1 start and exit Windows XP 1. Enable Windows XP ① normal start of Windows XP: Enable the peripheral power first, and then enable the host power, Windows XP automatically starts the process.
② Simple troubleshooting of Windows XP startup faults. (1) When a pause is started or a "crash" occurs during running, you can restart the computer by pressing the reset key (reset) on the chassis.
(2) When startup fails, you can press [F8] To go to the Windows XP Startup Menu: for Windows Advanced Options menu, select an option safe mode with network connection safe mode with command line prompt enable start log enable VGA mode the last correct configuration (your function recent configuration) directory Service recovery mode (for Windows domain controllers only)
After windows is restarted in normal mode, return to the operating system and select menu ① Select "security mode" or "Mode" to find and solve simple faults during startup.
② Select "The Last correct configuration (the most recent configuration you have configured)" to solve the fault caused by improper computer configuration. ③ If the above two methods do not work, use the following operations to solve the fault:
I. Select "security mode with command line prompts" II. Enter "C: /Windows/system32/restore/rstrui "and press enter (no quotation marks are required during actual input). III. Go to system restore to restore the system to an earlier time.
Note: The following describes the eight startup modes of XP:
1. safe Mode: when Windows XP is started in safe mode, the system only calls some of the most basic files and drivers, only a small number of devices are used, and no content in the startup group is loaded; after startup, you cannot connect to the network, and many devices cannot be used normally (you can use the optical drive in Windows XP Safe mode ). This mode helps to diagnose system problems. If the newly added device or the driver is changed, the system enters safe mode and the faulty device is deleted, then install. If the problem cannot be solved in safe mode, you need to re-use the installation disc to repair the system.
2. security Mode with network connection: This mode uses basic files and drivers. Compared with the "security mode", it also loads the network driver. Its main role is basically the same as the security mode, however, it does not support the use of PCMCIA cards (a removable plug-in card that complies with the specifications of the International Association for personal computer memory cards. If the computer has been connected to the network and no errors are detected when it is started in safe mode, it may be a NIC error. In this mode, you can find some hidden problems in safe mode.
3. Safe Mode of command line prompt: Start Windows with basic files and drivers, and enter the Command Prompt window after startup. Note that the desktop and start menu will not appear in this mode. If the DOS window is accidentally closed, then, you can only press CTRL + ALT + DEL to open "Windows Task Manager". Then, choose "restart" from the firewall menu and click "restart". In the task manager, click "restart er.exe" to display the desktop and start menu, and then shut down the Windows task in the normal mode.
4. Enable startup log: Boot Windows and log the program with normal and normal system logs to the file (the file name is ntbtlog.txt, located in Windows XP installation directory WINNT). This log file can be used to analyze the root cause of the problem during system startup.
5. enable VGA mode: Use a standard VGA driver to guide windows. If a Windows Error occurs after a new display driver is installed, you can enter this mode, delete the wrong driver and then install other drivers. This mode is often used to solve the problem of system startup exceptions caused by video card drive errors.
In fact, the standard VGA driver is used in "security mode", "network security mode", and "command prompt security mode.
6. last correct configuration: After a system error occurs (for example, if the newly added driver is inconsistent with the hardware, the system may fail to start properly ), using the "Last correct configuration" to start Windows generally solves these problems. Of course, if system problems occur due to system file loss or damage, it cannot be solved (in this case, you can enter the System Configuration Utility and click "Expand file" to extract the corresponding file for recovery ).
7. Directory Service recovery mode: This mode is used to restore the sysvol directory and Active Directory Services on the domain controller. It is actually a security mode.
8. debug mode: if some hardware uses the real-Mode Driver (for example, in config. sys and autoexec. some drivers loaded in BAT) and cause the system to fail to start normally, you can use the debug mode to check the conflicts caused by the real-mode drivers. In this mode, the system tests and determines whether to use or cancel the driver in config. sys or autoexec. BAT to detect the device driver that causes system configuration problems.
2. Exit Windows XP ① Close opened applications.
② Click the [start] button and select the [close computer] command to open the "Close computer" dialog box.
③ In the "Close computer" dialog box, select "close ".
3. log out of Windows XP
To allow different users to log on to their computers quickly, the Chinese version of Windows XP provides the logout function, which allows users to log on to multiple users without restarting the computer, this is fast and convenient, and reduces hardware loss. To log out of Windows XP in the Chinese version, perform the following operations:
① Click the [start] button and select the [logout] command to open the "log out of windows" dialog box.
② In the "log out of windows" dialog box, click the [logout] button. The following dialog box is displayed.
③ Click the [logout] button to save the settings and close the current logon user. Note: [Switching users] means switching to another user without shutting down the currently logged-on user. Users can not close running programs, the system retains the original status when it returns again.
2.3.2 Windows XP desktop and settings 1. After Windows XP desktop is started, the computer screen displays the desktop. Windows XP desktop composition:
① Wallpaper: it is placed on the desktop to beautify the desktop pattern. ② Icons: arranged on the desktop, representing computer devices, programs, files... . ③ Taskbar: open or switch the long bar box of the application. ④ Start button: Open the Start menu button. Click the button to display the Start Menu. 2. For Windows XP desktop settings, click the [start] button and select the [Control Panel] command to open the "control panel ". ② Click the [appearance and topic] icon in the right window of "Control Panel" to open the "appearance and topic" window. ③ In the right window of "appearance and topic", click [Change desktop background] and select to open the "display attributes" dialog box. ③ On the [desktop] tab, set your favorite "Wallpaper ". ④ Repeat Step ③ To set options such as "theme", "Screen Saver", "appearance", and "Settings.
3. desktop shortcut icon operations
(1) create a shortcut icon
① Method 1: (1) Right-click the blank area on the desktop to open the shortcut menu. (2) select [new]/[shortcut] In the shortcut menu to open the "Create shortcut" dialog box.
(3) In the "create shortcuts" dialog box, enter the project location and name for creating shortcuts. (4) In the "Create shortcut" dialog box, enter the shortcut name. ⑸ Select the shortcut icon. Click the [finish] button.
② Method 2:
(1) On "my computer" or "Windows Resource Manager", select a project to create a shortcut. (2) run the [file]/[create shortcuts] command. (3) drag and drop the created shortcut icon to the desktop.
③ Method 3:
(1) At "Start/Program /...... "Find the application to create a shortcut. (2) Right-click an application item, and a shortcut menu is displayed, as shown in.
(3) Execute "send to/desktop shortcut" in the pop-up shortcut menu.
(2) icon arrangement ① right-click the blank area on the desktop and a shortcut menu is displayed. ② Select the [Arrange icon] item and set it through its Sub-menu items.
(3) Method 1: drag the icon to be deleted to the recycle bin ".
Method 2: ① click the icon to be deleted. ② Press "delete" on the keyboard ". 4. Start Menu (1) the Start menu consists of four parts.
2.3.3 mouse operation 1. Basic mouse operation ① move: move the mouse pointer on the desktop. ② CLICK: move the mouse pointer to the selected object, quickly press the left button, and then release. ③ Double-click: move the mouse pointer to the selected object, quickly press the left button twice, and then release. ④ Drag and Drop: move the mouse pointer to the selected object, press the left button and move the mouse, drag the selected object to the destination, and release it. ⑤ Right-click: move the mouse pointer to the selected object, right-click quickly, and release.
2. Mouse settings
① Click the [start] button and select the [Control Panel] command to open the "control panel ". ② Click [printer and other hardware] classification option in the right pane of Control Panel to open the "printer and other hardware" window. ③ In the right pane of "printer and other hardware", click the [Mouse] category option.
④ Set the mouse in the "Mouse properties" dialog box. (1) set the mouse key.
(2) set the mouse pointer shape.
(3) set the mouse pointer option. 2.3.4 The Windows XP window and Its Operation window are a rectangular work area opened on the desktop when running a Windows application.
1. window structure
① The Name Of The Window displayed in the title bar. The normal display of the title bar indicates that the window is the current window, And the reversed display of the title bar indicates that the window is not the current window.
② Control button
(1) Minimize button: Minimize the window and change it to the application icon on the taskbar. (2) Maximize/restore button: to maximize the window and fill the whole screen. After the window is maximized, the button changes to the restore button to restore the window to its original state. (3) Close button: used to close the program window.
③ Menu bar
Lists the commands of the application to perform specific operations on the selected object. The selected mark (√ or O) on the left of the menu command indicates that the command is being executed. The following mark can be displayed on the right of the menu command:
(1) gray flag: indicates that this command cannot be used currently. (2) omitted MARK: indicates that the command has a dialog box. (3) Triangle Tag: indicates that the command has sub-menus. (4) shortcut key MARK: indicates that the command can be executed with the shortcut key. ④ Toolbar
Several Common commands arranged in the form of tool buttons, click the tool button to execute the relevant commands.
⑤ Status Bar
Located at the bottom of the window to display relevant information. ⑥ Work zone
The area in the center of the window that displays or processes work objects. 7. the scroll bar moves the button of the workspace object and is divided into horizontal and vertical scroll bars.
Border of the border window, used to adjust the window size.
2. Basic window operations ① open the window
Double-click the program icon or use the [start]/[all programs] menu to open the window. ② Move the window
Drag and Drop the window title bar to move the window position.
③ Change the window size
(1) drag and drop the window border to change the window size. (2) drag and drop the four corners of the window border to change the window size. ④ In the maximize/restore window, click the maximize button to maximize the window. After the window is maximized, click the restore button to restore the window to its original state.
⑤ Minimized window
Click the Minimize button to minimize the window.
⑥ Menu operations
(1) Open the drop-down menu: click a menu item to open the drop-down menu. (2) execute the menu command: Click the command in the drop-down menu to execute the command. (3) undo menu: Click any location outside the drop-down menu to undo the menu. 7. scroll bar operation
(1) drag and drop the scroll block to quickly move the workspace object. (2) Click the scroll bar to move the workspace object by page. (3) Click the scroll button to move the workspace object by row (or column.
2.3.5 The Windows XP dialog box and Its Operation dialog box play an important role in the Chinese version of Windows XP. It is a window for information exchange between users and computer systems. In the dialog box, you can select the option, modifies or sets the system's object attributes. To achieve human-computer interaction.
1. Dialog Box composition and function ① title bar: displays the name of the dialog box and moves the dialog box.
② Tab: lists the options in the category dialog box. The dialog box function is enhanced.
③ Text box: enter user information. In some dialog boxes, you must manually enter a certain content. You can also modify or delete various input content. Generally, a downward arrow is displayed on the right. You can click the arrow to view the recently entered content in the expanded drop-down list. ④ List box: lists information that can be selected, but cannot be changed. ⑤ Single circle: it is usually a small circle, followed by relevant text instructions. After being elected, a green dot will appear in the middle of the circle, in a dialog box, a consumer group usually contains multiple single-choice buttons. After one of them is selected, other options cannot be selected.
Check box: You can select any of the items listed. 7. command button: click "OK" to complete the operation in the dialog box and execute the original command. Click "cancel" to cancel the execution of the original command. ⑧ HELP button: click "help" to get help information. Closing button: used to close the dialog box.
2. Dialog Box Operation example: ① "Search" dialog box operation (1) [start]/[Search]
(2) Select the category to search in the left pane of "Search Results"
② "Open" dialog box operation
Click Close button to close the window.
① The top menu of the "Start" menu indicates the users currently logged on to the computer system. It consists of a pretty small image and user name. Their specific content can be changed. ② In the middle of the "Start" menu, there is a quick start item for common applications on the left. According to the content, there will be less obvious grouping lines in the middle for classification, with these quick start items, you can quickly start the application. On the right is the menu area of the system control tool, such as "My Computer", "My documents", and "Search, you can use these menu items to operate and manage your computer. ③ Display all applications installed in the computer system in the "All Programs" menu. ④ At the bottom of the "Start" menu is the computer control menu area, which includes the "logout" and "Close computer" buttons. You can log out and close the computer here. (2) Change the Start menu to "classic" display mode.
Right-click the start button and select the "properties" command from the shortcut menu to open the "Taskbar and start" menu dialog box,
② On the "Start" menu tab, select the "classic" start "menu" option,
③ Click OK.
2.3.6 common shortcut keys for Windows XP
Follow the purpose
CTRL + C copy.
CTRL + x cut.
CTRL + V paste.
CTRL + z undo.
Shift + delete permanently deletes the selected option, instead of placing it in the recycle bin.
Press ctrl to copy the selected item.
When you drag an item, press Ctrl + shift to create the shortcut key of the option.
F2 renames the selected project.
CTRL + right click to move the insert point to the start of the next word.
CTRL + Left click to move the insertion point to the start point of the previous word.
Press Ctrl + down to move the insertion point to the starting position of the next segment.
CTRL + The up key moves the insert point to the beginning of the previous paragraph.
CTRL + Shift + any arrow key to highlight a piece of text.
Shift + any arrow keys in the window or desktop, or select the text in the document.
CTRL + A select all content.
F3 searches for files or folders.
Alt + enter to view the properties of the selected item.
Alt + F4 close the current project or exit the current program.
Alt + enter displays the properties of the selected object.
Alt + Space key opens a shortcut menu for the current window.
CTRL + F4 close the current document in a program that allows multiple documents to be opened at the same time.
Alt + TAB switch between open projects.
Alt + ESC switches cyclically in the order that the project is opened.
F6 cyclically switches screen elements in a window or on the desktop.
F4 displays the address column list in "My Computer" and "Windows Resource Manager.
Shift + F10 shows the shortcut menu of the selected item.
Alt + Space key displays the "System" menu in the current window.
Press Ctrl + ESC to display the Start Menu.
Alt + the corresponding menu is displayed with an underscore in the menu name.
The command name displayed on the Open menu contains an underscore to execute the corresponding command.
F10 activates the menu bar in the current program.
Open the next menu on the right or submenu on the right.
Open the next menu on the left or close the sub-menu.
F5 refresh the current window.
Backspace can view the previous folder in "My Computer" or "Windows Resource Manager.
ESC cancels the current task.
When you insert a disc into a CD-ROM drive, press shift to prevent the disc from playing automatically.
2.3.7 Windows XP Help and Support
1. How to enable Windows Help and Support: Method 1: press the [F1] key to enable Windows Help. Method 2: Click [start]/[Help and Support] To go to the Windows Help and Support Center. Method 3: run the [help]/[help topic] command in the program window to open windows help.
2. Methods for obtaining help information
① In the left pane of "Windows Help", select a help topic. ② In the right pane of "Windows Help", obtain help information. (1) Click the underlined term to view its meaning.
(2) Click "Click here" to open the relevant program. (3) Click "related topics" to display other topics that contain relevant information. 3. Windows XP System Restoration
(1 ). create Restore Point 1, "start → all programs → attachments → System Tools → System Restore" open "System Restore wizard" 2, select "create restore origin"/"Next" (Figure 1), and fill in "Restore origin" to create the restore origin (figure 2 ).
Note the following:
1. Enable the "System Restore" function: Right-click "my computer" and select the "properties"/"System Restore" tab, make sure that the "Disable System Restore on All Drives" check box is not selected, and then make sure that the "partitions to be restored" are in the "monitoring" status. 2. Make sure that there is sufficient disk space available when you create a system restoration point. Otherwise, the creation may fail. The same method is used to set multiple restore points.
(2) Restore restore Origin
1. "Start → all programs → attachments → System Tools → System Recovery", open the "System Recovery wizard"
2. In the "System Restore" dialog box, select "Restore my computer to an earlier time" (Figure 3 ), click "Next". 3. Select a date (figure 4) and then follow the Wizard to restore it. (only the date on which the Restore point is created can be selected, which is displayed in bold.) Figure 3 Figure 4
Note: 1. Since the system will automatically restart after recovery, we recommend that you exit all programs currently running before the operation to prevent loss of important files. 2. If the restoration fails, use the following methods as needed:
(1) run the system restoration in safe mode. If Windows XP can enter safe mode, the system can be restored in safe mode. The steps are the same as "Restore origin ". (2) recover the system in DOS mode. If the system cannot enter safe mode, press F8 at startup, select "safe mode with command prompt", and log on as an administrator, go to the % SystemRoot % \ Windows/system32/Restore directory, find the rstrui file, run the rstrui file, and follow the prompts. (3) restore the system when the Restore point is lost. in Windows XP, the system volume information folder is preset, which is usually hidden and stores the backup information restored by the system. Open the "show all files and folders" attribute and deselect "Hide protected system files". The "system volume information" folder is displayed on each drive (figure 5 ). You can use this folder to recover data. Right-click my computer, select "properties"/"System Restore", cancel the "Disable System Restore on All Drives" check box, and click "Apply. This is done to recreate a Restore Point. Open the "System Restore" command to find the loss recovery point.
The preceding description is for FAT32 partitions. If the system partition is NTFS, you may encounter some trouble when starting the system volume information folder. Because you may not be added to the system volume Information Security Attribute and cannot access the file. Right-click the folder and select "properties" from the shortcut menu. The system volume information Properties dialog box is displayed. Select the "Security" tab and click "add, open the "select user or group" window, click the "advanced" button in the lower-right corner of the window, and then click "Search now". All users and groups on the computer are listed, select the name of your current account or account group and click "OK ". In this way, the selected account is added to the system volume information security attribute to access the folder.
2.4.1 files and folders
① What is a file
A file is a collection of related information with a file name.
② File naming rules
The file name consists of the main file name and extension. The main file name and extension are separated. File names can be packed at most
Can contain 255 characters, but cannot contain the following characters? /|/: "* <>.
Note: identical file names are not allowed in the same directory.
③ File type
Different file types can be distinguished based on the file extension. Beginners should remember the following file types:
. Com application. EXE application. bat batch file. sys system file. DLL application extension. the driver of the DRV device. TXT text file. BMP bitmap file. doc Word file. XLS Excel files
④ File attributes:
Files have four attributes: "system", "read-only", "hidden", and "ARCHIVE.
① What is a folder
A folder is a tree-like hierarchy used by windows to organize and manage files on disks.
② Folder naming rules
The naming rules of folders are identical to those of files.
Note: The same folder name is not allowed in the same directory.
2.4.2 windows Resource Manager
1. Start the Resource Manager
Use [start]/[all programs]/[attachments]/[Windows Resource Manager] to start the resource manager.
2. Windows Resource Manager window
The workspace of the Resource Manager window is divided into the left pane and the right pane.
① Content and structure of the left pane shows all the devices on the desktop, including my computer (including floppy disks, hard disks, CDs, printers, and so on) my documents, my briefcase, and recycle bin. The content displayed in the left pane is in a tree structure and the same level object is located in
Right of the same vertical line. If an object has a "+" number before it, it indicates that the object has a lower-level structure. If the object has a "-" number before it,
Indicates that the lower-level structure of the object has been expanded ,. ② Content in the right pane
When an object is selected in the left pane, the right pane displays all the content contained in the object.
3. Basic operations in the resource manager window ① set the resource manager window (1) Adjust the size of the left and right pane. (2) display/hide the toolbar. (3) display/hide the status bar.
② Set the File Viewing Method
Select a thumbnail (for image files), a large icon, a small icon, a list, and a detailed information view method.
③ Set the file arrangement method to sort files by name, type, size, and date.
4. Select a drive, folder, and file
① Expand and collapse the content displayed in the left pane
Click the "+" sign before the selected object to show the lower-level structure of the object. Click the "-" sign before the selected object to show the object.
② Select the drive
Click the drive code to select the drive.
③ Select a folder
Click the folder name to select the folder.
④ Select a file
(1) click the file name to select a file.
(2) press the [CTRL] key and click the file name to select multiple files.
(3) press the [shift] key and click the file name to select multiple consecutive files.
(4) run the /[select all] command to select all files in the current folder.
⑸ Execute the /[reverse selection] command to select all files other than the selected files.
Click a blank area in the right pane to cancel the selected file.
5. Resource Manager operations
① Use menu commands-general, reliable, and slow.
② Use the tool in the toolbar-fast and reliable.
③ Use shortcut menus-fast and reliable.
Drag and drop with the mouse-fast and unreliable.
2.4.3 manage Resource Manager Files (or folders)
1. Create a folder
① Select the drive or folder where the new folder is located. ② Run the [file]/[new]/[Folder] command. ③ Enter the name of the new folder and press Enter.
2. copy a file (or folder)
① Select one or more files to be copied. ② Run the /[copy] command. ③ Select the target drive or folder. ④ Run the /[paste] command.
3. Move a file (or folder)
① Select one or more files to be moved. ② Run the /[CUT] command. ③ Select the target drive or folder. ④ Run the /[paste] command.
4. Search for files (or folders)
① Run the [Tool]/[Search]/[file or folder] command. ② Enter the name of the file to be searched in the "name" text box. ③ Enter the name of the drive or folder to search in the search text box. ④ Press the [start search] button to start searching.
5. rename a file (or folder)
① Select a file to be renamed. ② Run the [file]/[rename] command. ③ Enter the new file name and press Enter.
6. delete a file (or folder)
① Select one or more files to be deleted. ② Run the [file]/[Delete] command. ③ In the "Confirm file deletion" dialog box, press [Yes].
7. Restore deleted files (or folders)
① Open the "recycle bin ". ② Select one or more files to restore. ③ Run the [file]/[restore] command.
8. Clear deleted files (or folders)
① Open the "recycle bin ". ② Select one or more files to be cleared. ③ Run the [file]/[Delete] command.
9. Change the file (or folder) attributes
① Select one or more files to change the attributes. ② Run the [file]/[attribute] command to open the "attribute" dialog box. ③ Set file attributes and click OK.
2.4.4 Resource Manager disk management
1. view disk Information
① Select the disk to be viewed. ② Run the [file]/[attribute] command to open the "attribute" dialog box. ③ View the disk information on the "General" tab.
2. disk error
① Select the disk to be found. ② Run the [file]/[attribute] command to open the "attribute" dialog box. ③ In the "check error status" column on the "Tools" tab, click the [start check] button. ④ After setting the scan type, click the [start] button. ⑤ Close the disk scan program after scanning is completed.
3. disk fragmentation
① Select the disk to fragment. ② Run the [file]/[attribute] command to open the "attribute" dialog box. ③ In the "Fragmentation status" column on the "Tools" tab, click the [start sorting] button. ④ Close the disk fragment program after the fragment is completed.
4. Floppy disk formatting
① Select "my computer" in the left pane of resource manager, and select "3.5 inch floppy disk (A :)" in the right pane :)". ② Run the [file]/[format] command. ③ Select the formatting method (Fast/complete/copy only system files ). ④ Press the [start] button to start formatting. ⑤ Exit the formatting program after formatting is completed.
2.5.1 setting of Chinese Input Method
① Right-click the [language bar] in the "Taskbar. ② Click [set] command item on the shortcut menu to open the "text service and input language" dialog box.
Note: you can also click the [start]/[Control Panel]/[date, time, language, and Region settings]/[region and language options]/"language" option/[Details] button enter.
③ Add input method (1) on the "Settings" tab, click the [add] button. (2) In the "keyboard layout/Input Method" list box, select the input method to be added. (3) Click the [OK] button. ④ Delete input method (1) in the "installed Services" list box, select the input method to delete. (2) Click the [delete] button. ⑤ Set input method attributes
(1) In the "installed Services" list box, select the input method for setting properties, and click the [properties] button to open the "Input Method Settings" dialog box. (2) Set "input method function", "Input Method interface", and "retrieval character set ". (3) Click the [OK] button.
6. After the settings are complete, click the [OK] button.
2.5.2 activate the Chinese Input Method
1. Select the Chinese Input Method
① Click the keyboard on the "language bar" in the taskbar to open the input method list. ② Click the Chinese Input Method to use.
2. Switch the Input Method
① For cyclic switching between several input methods, press [CTRL] + [shift]. ② Switch between Chinese and English input methods, and press [CTRL] + [Space key].
2.5.3 PinYin Input Method
1. All-in-One Input Method
① Select the all-in-one input method. ② Determine the text insertion position. ③ Input Chinese characters (words) in pinyin. ④ Use "-" and "=" to select words from the front and back pages ).
2. Micro soft PinYin Input Method
(1) Basic Methods:
① Select the soft Pinyin input method. ② Determine the text insertion position. ③ Input Chinese characters (words) in pinyin. ④ Confirm.
(2) status description:
(3) pinyin window operations:
(4) group word window:
The Group word window displays the Chinese characters or symbols converted by the soft PinYin Input Method. The text in the group word window is underlined when the cursor follows. Before confirming the input, you can edit the content in the group word window. The content in the group word window changes with the context entered by the user.
Tip: ① The Group word window can display a maximum of 32 Chinese characters. If the number of characters exceeds this range, the content first entered is automatically confirmed. ② In the mixed Chinese and English input or word conversion mode, the group word window operations are different from the preceding operations. (5) incomplete input: In incomplete input mode, users can enter Chinese characters using only the initials. For example, if you type "zhg", the candidate window will display "entire", "China", "this", and other words starting with the initials "ZH" and "G. Incomplete Pinyin input can reduce the number of keys, but can reduce the conversion accuracy of the micro-soft Pinyin input method. Appendix: incomplete Pinyin input mode
① Right-click the input method status bar, or click button ② select "properties" from the function menu ③ in the Microsoft Pinyin Input Method Properties dialog box, select the "incomplete pinyin" check box
(6) fuzzy PinYin Input
For users in some regions, the differences in Chinese pronunciation are difficult to distinguish, such as flat tongue and tilted tongue, prenose rhyme and postnose rhyme. When using the micro-soft Pinyin input method, if you are not sure about the pronunciation of your Mandarin, you can use the fuzzy Pinyin input mode. In the fuzzy Pinyin input mode, the micro-soft Pinyin input method combines easily confused pinyin into a fuzzy audio pair. When a user inputs one of the fuzzy audio pairs, the other will also appear in the Candidate window. For example, if the default "micro soft PinYin Input Method" is used as the fuzzy Audio scheme, when "Si" is input, Chinese characters with the pronunciation of "Si" and "Shi" will appear in the Candidate window. The micro-soft PinYin Input Method supports the following eleven fuzzy audio pairs. You can select some or all of them based on your accent.
Default Value: default value:
ZH, z is F, Hu No
Ch, C is Wang, Huang is
Sh, s is an, Ang is
N, l no en, Eng is
L, r No in, ing is
F, H No
Appendix: Set the fuzzy Pinyin input mode
Right-click the input method status bar, or click button ② select "properties" on the function menu ③ in the Microsoft Pinyin Input Method Properties dialog box, select the "Fuzzy pinyin" check box
2.5.4 five-stroke input method
1. strokes and roots of Chinese Characters
In the process of writing Chinese characters, the lines that can be written continuously are called strokes. There are five basic strokes for Chinese characters:
Stroke name stroke direction represents the stroke code horizontal left → right 1 vertical up → lower limit 2 top right → lower left margin 3 top left → lower right margin 4 fold turn fold B 5 ② font Root
A component consisting of several strokes with relatively stable structure is called the font root. More than 130 basic roots are identified in the Five-stroke input method.
③ In order to reasonably arrange more than 130 roots on the standard keyboard, the keyboard and the root should be scientifically grouped. First, divide the 25 keys a-y into five areas: [g], [f], [d], [s], and [, [h], [J], [K], [L], and [m] are two zones, [t], [R], [e], [w], and [Q] are three zones, [Y], [u], [I] [O], and [p] are four areas, [N], [B], [v], [c], and [X] are five areas. Each area is further divided into five places. Each key bit is represented by a two-digit code, ten digits represent the area code, and one digit represents the location code. For example, "13" indicates the [d] Key of three digits in area 1, "34" indicates the 4-digit [w] key in zone 3. Then, more than 130 word roots are distributed to 25 key locations, and a representative word root is selected from the root of each key location as the key name, which is called the key name root. ④ The distribution of the root character on the keyboard is as follows: (1) the first stroke code of the root character is the same as the area code of the key. (2) The second stroke code of the root is the same as that of the key. (3) It is the root of a row composed of the same strokes. The stroke code is the same as the area code of the key position where the row is located. The number of strokes is the same as the position number of the row in the key position. (4) the root of the word similar to (shape near, sound near, and idea near) is placed on the same key position. 2. Chinese Character Fonts
① According to the positional relationship between the roots of the Chinese characters, the Chinese characters can be divided into three types.
Font Name example font code left-right type river tree loses 1 up and down type miscellaneous want to Boom Look 2 complex type country area multiplication degree 3 ② character root composition Chinese character structure relation
There are four types of structural relationships between the roots and the Chinese characters:
(1) Single: A single root is a Chinese character. For example, Wang, tu, da, Mu, Gong, Wu, Zao, Xin, Yu, and Ma all belong to the single structure.
(2) scatter: refers to the loose relationship between several word roots. For example, words such as "and", "Xiang", "Miscellaneous", "card", "recognition", and "photograph" are in a discrete structure.
(3) connection: a link between a single stroke and the word root. For example, Yu, he, and he are connected. If a single stroke is a "dot" in a connected structure, the so-called "dot structure" is formed, such as: Yu, Master, Yi, fan, household, and spoon, although there is a certain distance between the vertices in these words and other word roots, they are still regarded as connected structures. The Chinese Character of the connected structure must be a Chinese character of the combination type. (4) intersection: intersection refers to the positional relationship of intersection, intersection, and surrounding of several roots. For example, the word "niu", "wei", "shen", "Feng", "great", "sleepy", "Liang", and "Cao" are in a structure.
③ Principle of splitting Chinese characters into word roots
When splitting a Chinese character into a font root, it should be split into the largest font root according to the writing sequence of the Chinese character. Note the following when splitting Chinese characters into the font root:
(1) take the largest priority: that is, the root size of the split should be as large as possible, and an additional word cannot form an existing root size.
(2) Both sides are intuitive: In general, the root of the word should be split according to the writing sequence of the Chinese characters. However, sometimes, in order to take care of the intuitive integrity of the Chinese characters, the writing sequence should be adjusted. (3) reconnection: Some Chinese characters can be split into the root of the Link Structure and the root of the link structure. In this case, the splitting of the link structure takes precedence over the splitting of the intersection structure. (4) scatter: Some Chinese characters can be split into both the root and the root of the link structure. In this case, the split method of the scatter structure takes precedence over the split method of the connected structure.
④ Last font ID
Among a large number of Chinese characters, some Chinese characters are composed of identical roots, but the positions of the roots are different,
Only k W u (42) k w y (41)
Although some Chinese Character roots are different, these word roots are located on the same key bit, that is, their root code is
Mu I s y (41) Ting I s h (21) sprinkling I s g (11)
In the five-stroke input method, to enter such Chinese characters, you must use the last-stroke identifier. The rules for getting the last pen-shaped Identification Code are as follows: Use the last pen code of a Chinese character as the area code, and use the font code of this Chinese character as the location code to get a location code, the letter corresponding to the location code on the keyboard is called The Last font identifier of the Chinese character. In the five-stroke Font Input Method, each Chinese character can only be entered with up to four codes. The last font identifier is used only when the encoding of one Chinese character is less than four codes.
3. encoding of Chinese Characters
① Key name and Chinese Character Input
The key name is the root of the 25 key names on the Five-pen-style standard keyboard. Only "complete" is not a complete Chinese character. Method: when you enter a key name and a Chinese character, you only need to press the key that contains the Chinese character.
② Font root Chinese Character Input
In addition to the key-Name and Chinese characters on the Five-stroke standard keyboard, there are 101 Chinese characters (more than 40 of them are the radicals of the National Standard ). The method for inputting the Chinese characters in the font root is as follows: first, click the key where the font root is located (commonly known as account reporting), and then click the key where the first, second, and last stroke of the root. This method can be represented by the following formula: the root code, the first code, the second code, and the last code.
The encoding method for foreign key Chinese characters (1) consisting of four or more roots can be expressed using the following formula: first-character root code + second-character root code + third-character root code
(2) The following formula can be used to encode the foreign key and Chinese characters with less than four roots: the first root code + the second root code [+ the third root code] + the last font cross identification code
4. Simple code input
① Level 1 simplified code
The five-stroke input method puts the most commonly used 25 Chinese characters on 25 key locations, which is called a level-1 simplified code. Level 1
For simplified Chinese characters, you only need to press the key once and then press the Space key to enter the computer.
② Second-level simple code
The second-level simplified code consists of the first two root codes of all Chinese characters. The second-level simplified Chinese characters have a total of 588 Chinese characters. Level 2
You only need to enter the first two root codes and the Space key to enter the computer.
③ Level 3 simple code level 3 simple code consists of the first three root codes of the Chinese character full code, and the Level 3 simple code contains nearly 4500 Chinese characters. Level 3 Simplified Chinese
You only need to enter the first three root code and the Space key to enter the computer.
5. Word Input ① double-Word Input
For double-word input, the first two digits of each word are obtained.
② Enter the first and second codes of the first two words. ③ Four-character input
The first code of each word.
④ Multi-Word Input
For multiple words, the first three words and the first code of the last word are used.
6. Chinese Punctuation Input
In the Chinese Character Input Method, you can enter Chinese Punctuation Marks.
Punctuation name: Chinese Punctuation key-bit comma, ending.. Don,/semicolon; Colon: Question number?? Exclamation point!! Single quotation marks ''' double quotation marks "book name""
2.5.5 other Chinese Input Methods
1. Handwriting Input Method
① Principle of handwriting input method:
Graphical symbols input by a handwritten input device (tablet), processed by graphic recognition software, are converted into Chinese characters and labels
② Features of the handwriting input method:
Advantages: easy to learn and use. Disadvantage: You need to add a handwritten input device. The recognition rate is less than 100%, and the input speed is slow.
2. Voice Input Method
① Principle of voice input method:
Audio Signals input by microphones are processed by speech recognition software and converted into Chinese characters and punctuation marks.
② Characteristics of the voice input method:
Advantage: the input method is natural and the input speed is fast. Disadvantage: high requirements on input speech and input environment, and low recognition rate.
3. Scanner Input Method
① Principle of scanner Input Method: (OCR)
Use a scanner to convert documents into images and input them into computers. The documents are processed by graphic recognition software and converted into Chinese characters and punctuation marks.
② Scanner input method features:
Advantage: Input in batches is extremely fast. Disadvantage: low recognition rate and many errors.