Novice advanced Thorough understanding 64-bit operating system _windowsxp

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags rar require win32

Now that the Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (Windows XP 64) has been officially launched, what is the significant change compared to 32-bit Windows XP? Can it successfully support 32-bit applications? Can normal users now upgrade to Windows XP 64?

   Into the 64-digit road

"Bit" is a simple understanding of the CPU's addressing space. In the history of computer technology, the evolution of the position plays an important role. From the 1971 's 4-digit calculation to the 64-bit computing age that has come, it has undergone a long process of evolution.

   1978--1995 Year: 16 great ways to do it   

Intel launched its first 16-bit cpu--8086 in 1978. During this period, the operating system went through 16-bit pc-dos, MS-DOS, cp/m-86, UCSD Pascal P-system,ms-dos began to become the overlord of the PC operating system, until today, Dos still plays an important role in the maintenance of Windows systems. What is worth remembering is that at that time, the Chinese people's computer almost did not install WPS for DOS (the early word processing software, equivalent to today's words), for the computer in the field of Office application has laid a solid foundation, at the same time, people have successfully developed a DOS system, such as Ccdos.

Microsoft launched Windows 1.0 in 1985 and then rolled out Windows 2.0, Windows 286, and Windows 386, but it was not noticed because of its mediocre performance. Until May 1990, Microsoft introduced Windows 3.0, added a lot of useful features, and for the first time added multimedia capabilities, known as "Multimedia DOS" by public opinion. As soon as Windows 3.0 was unveiled, it was a stunning success that laid Microsoft's monopoly on operating systems.

   1995-present: A leap from 16 to 32   

1985 Intel launched its first 32-bit processor 80386. During this period, in August 1995, Microsoft launched Windows 95, a milestone in the development of the operating system. From Windows 95 to Windows 98/me, are mixed 16/32-bit computing operating systems, not pure 32-bit operating systems, stability and performance, although more than in the past has been greatly improved, but still can not meet the needs of computer applications.

In 2000, Microsoft launched Windows 2000, opening up a new era of 32-bit computing and applications for personal desktops. Windows XP, released in 2001, is the most used operating system.

The most successful application of the 32-bit computing age has been the emergence of many applications, such as 3DMax, Photoshop, and so on, in the multimedia and internet,32-bit Windows platforms, which have previously run only on large graphics workstations such as SGI. People no longer buy the most expensive graphics workstations for these multimedia creations, and the increasingly sophisticated 32-bit computing has opened up a new era for PCs as a multimedia application tool.

   2005:64 will reign in the world  

Today, the 64-digit era of civilian computing is coming. Unlike the previous 8-bit leap to 16-bit, 16-bit to 32-bit leap for more than 10 years, 64-bit CPUs rolled out in a few years, and 64-bit Windows XP and 64-bit Windows Server 2003 appeared. Microsoft says the 64-bit Longhorn will also be released in 2006.

In addition, the server system that synchronizes with the personal desktop system, such as Windows Nt/server 2000/server 2003, also publishes 64-bit Windows Server 2003 while Microsoft publishes 64-bit Windows XP. To date, you can also register and download 64-bit Windows Server 2003 with a 120-day limit from the Microsoft Web site.
Why do I need to upgrade to 64-bit   

As mentioned earlier, with the infiltration of multimedia functions and the increasing popularity of hardware prices, more and more people join the ranks of PC applications, creating a large number of home multimedia applications such as the use of professionals, many people no longer satisfied with the use of computer typing, form, internet chat and other simple applications. As people demand more and more computers, the 32-bit system has been overwhelmed, so 64-bit CPUs and 64-bit operating systems have been released. In terms of operating systems, fully prepared (including a free download trial from Microsoft in the previous period), Microsoft finally launched a significant 64-bit Windows XP and 64-bit Windows Server 2003 this year April 25.

According to Microsoft's official view, Windows XP Professional x64 Edition is designed to meet the needs of customers in areas such as mechanical design and analysis, three-dimensional animation, video editing and authoring, and scientific computing and High-performance computing applications that require large amounts of memory and floating-point performance- These applications require high performance and large memory support.

One feature of 64-bit comparison with 32-bit Windows XP is the ability to provide large memory support. Currently, 32-bit Windows can support up to 4GB of system memory, with up to 2GB dedicated memory per processor. While Windows XP Professional x64 Edition currently supports up to 128GB of memory, it is possible to support up to 16TB (1TB=1000GB) of virtual memory as hardware features increase and memory size increases. For additional data, see the following table:

From the point of view of the user of personal desktop system, the limit of memory capacity is only one aspect that embodies the advantage of 64-bit computing technology, and a large amount of data processing is the place where 64-bit computing is really effective. PC is not only a user computing tool, it is a "multimedia" center, many of these applications are 32-bit computing is simply not satisfied. As in the home sector, 32-bit can not achieve high-fidelity audio-visual, and even can not complete 20 minutes of video playback and editing; In the field of architecture and game design, 32-bit computation cannot perform a large amount of data calculation and processing; On the internet, 32-bit computing cannot achieve a large number of data searches of various types- These applications require 64-bit computations to be implemented.

   installation of 64-bit Windows XP   

To illustrate, 64-bit Windows XP can only be installed on a 64-bit platform because Setup detects the system before it is installed, and if the 64-bit CPU is not detected, the operating system interrupts the installation process.

The current 64-bit Windows XP is also available in English only, coupled with the new system is unfamiliar with the new system compatibility issues, the current domestic 32-bit system still occupy the mainstream. Many readers may first think of multiple systems, retaining the original 32-bit Windows XP, booting with a CD-ROM, and installing 64-bit Windows XP in another directory on another partition or the original system partition, but this practice has serious compatibility issues. Taking into account the above reasons, the author recommended that we adopt independent multiple system method.

Step 1: The DOS version of the partition software on the hard disk to divide two primary partitions, the expansion of the partition arbitrary. The primary partition can have multiple, but only one is active, and the other primary partition is automatically hidden. To facilitate the description of the following, the two main partitions are now set up Win32 and Win64 respectively.

Step 2: Use the partition magician to make the Win32 partition active and install 32-bit Windows XP normally. Make sure that the other primary partition is hidden when you install it.

Step 3: Use the partition magician to make the Win64 partition active, hide the Win32 partition, install 64-bit Windows XP under the Win64 partition, and install the method with 32-bit Windows XP in simplified version.

Note: When installing a system under a primary partition, make sure that another primary partition is hidden, and that the key to the success or failure of the independent multiple systems is the whole thing. The above installation method is only a way of thinking, you can also adjust the original system partition size to split it out, and then split the part into a primary partition to install 64-bit Windows XP.

   Step 4: Multi-system switching  

Install the full version of Partition Magician 8.0 under any system, locate the following two files under its installation directory: Pqbw.exe and PQBW.RTC, and copy them to a new directory on any extended partition.

Tip: Under 64-bit Windows XP, the partition magician's installation directory defaults to "C:Program files (x86) Powerquestpartitionmagic 8.0", which is "C:Program files under 32-bit Windows XP" Powerquestpartitionmagic 8.0 ". If it is not a full version, you may not find the above two files.

Double-click Pqbw.exe to get the interface shown in Figure 1, and it is clear that two primary partitions have been identified by the software. From status: You can see that the WIN32 partition is active (active) and the operating system under that partition is running, if you click to select another partition that is Win64, select Restart Now, and then click OK. The current system shuts down and restarts to 64-bit Windows XP immediately. Since these two files have been copied to the extended partition, it can be found and run regardless of which system is started.

Because only one primary partition is active, the other partition is hidden by default, and no matter which system is started, only one primary partition's letter will be assigned as C disk, and the following extended partition will be displayed as D disk and E disk under Disk Manager, and can share the data under the extended partition. If, for ease of maintenance, both partitions are set to be not hidden manually, you can only boot to the operating system on the active primary partition, and the other primary partition's letter will be queued after the extended partition.

Although this kind of multiple system is difficult to achieve, but also has considerable benefits. In traditional multiple systems, the rear system is difficult to maintain if the previous system fails (such as failure to start, Boot.ini files are corrupted, etc.). Under the independent Multi system, not only overcomes this shortcoming, but also can in one system to another system's file to carry on the local read and write maintenance operation. Perhaps readers will ask, under independent multiple systems, if the active system error, even the opportunity to run Pqbw.exe, but also to boot to another system? Under the partition Magician installation directory there is another file PQboot.exe, it can run in DOS, as long as the copy to the DOS boot disk can solve this problem. The Run-time interface is shown in Figure 2, and obviously, just enter 1 or 2.


If this method is considered too difficult, you can format the original system partition and install 64-bit Windows XP. Of course, you can also compromise, the format of the original partition with Ghost Backup, and then for the newly installed 64-bit Windows XP backup, to use which system to restore which set of systems.

   intuitive experience with Windows XP  

Boot to 64-bit Windows XP, the first to break into view is the desktop, as shown in Figure 3, the default desktop picture with 64-bit logo. Right-click My Computer (My Computer) and select Properties to see Figure 4. Right-click Start to select Explore all Users (explorer), and then, under the Open window, under Help, about Windows (about Windows), observe Figure 5.
If you want to display in Chinese, you can click "Start", "Control Panel", and then click "Switch to Category View" to toggle to classic display mode, and then click Under Control Panel. Regional and Languages options, open the Language Setup Panel, click Install Files for East Asian Language under the Language tab to add the Simplified Chinese component, as shown in Figure 6. At this point, you will be prompted to insert the 64-bit Windows XP installation CD-ROM, and the system will automatically reboot when completed. After restarting, open the Language Setup Panel again, setting all the options under it to Chinese (PRC) or to. After restarting the computer again, this 64-bit Windows XP provides some simplified Chinese support, including the Chinese folder and filename on the disk, the user-installed Chinese application name, and so on. Can also install other Chinese input method, with Ms Office/wps Office, etc. for Chinese editing. However, the system's own program name, menu, and so on are displayed in English. However, the appearance of the menu distribution, menu, or System command buttons is unchanged from the 32-bit Simplified Chinese version of Windows XP.

For the user to install the Chinese input method, such as the need for Wubi 6.0, can not be used in Notepad, Outlook Express, etc., can be used under Microsoft Office, but through Figure 6 add a full spell input method, etc. can be used anywhere.

In Figure 6, click "Details ..." under the Languages (Language) tab. (Details) "Can add the system from the input method such as full spelling (the display of the key words is quanping) and so on. In addition, without the addition of the Asian language mentioned above, there is no way to select Chinese (PRC) or China in Figure 6 and to add the system's own Chinese input method.
   system security Experience  

Combining the EVP feature of the AMD 64-bit processor with the 64-bit Windows XP DEP technology will improve the control of malicious code such as viruses to a new level. This is very effective against viruses that exploit buffer overflows (for buffer overflows, refer to information published by SP2) to attack the system.

Simply put, EVP (Enhanced Virus Protection, enhanced virus protection) is a new antivirus technology in the AMD Althlon 64 processor, but it only provides hardware support, and to do this, you must also work with Windows XP A combination of SP2 or 64-bit Windows XP DEP (Date Execution Prevention, Data Execution Protection) technology. The combination of the two will generate a completely new malicious code defense mechanism: Mark all memory locations as not executable-unless the location has explicitly included the code. This behavior is blocked when an attack program attempts to insert code into an executable memory location and execute code. It is not difficult to imagine that, unless the user's permission, the unknown code is difficult to implement, which can largely control the virus and other malicious code intrusion.

After installing 64-bit Windows XP on a computer with a 64-bit processor, the EVP and DEP features are automatically turned on. Right-click My Computer and select Properties (Properties) Advanced (Advanced) "Settings" Data Execution prevention (Data Execution protection) to see the Figure 7 interface.
As with any new technology, there are compatibility issues at the beginning of the application, and some software (such as Internet assistants) is not functioning properly on 64-bit computers that have EVP and DEP started, and the error is shown in Figure 8. We can change this situation by modifying the options in Figure 7, which is explained by setting up the Internet helper as an example.
Method One: By default, the option in Figure 7 is "Turn on DEP for essential programs and services (enable DEP only for basic Windows programs and service)". Select Turn on DEP for all programs and services except those I select (To enable DEP for all programs and service except the following I have selected), click Add, navigate to the installation directory of the Internet Assistant, and then select Start the executable program for the Internet Assistant, and then click Open on the current interface to add it to the list that is allowed to run. After this process, the programs that are blocked by DEP are generally functional, and after you modify the options in Figure 7, you must restart your computer to take effect.

Method Two: Directly modify the Boot.ini file

When you select a different option in Figure 7, the contents of the Boot.ini file change automatically. On a computer with 64-bit Windows XP installed, the contents of the file are similar to the following:

[boot loader]


Default=multi (0) disk (0) rdisk (0) partition (1windows1

[Operating Systems]

multi (0) disk (0) rdisk (0) partition (1) windows1= "Microsoft Windows XP Professional"/noexecute=optin/fastdetect

Tip: The contents of [operating systems] (excluding it) are one row.

A friend who knows something about this document may have noticed that it has an extra parameter, namely:/NoExecute, the value of this parameter can be either AlwaysOn, AlwaysOff, OptIn, or OptOut. When you select Turn on DEP for essential programs and services in Figure 7,/noexecute=optin, which is also the default value for the system; When you select Turn on DEP for all programs in Figure 7 When and services except those I Select, the value on the right side of the/noexecute= is automatically modified to OptOut.

In Figure 7, however, there are only two options, that is, the value of/noexecute can only be jumped between OptIn and OptOut only through the different selections in Figure 7, and no other two values could be set. However, even if you assign a/NoExecute value to OptOut, and then add a program that is blocked by DEP to the release list in Figure 7, some programs are blocked. The only way to solve this problem is to manually modify the Boot.ini file.

When/noexecute=alwayson, the entire system is placed within DEP protection. In this state, many programs can not be run, the early add to the Figure 7 release list of the program is no exception, even including Microsoft Office components and IE, and the tip of the error is not the same. As shown in Figure 9, the upper part is the error prompt when you start Word, and the lower part is the error prompt when you start ie. It is a good choice to use this feature for some special occasions, such as a LAN server unrelated to the network connection.

When/noexecute=alwaysoff, the equivalent of shutting down the DEP and EVP functions, any program that is blocked by it can run normally. We can temporarily run a program in this state, but we must pay attention to network security, the work is completed immediately after recovery.

Tip: When/noexecute=alwayson or AlwaysOff, Figure 7 is grayed out and cannot be set.

   Compatibility Experience

Compatibility is mainly embodied in two aspects of hardware drive and application software.

   Hardware Driver

According to Microsoft, 64-bit Windows XP has 16000 hardware drivers built in to identify most of the mainstream hardware. The basic configuration of the author's computer is: AMD Athlon 2800+ CPU, sl-k8av2-r1l Motherboard, Seagate 80GB/7200 high-speed drive, 512MB/DDR4 memory, integrated sound card, independent seven Rainbow graphics card, HP Laserjet 6L Laser Printer. After the 64-bit system is installed, the hardware (especially the older printer) is properly identified.

But there were some mistakes, although the above hardware can be automatically recognized by 64-bit Windows XP, but I tried to install the motherboard with the driver, the result can not be as automatic installation as under 32-bit Windows XP, manually open the drive CD, find the project to install one by one, an error occurred. Mainly embodied in the sound card, the SL-K8AV2-R1L motherboard integrated sound card (VT1616 Audio Codec) although only three 3.5mm stereo (6-channel signal) interface, but can be simulated through the software into 5.1 channels (also 6 channel signal) output, but in the default state of its working mode is stereo sound output, stereo line input, monomer sound mic input, To simulate 5.1, you have to rely on software to do it, and under 64-bit Windows XP, this software cannot be installed. In addition, the installation of the camera driver also error, as shown in Figure 10, obviously, the reason for the error is the driver or 32-bit, can not run on the 64-bit platform.
In practice, if you find that individual hardware does not drive, you can also go to its official website to check for 64-bit program downloads.

   Software Compatibility   

This is one of the big plays that Microsoft is developing in 64-bit Windows XP. 64-bit Windows XP provides a versatile platform that enables Windows to integrate new 64-bit applications with current 32-bit applications on the Windows WOW64 x86 true layer. The WOW64 subsystem isolates 32-bit applications from 64-bit applications to prevent file and registry conflicts, supports console applications and graphical user interface applications, and also supports service applications. The system provides interoperability across 32-bit applications and 64-bit applications for scenarios such as cut, paste, and COM. However, the 32-bit process could not load 64-bit dynamic-link libraries (DLLs), and 64-bit processes could not load 32-bit DLLs. The most intuitive manifestation of this design is in the system partition directory, in addition to the past Program Files directory, there is a 32-bit Windows XP does not have a directory: Project Files (x86), as shown in Figure 11.
Whether it's a 64-bit Windows XP program or a user-installed program, the first thing you need to do is check the system, as long as it's 32-bit, and install it into the programs files directory, as long as it's 64-bit, and it's all installed in the x86 files directory.

In this way, the original 32-bit program can generally run on a 64-bit platform, but there are some not, specially tested programs as shown in the previous page table.

Next we explain the problems that are encountered in the table:

First of all, about WinRAR, right click on the file to be compressed, there will be no compression-related shortcuts; Right-click the compressed RAR file and choose Open or open with to open the WinRAR main interface and unzip it below. Under the RAR main interface, compression and decompression can work properly.

Second, when you edit text under MS Office series programs (such as word), you don't see paragraph marks. When you open the Options window for Word, you can observe that the paragraph flag is not selected, and when you check it manually, you see that the paragraph mark symbol appears as?. This problem does not occur under 64-bit Windows Server 2003.

The setup of the program Files (x86) folder can also cause problems, mainly in two areas:

First, the program's patch problem. In the original 32-bit system, the vast majority of user programs are installed to the Program Files directory, the patch is designed to point to this directory. When you install these programs under a 64-bit system, the system is able to detect the original program and install it to Programs files (x86), but most of the time can not detect the patch, or according to design requirements installed to program files, which will cause a patch failure, to solve this problem, Only manually modify the installation directory for the patch.

Second, the compatibility of the menu-type multiple systems. For example, to install 32-bit Windows XP, and then install 64-bit Windows XP, although we can specify the system folder to the original system partition of different names, but the Program Files folder is public, the following original 32-bit program will be the same name of 64-bit program to replace all. In this way, when booting to a 64-bit system, these programs are clearly working. However, when the boot to the 32-bit system, these programs will not function correctly, the report "is not a valid 32-bit program" of the error.

This kind of problem mainly concentrates on the system with the program, such as IE, OE, MSN Messenger and so on. This is the author does not recommend the use of the main reason for the menu-type system. To solve this problem, in addition to the independent multi-system method described earlier, you can do this by not formatting the original system partition (32-bit Windows XP has been installed), booting the computer with a 64-bit system CD, and installing the 64-bit system into other partitions, such as D-Disk. In this way, the two systems will not share the Program Files folder, the aforementioned file is replaced by the problem to be solved.

   Performance Test  

Performance testing is our most concern, for this reason, the author selected a long time, high resource occupancy rate of operations to carry out.

   system start time Test   

Condition control: The hardware environment is identical, the brand-new installation operating system, does not install any other application software, does not carry on any optimization to the system, the login way all is full automatic, namely does not enter the user name, the password and so on. It is important to note that the CMOS settings must be identical, because the memory, floppy drive detection, and the boot priority of each drive will affect startup time.

Task: Test the time from when the power was added to the desktop.

Results: In 32-bit environments, spents 42 seconds and 64-bit environments for 39 seconds.
Large file compression Time test

Condition control: The hardware and software environment is identical.

Task: Compress the entire contents (4.3GB) of a DVD drive to a hard disk and save it as a file with WinRAR.

Results: 32-bit environments were 46 minutes, 64-bit environments with 45 points.

Processing time test of large picture under Photoshop

Condition control: The hardware and software environment is the same security.

Task: Enlarge the picture width of a 1208x1024 pixel to 10 times times the original one. As shown in Figure 13. The original picture is easy to get, the resolution of the desktop to the value and then intercept the line. In addition, the author also by the way to test the enlarged picture in Photoshop saved in BMP format time, 32-bit environment spents 50 seconds, 64-bit environment in 64 seconds.

Note: This test lasted a short time, a little careless will produce a lot of errors, in order to ensure the accuracy of the data, the values in the table above are the average number of tests. In order to eliminate the impact of memory fragmentation on the next test, there is no memory-collation approach, but a reboot of the computer.

From the above test results, 64-bit system and 32-bit system is really up and down. Of course, this is related to the software environment, the above runs are 32-bit programs. In addition, the above test also violates Microsoft's Windows XP Professional x64 Edition Design original intention, carries on only the regular operation.

   can I upgrade to Windows XP 64 now?   

This depends on the individual economy, hobby and so on, purely from the application point of view, there seems to be no much need. On the one hand, we can not use the 64-bit system function for the time being, on the other hand, the 64-bit of the operating system must have 64-bit hardware platform support, the 64-bit CPU upgrade means the motherboard, memory, etc. update. In addition, the 64-bit hardware platform and operating system from the development to the beta release has been some time, but the hardware driver, 64-bit application software is not enough to enable users want to upgrade to the 64-bit system to generate confidence.

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