The shared download site is what we call an FTP server. FTP stands for the English file transfer protocol, which means the file transfer protocol in Chinese. Through the FTP protocol, users can transfer files between two computers connected to the Internet. It is the most important way to upload and deliver files on the Internet.
An FTP server is a computer that provides FTP storage space on the Internet. It can be a dedicated server or a personal computer. When it provides this service, users can connect to the server to download files, and allow users to transfer their files to the FTP server.
You can log on to an FTP server in two ways: Anonymous logon and authorized account and password logon.
In general, anonymous login can only download FTP server files, and the transmission speed is relatively slow, of course, this needs to be set on the FTP server, for such users, FTP needs to be limited, it is not recommended to enable excessive permissions, and the bandwidth is as small as possible.
The administrator needs to authorize the account and password to log on. The administrator needs to inform netizens of the account and password, and set these accounts, such as the resources they can access and download and upload speeds, similarly, administrators need to restrict such accounts and reduce their permissions as much as possible. If not necessary, do not grant the account administrator permissions.
A Personal FTP server is an FTP service built on a personal computer using FTP-specific software. It has the following advantages over a Professional FTP Server:
1.Complete functions.As you know, a dedicated FTP server only provides a certain service. It is already stipulated that, unlike a personal server, the owner can do what he wants.
2.Flexible configuration.It is no longer subject to disk space restrictions. For example, if the disk space is insufficient, you can purchase another disk. Now, the price of large-capacity hard disks is not expensive, which can provide a place for users to exchange files.
3.Has full management permissions.The machine is by its own side, and all the work can be done by itself.
Of course, there are still many shortcomings between individual FTP servers and dedicated FTP servers, mainly reflected in the following aspects:
1.The bandwidth is relatively small.Although broadband is widely used, the fastest speed of broadband is only 10 M. There is still a big gap with the bandwidth calculated by a few Gbps of dedicated FTP or even T.
2.The opening time is not fixed.Because it is a personal computer, it is regarded as an FTP server, and the performance is not very stable. Generally, it cannot be opened 24 × 7.
3. Use your valuable bandwidth and disk space.
Although the Personal FTP server has many disadvantages, it is a matter of benefit to establish a personal FTP server. He can provide his favorite items to netizens for download, you can also upload What You Need To a netizen.
There are a variety of software for building FTP servers, among which FTP functions in IIS and Serv-u ftp server are commonly used.
FTP in IIS is a non-Professional FTP software, but many people are familiar with it because it is integrated into Windows 2000. Here we will mainly introduce the latter.
Serv-u ftp server is a sharing software that can be used for 30 days without registration. It is a professional FTP server software and can be used to build a professional FTP server, currently, FTP services for the Internet generally use this software, which has the following features:
- Supports multi-user access;
- Anonymous Users are supported, and the number of user logins can be limited at any time;
- You can manage each user separately or by group;
- You can limit the download or upload speed;
- Security management for directories or files;
- Supports virtual directories;
- Prohibit or allow access to IP addresses;
- Ease of installation and management;
- Multiple FTP servers can be created on one computer.
The following describes how to use the FTP function in IIS to build a simple FTP server. Section 3rd describes how to use Serv-U software to build a professional FTP server site.
UseFTP Serv-U build FTP service
Serv-u ftp Server (Serv-U) is a professional FTP server software. Compared with other similar software, Serv-U is powerful, stable, secure, and reliable, it is easy to use. It can create multiple FTP servers on the same machine, create accounts for each FTP server, and set different permissions for different users, records user access in detail.
Download the latest FTP Serv-U server (Serv-U) from the http://www.serv-u.com, the latest version is 4.0.4, and then install it on your computer, as follows:
(1) double-click susetup.exe and run the Serv-U installation.ProgramIn the displayed welcome window, click Next;
Accept the Serv-U installation protocol
(2) Some information about Serv-U is displayed, and click Next to continue. The Protocol dialog box is displayed. Like most software, you must agree to their agreement before installation, click I have read and accept the above license agreement and click Next;
Change the Serv-U installation path (3) In the select path dialog window, click [browse] and select the path to install FTP Serv-U, the default installation path is % SystemRoot %/program files/Serv-U. We recommend that you do not install it on the system disk. After modifying the installation path, click Next;
Select the component for installing Serv-U (4) Select the required program component and [server program files] (FTP Serv-U service program file) and Administrator program files must be checked. Other readme and version text files and online help files are optional. Click Next to continue; then, the computer prompts you to enter the computer group name, take the default value, and click Next to continue. Finally, install the program and click Finish to complete the installation.
Basic settings of Serv-U
1. Set the domain name and IP address of Serv-U
After Serv-U is installed, you need to set it before it can be officially put into use. First, set the domain name and IP address as follows:
Run the domain name and IP settings wizard
Minimal after running
Connect to the local FTP server. (1) Click Start Menu → program → Serv-u ftp server → Serv-U administrator to start the management program of Serv-U, the Serv-U Setting wizard is automatically run, and the setting wizard appears. Click next, and then click Next to continue,
Enter the IP address of the FTP server (2) Serv-U and enter the IP address of the FTP host. In the IP address text input box, enter the IP address of the local machine. The IP address is 188.8.131.52, click Next ,;
[Note:] The IP address can be blank, meaning that the local machine contains all IP addresses, which is useful when two or even three NICs are used, you can access the Serv-U server through the IP address of any network adapter. If an IP address is specified, you can only access the Serv-U server through the specified IP address, if the reader's IP address is dynamically allocated, it is recommended that this item be left blank.
Enter the Domain Name of the FTP server (3) the domain name setting box appears, enter "www.cn-lan.com" in the Domain Name text input box, click the next button;
Allow anonymous users to access (4) Serv-U: Ask if signed users are allowed to access the service. You can select YES or NO as needed. The author chooses yes ], click Next;
Specifies the Home Directory of an anonymous user. (5) After selecting "yes", You need to specify the main directory for FTP upload or download for the anonymous account. The input is "F: \ myftp" and click "Next" to continue; serv-U continues to ask if anonymous users will be locked in the main directory (Lock anonymous users in to their home directory). For security considerations, the general answer is, click Next ].
Whether to lock the main directory of the account. At this time, the domain name and IP address of Serv-U have been set, and anonymous users are allowed to log on to F: \ myftp.
2. Create a new account
Serv-U already allows anonymous users to log on and gain access permissions, but it is best to establish a complete user management system.
The procedure is as follows:
Ask if you want to create an account
Enter the name of the newly created account (1). After setting the home directory for anonymous users and answering whether to lock the Home Directory, click the next button. At this time, Serv-U runs the Account creation wizard, click the Yes button, and then click Next to continue. In the displayed dialog box, enter the name of the account you want to set in the Account Login Name text input box, I entered Fengyun and then click Next;
Enter the password of this account
Enter the main directory of the account.(2) enter the required password in the Password text input box. The password is displayed in plain text and only needs to be entered once. Click Next to continue; set the main directory of the Account, enter the main directory F: \ myftp in the home directory text input box, and click Next;
Whether to lock this account in the main directory
Figure 7.3.17 set an identity for an account
(3) Serv-U: Check whether the account is locked in the main directory. Generally, click the Yes button and click Next to continue; next, you need to set the management permissions for this account, and select "no privilege". From the security perspective, you only need to grant the most common permissions to the account and access the account, click Next to confirm the operation.
The preceding steps are completed using the Serv-U wizard, or follow these steps to add an account.
Create an account to run the Serv-U program, click "+" in Serv-U server, expand Serv-U server, and then expand local server ], then expand domains, and then expand [www.cn-lan.com], and finally find [users], right-click [users], in the pop-up menu click [new user], to start creating an account, the process of creating an account is similar to that of the wizard.
After the above settings are complete, the FTP server created with Serv-U can be used normally. We recommend that you test the FTP server before use. The tests are generally divided into local tests or remote tests, local tests are performed on your own computer. Remote tests are performed on other computers on the network or ask a netizen for help to tell the netizen the IP address, account name, and password.
Open IE, enter ftp: // username: password @ IP address in the address bar, and check whether the file in F: \ myftp directory can be accessed, in addition, you can also use Professional FTP client software. We recommend using CuteFTP Pro.
3. Set the virtual directory
The concept of virtual directory here is the same as that of the FTP function in IIS, that is, to simplify operations and obtain larger disk space.
The following uses "E: \ mysoft" ing as the virtual directory "mysoft" as an example:
The procedure is as follows:
General default screen(1) Click Start Menu → program → Serv-u ftp server → Serv-U administrator to start the management program of Serv-U, select Settings under www.cn-lan.com on the left of administrative tools, and then click the General tab on the right,
Figure 7.3.20 physical path Input
(2) Click Add under virtual path mapping to bring up the Add virtual directory wizard. In the physical path text input box, enter the actual path "E: \ mysoft ", click Next,
Map to main directory(2) In the map physical path to text input box, enter "% home %" to map to the main directory, and click Next,
Virtual directory alias (3) enter the virtual directory alias, and enter "mysoft" in the mapped path name text input box, that is, "E: \ mysoft "refers to the virtual directory alias, and click Finish to end.
After the created virtual directory is set, you can view the actual path, ing location, virtual alias, and other content in the virtual path mapping list on the right,
After the virtual directory is created, it is accessible to every user, not as provided by IIS. You need to set the path of the user, or take the Fengyun account as an example, allow this account to access E: \ mysoft.
Set permissions for access directories (1) Start the management program of Serv-U, locate users under www.cn-lan.com on the left of the management tool, click Fengyun account, then, click dir access on the right ],
(2) Click the Add button on this tab. In the dialog box that appears, enter the Add path. In the file or path text box, enter "E: \ mysoft ", click Finish.
After adding the virtual directory, we can see that in addition to the F: \ myftp main directory and E: \ mysoft directory,
4. Set Access Directory Permissions
The permission to access a directory is the permission setting for the Directory accessed by the user or user group. The default permission for creating an account is read, view, and inherit. You do not have the permission to upload or delete the directory. We know that, even the same account requires different permissions for different directories.
[Inherit permission] grants the same permissions to the subdirectories in the current directory. That is to say, all the access permissions of the current directory are transferred to the current sub-directory. If this option is not selected, then the sub-directory access permission under this directory needs to be set separately.
Setting access directory permissions is relatively simple. The following uses Fengyun account as an example to set permissions for the E: \ mysoft directory. The procedure is as follows:
(1) Start the Serv-U hypervisor, find users under www.cn-lan.com on the left side of the management tool, click Fengyun account, click dir access on the right ];
(2) Click E: \ mysoft in the [dir access] directory list box. We can see that the Fengyun account has the read, list, and inherit permissions, read, view, and inherit permissions;
(3) In the options box, select the required permissions.
The following describes the meaning of each permission:
The permissions are divided into three parts: files, directories, and sub-directories, which are files, directories, and subdirectories.
Files is used to set file permissions. The sub-options are as follows:
Read: you have the "read" permission on the object. You can download the object and cannot list the directory.
Write: You have the write permission on the file. You can upload the file, but you cannot resume the upload;
Append: You have the permission to "APPEND" an object, that is, resumable upload;
Delete: permission to perform "RENAME", "delete", and "move" operations on objects, but not on directories;
Execute: the permission to run executable files directly. This restriction is dangerous and should be used with caution.
Directories sets the directory. The sub-options are as follows:
List: You have the permission to view directories;
Create (create): You can create a directory;
Remove: You have the permission to move, delete, and rename directories.
Sub-directories sets the subdirectory of the current directory. It has only one "inherit", which is usually checked.
[Note:] in general, the permission to access the directory should be set as low as possible, not too high. For example, an account can only download files, but cannot upload files. You can create a separate account for upload. During upload, select write and append ], do not grant Users Permissions such as delete, execute, and create.
5. create and manage user groups
Serv-U can set different permissions and access directories for each account, but what if there are many accounts? The permissions of most accounts are basically the same. For example, setting the same permissions for multiple accounts is time-consuming, laborious, and unpleasant. If you need to change the permissions, You have to modify the accounts one by one. In fact, Serv-U provides the same user group management as windows in user management. A user group groups multiple accounts. They have the same permissions and do not have to set them for each account. You only need to set the group. The method for setting a user group is relatively simple. Similar to creating a user, a "cnlan" group will be created below, and the "Fengyun" and "bujingyun" accounts will be added to the group, and perform some specific settings for this group. Procedure:
Add new user group
(1) Start the Serv-U Management Program, right-click the management tool on the left to find the [groups] under the [www.cn-lan.com], click the pop-up menu [New Group ],;
Enter the group name of the user group (2). Enter the group name of the user group, enter "cnlan" in the text input box under "group name", and click "finish;
(3) Find users under www.cn-lan.com on the left of Administrative Tools, click Fengyun account, and then click Account on the right ], enter "cnlan" in the groups text input box, or click the icon. In the displayed dialog box, select the "cnlan" group and click OK, add the "bujingyun" account to the "cnlan" group in the same way;
(4) After adding a user to a group, you need to set the directory access permission for the group. This operation is similar to setting permissions for a single user. See the previous article.
Tip: to delete an account from a group, follow the steps (3) to delete the groups cnlan.
Management of Serv-u ftp Server
Serv-U has a reasonable and strict management system, which includes setting the maximum number of connections to the FTP server, set the maximum upload speed, disk quota, various prompts, and upload/download ratio for users. In the following section, readers will experience the convenience brought by the Serv-U management function, which is much more powerful than the FTP function of IIS.
1. Set the maximum upload/download speed
Because an FTP server is built on a personal computer, we cannot affect normal internet access because we provide free FTP services to other users, you can set the upload/download speed of the FTP server to leave some network bandwidth for your use.
I am using long and wide broadband, and the bandwidth is basically kept at 10 m. Considering some network factors, the actually accessed network is only 700 K/s, and I keep 100 kbit for myself, distribute the remaining K bandwidth to the Serv-u ftp server.
Click Local server in settings, click the General tab on the right, and then in Max. speed: Enter 600 in the text input box. The unit here is Kbytes/sec, that is, the number of 600kb bytes per second, instead of the baud rate bps.
Set the maximum transmission speed and maximum number of connections. [Note:] The maximum upload or download speed here is not the upload and download speed of a single account, but the bandwidth occupied by the entire FTP server.
2. Set the maximum number of Serv-u ftp servers
The bandwidth for each computer to access the Internet is limited. To ensure that the connected users provide reasonable bandwidth, you need to set the maximum number of connections.
Click Local server in settings, click the General tab on the right, and in Max. no. of users: Enter the maximum number of connections in the text box. If you want to provide a speed of 50 kb for each user, set 15 to a reasonable value,
3. Cancel the fxp transfer function of the FTP server
Fxp transmission means that a user uses a certain command to directly transfer files from two FTP servers, rather than directly carrying them directly to a local computer. The famous FTP client tools flashftp and CuteFTP both support this function. As you know, the speed of the dedicated FTP server is relatively fast. If you enable this function without setting the maximum transmission speed, all the bandwidth of the individual FTP server will be occupied by this connection, we recommend that you disable this function by selecting block "ftp_bounce" attacks and fxp.
4. Set the FTP server prompt information
The user connects to the FTP server through the FTP client software, and the FTP server returns some information through the client software, which allows the user to learn more about the FTP server we have built, at the same time, you can also use this information to tell the user some precautions and contact the administrator. This information is implemented by calling a text file. The following describes how to set the information.
(1) use notepad or other text editing tools to edit four files and save them in the F: \ myfile directory.
Readme1.txt: records the user's welcome information during logon. You can enter the appropriate content as required, for example, you are welcome to visit the FTP server, how to access the HTTP master site, how to contact the administrator, and precautions for allowing users to connect to other FTP servers with only one IP address;
Readme2.txt: record the user's disconnection prompt, for example, welcome to the next visit;
Readme3.txt: records the information of the user's switched access directory;
Readme4.txt: records the emails of files not found on the FTP server;
(2) Click Local server → domains → setting under www.cn-lan.com, and then click the messages tab on the right, enter F in the [signon message file], [signoff message file], [primary dir change message file], and [secondary dir change message file] text boxes respectively: \ myfile \ readme1.txt, F: \ myfile \ readme2.txt, F: \ myfile \ readme1.txt, F: \ myfile \ readme1.txt,
After setting the FTP prompt information, use the FTP client software such as cute FTP pro to log on to the server for verification.
Tip: Enter the address in the browser and you cannot see the prompt information.
5. Disable an account
Temporary account disabling and account deletion upon expiration. For some reason, you need to temporarily disable an account and do not want to delete it for later use. The method is relatively simple, find users in www.cn-lan.com, click the account you want to temporarily disable, and then click the account tab on the right, check disable account, after the check, the account will no longer be available, to enable it, uncheck this option, 7.3.30.
6. automatically delete the account at the specified time
If an account only needs to be used for a period of time and is not used after expiration, manual deletion after expiration is complicated and may be forgotten. In this case, you can use the auto-delete account function provided by Serv-U to automatically delete an account upon expiration. You can select the account to be deleted and click the account tab on the right, select the automatically remove account on date option, and then modify the specified date in the drop-down menu on the right. In this way, when the computer time reaches the specified date, the account will be automatically deleted.
7. Change the account password
To change the account password, go to figure 7.3.30, click the account you want to modify, and enter the password in the text box on the Right of password, at this time, no matter whether the account has a password or not >, Delete < >, Enter the required password. The entered password is displayed in plaintext. After switching, the password is returned to < > Status.
8. Set the number of threads used by the account
Professional download software such as Internet ant financial and Internet Express provide multi-threaded download. For individual FTP servers, it will seriously affect the FTP server performance. Generally, only one thread is enough, however, for FTP client software such as CuteFTP, two threads are required, one for browsing and the other for downloading.
To set the number of threads and the maximum upload/download speed of an account, select the account you want to set, click the General tab on the right, and select allow only login (s) from same IP address, enter 2 in the text input box of this option ,.
9. Set the maximum upload/download speed for the Account
Some netizens also use broadband Internet access. If the maximum speed is not set, the user may exhaust all the bandwidth of the FTP server.
Serv-U can set the upload and download speeds respectively. Generally, the download speed can be set to a lower speed, while the upload speed is as high as possible. files uploaded by netizens contribute to the website, it is also appropriate for him to enjoy high speed.
In Figure 7.3.30. upload speed: Enter 100 in the text input box, in KB, that is, the upload speed can be up to KB per second. download speed: Enter 50 in the text input box, that is, the download speed per second is only 50 kb.
10. Set the upload/download rate reasonably.
A good FTP site requires more people to participate. It is far from enough to collect software or other things by administrators alone, but there are too many divers among netizens, they usually only check whether there are new things to download, and do not upload some good things to make some contributions to FTP.
How can this problem be eliminated? Serv-U provides us with a good function, that is, the upload/download rate. Setting a reasonable upload/download rate not only improves FTP development, at the same time, it has also increased the meaning of participation by netizens. It is just a point of effort, multiple times the harvest.
Set the upload/download rate to set the upload/download rate: select the account to be set, click the UL/dl radios tab on the right, and select enable upload/download ratios ], click the Count bytes per session option. In ratio, enter 1 in the uploads text input box and 3 in the downloads text input box, this means that, regardless of the number of uploaded files, only the file capacity is calculated. Users can download 3 M files as long as they upload 1 m files ,.
11. Configure the account's Disk Quota
The original intention of being an FTP server is to allow your limited space to provide unlimited services to users, but the premise is that it cannot affect the normal operation of your computer.
For example, if a hard disk has 5 GB space, we need to leave 1 GB space to store the files for ourselves. Other files are used for FTP servers, but Serv-U does not only use 4 GB space by default, if users continuously upload 5 GB of space, how can they make the FTP server use only 4 GB of space? In this case, the Serv-U disk quota is used.
To set the disk quota of an account, select the account for which you want to set the disk quota, click the quote tab on the right, and select enable disk quote to enable the disk quota, click Calculate current to obtain the used disk space, and enter 4000 in the text input box on the Right of maximum. The unit is kb, the current text box displays the used disk space ,.
12. prohibit or only allow an IP address to use this account
After the Serv-u ftp server provides an account, it does not care who uses the account. As long as the user can provide the correct account and password, Serv-U will regard it as a legal user, therefore, no matter who can obtain the correct account and password, you can access the FTP server on any networked machine.
But sometimes some users have bad intentions. We can track the IP addresses of these users. Although these IP addresses are dynamic, they have certain rules so that these IP addresses cannot access the FTP server, the procedure is as follows:
Prohibit or only allow access from some IP addresses select the account for which you want to disable access from IP addresses, click the IP Access tab on the right, and click the deny access Option Button, then, enter the IP address to be disabled in rule and click Add. The IP address you just entered is displayed in IP access rules. If you do not disable access from this IP address, select an IP address in the IP access rules list, and click remove to delete the address ,.
Sometimes, on the contrary, only a certain IP address is allowed to access the FTP server. For example, an account with a management identity can have full control over FTP when it remotely manages the FTP server, in this case, only some IP addresses can be allowed to log on with this account. This greatly increases the security of the FTP server:
Select the account for which IP addresses are allowed to access, click the IP Access tab on the right, click the allow access option, and enter the IP address to be allowed in rule, click Add. Other operations are the same as IP Address Access prohibited.
Tip: this function is useful for FTP security management.
13. View user access records
When a user accesses an FTP server, Serv-U basically has detailed records, including the user's IP address, connection time, disconnection time, and downloading files. The administrator can learn what the user has done on the FTP server through access records, and check who is a malicious user to prevent it.
Record the user access to view the method is relatively simple, In the Serv-U management tool window left and right select [domains] → [www.cn-lan.com] under the activity ], click the domain Log tab to view detailed access records ,.
14. Disconnect a user
When you manage FTP, You need to disconnect the user if it finds that a user is doing something unfavorable to the server or for other reasons. The method is: select activity under domains → www.cn-lan.com in the left and right sides of the Serv-umanager tool window, then click the users tab, right-click the user to be disconnected, click the kill user menu in the pop-up menu, and then the kick user dialog window pops up. Select an option as needed and click the OK button, for example, if you need to disconnect the connection and disable the IP address from accessing the FTP server, click the kick user and ban IP Option.
Disconnect a user
Multiple types of disconnected users15. Change the FTP server port
Modify the port number. The default port number of the FTP server is 21. Sometimes port 21 cannot be used for some reason. The method to modify the default port is as follows: on the left side of Serv-U Administrative Tools, select www.cn-lan.com under domains, and enter the required port in the FTP port number text input box on the right window, try not to select the default port of other software. For example, the port is 8080.
Remote Serv-U Management
As an administrator, it is impossible to sit on the edge of the FTP server all the time. Sometimes you need to manage the FTP server in the office when traveling or going home.
The remote management provided by Serv-U is very simple. As long as you know the method, the operation will be the same as on the local FTP server.
Set the Administrator account (1) in the Serv-u window of the local FTP server, select an account, and click the account tab on the right, in the selection list of the privilege edge, select system administrator to assign the account administrator identity.
Create Remote Management Server connection (2) install the Serv-U software on a remote computer, run it after installation, and right-click Serv-U server on the left side of the management tool ], select new server in the pop-up menu ];
Tip: the Serv-U version installed on the remote computer should be the same as the FTP server.
Enter the IP address or domain name of the remote FTP (3) enter the IP address or domain name of the FTP server in the pop-up dialog box, enter www.cn-lan.com in the text input box under IP address ", click Next to continue. Then, ask for the FTP server port number. In the port number text input box, enter the FTP server port number "8080" and click Next to continue; enter the name of the FTP server. You can enter the name as needed. The author entered "cnlan's FTP" and click "Next" to continue. Enter the administrator account, in the User Name text input box, enter the Account "Fengyun" with administrator permissions and click "Next". Enter the password of the Administrator account and click "finish;
(4) After completing the settings, click "cnlan's FTP" and you will find that it is no different from local Serv-U management.
Remote Management is like local operations. [prompt] When the FTP service is stopped using remote management Serv-U, remote management cannot start the Serv-U service and can only be started locally.