Website project management is a website development task completed on time within the budget according to specific specifications.
Ii. Demand Analysis
After receiving the customer's business consultation, we have been continuously engaged and understood by both parties, and have reached a preliminary agreement through basic feasibility discussions. At this time, we need to establish a project. A good practice is to set up a special project team, which includes project managers, web design, programmers, testers, Editors/documents, and other required personnel. Project management is implemented.
Customer Requirement Specification
The first step is to provide a complete Requirement Description. Many customers are not very clear about their needs. You need to constantly guide and help analysis. Once upon a time, I asked the customer, "what is the purpose of your website? "He replied:" There is no purpose, just because everyone else has it. I don't have it! ". Such a customer needs to be patient and carefully analyzed to find out his potential and real needs. It takes a lot of time to complete the Requirement Description with the help of the customer, but this is worthwhile and must satisfy the customer and sign for approval. By setting this level, you can avoid many mistakes and project failures caused by unclear requirements or misunderstanding. Poor requirements indicate that there cannot be high-quality websites. What standards should the Requirement Specification meet? To put it simply, it includes the following points:
1. correctness: each function must clearly describe the delivery function;
2. Feasibility: ensure that each requirement can be met in the current development capability and system environment;
3. Necessity: whether the function must be delivered, whether the implementation can be postponed, and whether the function can be "chopped" when the expenditure reduction occurs;
4. Concise: Do not use professional network terms;
5. Detection: If the development is complete, the customer can detect the problem as needed.
Iii. System Analysis
Overall Website Design
After receiving the customer's requirement description, we did not directly start the production, but needed to carry out the overall design, detailed design, and a website construction solution for the customer. The overall design is a key step. It mainly determines:
1. What functions do websites need to implement;
2. What software is used for website development and what hardware environment is used;
3. How many people and time are required;
4. What are the rules and standards to be followed.
At the same time, you need to write a general plan statement, including:
1. Website columns and sections;
2. Website Functions and corresponding programs;
3. Link Structure of the website;
4. If there is a database, design the concept of the database;
5. Interactive and user-friendly design of the website.
Website Construction Scheme
After the overall design, we generally need to provide the customer with a website construction solution. Many website creation companies are requested by customers to provide solutions when they contact their businesses. At that time, the solution was generally general, and when the customer's requirements were not very clear, the solution was often very different from the actual production results. Therefore, we should try our best to get the customer's understanding and submit the solution after clarifying the requirements and overall design, which is beneficial to both parties. The website construction scheme includes the following parts:
1. Customer situation analysis;
2. Objectives and objectives of the website;
3. Website image description;
4. Section and structure of the website;
5. website content arrangement and links;
6. Use software, hardware, and technical analysis;
7. Development time schedule;
8. Promote the promotion program;
9. Maintenance solution;
10. production cost;
11. Company Profile: Successful works, technology, talent descriptions, etc.
Congratulations! You can start to create a website. But it is not a real production. You need to design it in detail:
Detailed Website Design
In the overall design stage, a solution to the problem is proposed in a more abstract manner. The task in the detailed design phase is to embody the solution. The detailed design is mainly for the Program Development Section. But at this stage, we did not really write the program, but designed the detailed specification of the program. The purpose of this specification description is similar to the engineering blueprint that engineers often use in other engineering fields. They should include necessary details, such as program interfaces, forms, and required data. Programmers can write actual program code based on them.
Iv. Project Implementation
Overall Image Design
While programmers conduct detailed design, Web Designers begin to design the overall image and homepage of the website.
The overall image design includes standard words, logos, standard colors, and advertising languages. The homepage design includes layout, color, image, dynamic effects, icons, and other style designs, as well as banner, menu, title, copyright, and other modules. The home page is generally designed with 1-3 different styles for customers to choose from.
Remember: After the customer determines the homepage style, ask the customer to sign and approve it. In the future, there may no longer be major changes to the layout style, otherwise it will be regarded as the second design.
Development and Production
Here, programmers and web designers enter the full development stage at the same time. It should be noted that testers need to test the web page and program at any time, and immediately record the bug and feedback the modification. Do not wait until the production is complete before testing. This will waste a lot of time and effort. The project manager needs to constantly understand the project progress and coordinate and communicate with programmers and web designers.
After the preliminary completion of the website, upload it to the server to perform a full-range test on the website. Including speed, compatibility, interactivity, link correctness, program robustness, and ultra-traffic testing. Problems are promptly resolved and recorded.
Why do we need to record documents? In fact, this software engineering is a document and a standard that is constantly enriched and improved. By constantly discovering, solving, modifying, and supplementing problems, this standard is becoming more and more standardized and industrialized. In this way, website development tends to be standardized and reasonable.
The promotion methods are as follows:
1. Set an appropriate meta tag on the webpage;
2. logon to various search engines;
3. prepare press releases to be published on various news boards;
4. Use the email list properly;
5. Ad exchange;
6. paid ads.
At this point, after the website project construction is completed, submit the relevant website and instructions for use to the customer for acceptance. If maintenance is required, a separate maintenance project will be signed.
After the successful launch of the website, long-term maintenance work has just begun. What we need to do is
1. Respond to customer feedback in a timely manner. For example, you can use the automatic email reply function to resolve the problem within 1-3 business days and reply again;
2. website traffic statistical analysis and corresponding countermeasures;
3. Promote and use your website as much as possible;
4. update and maintain website content in a timely manner.
5. compliant specifications
1. website construction directory Specification
2. website file naming rules
3. Specifications for Website Construction Dimensions
4. Code specifications for the head area on the homepage
5. Website connection structure specifications
With the continuous development of technology and the increasing functional requirements of users for websites, the design of website projects can no longer be simply implemented using static html files, compared with the free creation of one or two web designers for website design in the past few years, the design and development of website projects are more and more like a software project and more complicated, the Design and Development of website projects have entered an era where processes and division of labor need to be emphasized. A standardized, effective, and robust development mechanism can be established to adapt to the changing needs of users, achieve the expected planning objectives.
Website project management (WPM) refers to web-based project management, that is, project design and management based on the architecture of Web applications as the main manifestation, such an architecture includes key subjects such as browsers, networks, and web servers, it is mainly reflected in website design and web application development with a browser as the client (such as information websites, online stores, virtual post offices, and customer relationship management .) And other projects.
In this article, the author compares the website project management (WPM) with the software engineering Unified Process Management (RUP) for reference, and combined with practical work experience, strive to manage the website project (WPM) the roles, division of labor, and procedures of the project are described completely, so that the website project management is gradually standardized.
Based on my experience, website project management can be controlled in the following six stages:
1. Demand Analysis and change management
2. Project model and Business Process Analysis
3. System Analysis and Software Modeling
4. interface design, interaction design and program development
5. system testing and documentation
6. customer training, technical support and after-sales service
It should be noted that although these stages have a certain degree of continuity, they are not completely isolated. For example, demand change management, testing, and document writing all run through the entire project process, A lot of jobs are performed at or at the same time.
(2) project model and Business Process Analysis
The electronic workflow work method generated by the application of network technology cannot completely change the traditional workflow, nor simply replicate the traditional workflow, the traditional workflow needs to be optimized, improved, and reorganized rationally.
This chapter includes the following:
1. Compile a project model document to make everyone clear
2. Business Process analysts design processes
3. UI engineer Design User Interface prototype
4. user-centered design
5. Prepare a design plan
1. Compile a project model document to make everyone clear
Why create a project model document?
Generally, users' demands are messy, incomplete, or even incorrect. In addition, more detailed requirements are often discovered during project development, this is an extremely difficult problem for developers. After requirement analysis, you can create a project model document. Before the project starts development, both parties have a common understanding of the results of the project to be completed, early Exposure of potential demand changes will greatly improve the development efficiency and quality.
Inexperienced project personnel often can't wait to analyze and develop the system after accepting the task, rather than thinking about the project requirements and models with the customer, during the development process, I made a lot of assumptions for the customers out of thin air. I spent a lot of effort, but I couldn't help myself. I can imagine that in a marathon without knowing where to end, where are you going ?!
Therefore, after the customer's initial needs are confirmed, the business personnel should describe the project model design.
First, we need to define a vocabulary. Not every customer or project team member can understand the differences among "users", "Roles", and "use cases, you cannot understand what the "channel", "foreground", and "background" mean. To make the project model document understandable to each viewer, defining a vocabulary is very necessary, especially for users who are designing Informatization for the first time in traditional industries.
The model description is described in the most natural language. This document further describes the requirement analysis report. This gives the customer representatives, project managers, and developers the most intuitive impression on the project to be launched through the description of the project model. They also discuss key issues and reach a unified understanding, for example, functional requirements, performance indicators, operating environment, and investment scale.
2. Business Process analysts design processes
Business Process analysts should be good at simplifying their work, and should have extensive professional field knowledge and good communication skills.
The business analysts need to assist customers in summarizing and analyzing their needs to find out all the leading roles of the business. After determining the leading role of the business, the activities and processes of each primary role should be clearly formulated, finally, the logic view and user interface are designed. For example, in an electronic store system, apart from the roles of system administrators, business managers, salesmen, logistics couriers, and customer service personnel, different roles of external cooperation units may exist, for example, suppliers, distributors, advertising customers, and purchase users are even subdivided into common consumer users, VIP consumer users, and group consumer users, the entrance and process for each type of role to participate in system activities are different. Through the logical diagram and, the Business Process Analyst briefly and explicitly describes the system organization.
When designing a business process, consider the following:
* Investigate the user's network environment and configurations so that the architect can develop a reasonable and feasible system architecture;
* Investigating user preferences and skill levels directly affects the depth of project development and the design of user interfaces;
"Although developers and managers can easily think they understand the needs of users, this is often not the case. People tend to focus on how users execute tasks, rather than how users prefer to execute tasks. In most cases, the issue of preference is not just a simple assumption that the user needs have been mastered, although it is worth studying. Preferences are also determined by experience, ability, and use environment. "
* Predict and develop system performance indicators to provide a basis for testers to prepare test plans.
Many projects focus more on the implementation of functions. The test phase seems to meet the customer's needs. However, once put into use, it will find that performance is facing a bottleneck. Due to the limited understanding of professional knowledge, the customer often ignores this requirement. Therefore, to avoid future disputes, it is very important to predict and develop performance indicators in advance.
3. UI engineers create user interface prototypes
Before the actual system development investment, it is very important to create a user interface model. The prototype development cost is far lower than the actual development cost. In the initial stage of the project, create a complete user interface to reveal and test all the functions and availability of the system, and enable customer representatives to participate in discussions and modifications, greatly improving the chances of project success.
After creating a correct and feasible prototype, system analysis, design, and code compilation must follow the prototype to ensure that the built system is correct, testers and customers can also participate in the inspection in real time during the development process, effectively ensuring the quality of the project.
According to the Process Analysis logic diagram provided by the Business Process Analyst, the interface design engineer starts to design and create a user interface prototype. At this stage, the interface designer has not yet entered the stage of fine design, therefore, the most important thing is to fully present the business process and confirm and define the design style and design specifications with the customer.
After fully understanding the customer's needs and all business processes, the interface engineers can use a reasonable layout to design the user interface. For example, the homepage style of a website, the elements to be displayed on the homepage, the classification and display methods of navigation, and the entry of various business roles.
Note that the user interface is not only the interface browsed by website visitors, but also contains different user interfaces, such as special users, administrators, and business partners, there are even prompt interfaces, warning interfaces, error interfaces, etc. Designing a complete user interface prototype not only makes it easier for customers and testers to clarify their needs, it also plays an important role in project quality.
4. user-centered design
No matter how accurate the level of the project design and development personnel is, after all, it is not the end user of the system. It is the key to satisfy the customer's needs to the maximum extent. system design personnel often stick a user-centric slogan on their heads, in fact, there are a lot of assumptions at work, or out of laziness or out of restrictions, which may lead to unexpected obstacles for different users who will use the system in the future.
To truly focus on users, we must first give up the experience and imagination accumulated in our minds, go to the customer's work place, observe and record how the customer works, and then talk to the customer about their work.
There is a course called "Blind phalanx" in team expansion training. Can you imagine how a group of invisible people pull a long rope into a square scene? Do unattended people know how to listen and obey? We cannot assume whether a user is a healthy person or a blind person, nor how the user should do it or not. We only need to observe and communicate carefully, in order to develop a plan that truly meets user needs.
Some experts suggested that developers should determine the composition of users and allow users to get involved as early as possible. They also proposed several methods to familiarize themselves with users, their tasks and requirements:
* Talking to users
* Visiting users at the office
* Observe the user's work
* Video the user's work
* Understand the work organization
* Allows users to speak while working
* Involve users in Design
* Include expert users in the design team
* Execution Task Analysis
* Use surveys and questionnaires
* Set testable targets
When possible, we strive to be accurate, objective, and meticulous in demand and process design. This not only ensures the quality and maturity of system development, but also gives you a high degree of satisfaction and trust from customers, opening the door for more business cooperation in the future.
5. Prepare a design plan
At this stage, you can understand the customer's requirements and have a clear understanding of the system development for the implementation of the plan, and have reached a consensus with the customer, so when you enter the next stage of work, it is necessary to prepare a design plan.
The design plan is a comprehensive description of the entire system. It serves as the basis for system analysis and testing personnel, and is also the Standard for customer acceptance. As one of the contents of the business contract, the design plan should be carefully and carefully written.
Depending on the project, the content of the design plan may be different. I will provide a sample for your reference, this sample basically covers the core elements that need to be validated and described in the plan.
Version <x. x>
Date | version | description | author |
Y/M/d | <x. x> | revision | <Name> |
1. Project Overview
1. 1. Customer Information
1. 2. Project Background
1. 3. Project prospects
2. Requirement Analysis
2. 1 User Role
2. 2 Key Technologies
2. 3. website structure
2. 4. Image Positioning
3. Overall Solution
3. 1. System Framework
3. 2. Topology
3. 3 Deployment Plan
4. Configuration and quotation
4. 1. Network Environment
4. 2 hardware configuration
4. 3 Software Configuration
4. 4. Other configurations
5. Implementation steps and cycles
6. System Functions
7. Technical Support
8. Upgrade training and services
9. About us
10. Contact information
11. Attachment List
11. 1. Project model document
11. 2. Business Process Analysis documents
11. 3. User Interface Design Drawing
12. Copyright Notice
During this phase, the core task is to analyze the requirements of the previous phase, design the project model and analyze the business process, and create a user interface prototype for user confirmation, the design plan approved by both parties will be finalized as the basis for system design and software modeling in the next stage.
How to complete the business process analysis stage with high quality is summarized as follows:
* Truly user-centered design, observed and recorded in the customer's actual work environment;
* Carefully search for various business leaders and describe various operation steps of different protagonists;
* Simplify requirements, summarize customer needs, and grasp core issues;
* Refine requirements, simulate user roles for core issues, and further confirm processes and specifications;
* Carefully develop the design plan to lay a solid foundation for the next stage of work.