Small graphic design knowledge

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags repetition

Every time you open a magazine with bright layout, colorful jumps, and well-designed texts, you have a feeling of relief, even if you are not interested in the text content, some exquisite advertisements can also attract you. This is the charm of graphic design. It can convey a concept and an idea to people who see it through exquisite composition, layout and color. In fact, as long as we master some graphic design rules and use them flexibly, we can also make a wonderful design. This series of articles will introduce you to more than 10 Common graphic design techniques, and hope to help you.

I. Basic Concepts

(1) graphic design
Graphic design combines different basic images on the plane according to certain rules. In the second-degree space, the boundaries between the plot and the ground are divided by contour lines to depict the image. The three-dimensional sense of space presented by graphic design is not a real three-degree space, but an illusion space formed by the visual guidance of people.

(2) terms of graphic design:
1. Harmony: in a narrow sense, a harmonious graphic design means that unity and comparison are not tedious, monotonous, or disordered. In a broad sense, it is a kind of coordination between the feeling and consciousness that each department gives us when judging two or more elements or the relationship between some and some.

2. comparison: Also known as comparison, the quality or amount of contrast between the two elements of the successful allocation together, make people feel clear and strong, and have a sense of unity, make the subject clearer and the work more active.

3. Symmetry: Assume that a vertical line is set in the center of a graph, and the graph is divided into two equal parts, the left and right of which are completely equal. This is a symmetric graph.

4. balance: physically, it refers to the weight relationship. In graphic design, it refers to the balance between the distribution of the image's shape, size, weight, color and material and the visual judgment.

5. proportion: refers to the quantitative relationship between Part and Part, or between part and the whole. Proportions constitute the size of all units in the design and an important factor in the arrangement and combination between units.

6. Center of Gravity: the center of the screen, that is, the center of gravity of the visual, the changes in the contour of the image, the scatter of the image, the distribution of color or light and shade can affect the visual center.

7. Rhythm: the time-based rhythm is used to constitute the movement that is produced when the same element is repeatedly.

8. rhythm: simple unit combinations in a plane structure are monotonous. Regular images or color groups are arranged by proportional and proportional processing to produce music melody and become rhythm.

(3) elements of graphic design
1. conceptual elements. The so-called conceptual elements are things that do not actually exist, are invisible, but can be felt by people. For example, when we see a sharp image, we feel that there is an edge line on the outline of the object. Concept elements include: point, line, and surface.

2. Visual elements: conceptual elements are not embodied in actual design. They will be meaningless. Concept elements are usually embodied by visual elements, including the size, shape, and color of the image.

3. Relationship elements: How visual elements are organized and arranged on the screen depends on the relationship elements. Including the direction, position, space, and center of gravity.

4. practical elements: the meaning, content, purpose and functions of the design.

The following describes the composition of graphic design.

Ii. Use of Elements

(1) points, lines, and surfaces
An image is an external feature of an object and is visible. The image includes all parts of the visual element. All conceptual elements, such as points, lines, and surfaces, also have their own images when they are seen on the screen.

Basic shape in graphic design: in graphic design, a group of identical or similar image components, each of which forms the basic shape, and the basic shape is the smallest unit, you can use it to arrange, combine, and obtain the best composition results based on certain composition principles.

1. GROUP: In the composition, the combination between the shape and the shape is generated due to the basic combination, which mainly includes:

2. Separation: there is a certain distance between the shape and the shape.

3. Contact: the edges between the shape and the shape are tangent.

4. Fold: the relationship between the shape and the shape is a fold, resulting in a spatial relationship between the upper and lower sides.

5. Transparent stacking: the transparency between the shape and the shape overlaps with each other, but there is no spatial relationship between the upper and lower sides.

6. Combination: form and shape are combined to form a large new shape.

7. subtraction: The shape and shape are overwritten, And the covered area is cut off.

8. Differential stacking: shapes overlap with each other, and new shapes are generated in overlapping places.

9. overlap: the shapes and shapes overlap with each other and become one.

Gradient is an effect that I often hear about. It can be seen in nature. On the road we drive, we will feel the gradient of trees from near to far, from big to small.

Gradient Type:

1. Shape gradient: a basic shape gradient to another basic shape, the basic shape can be from the complete gradient to incomplete, can also be from simple to complex, from abstract gradient to concrete.

2. gradient in the direction: you can perform a gradient in the direction on the plane.

3. Position gradient: the skeleton is required when the basic shape is used as the position gradient, because the part that exceeds the skeleton is cut out when the basic shape is used as the position gradient.

4. gradient of the size: the basic shape is arranged from the big to the small gradient, which will generate a sense of distance and depth and space.

5. color gradient: in color, the color phase, brightness, and purity can produce gradient effect, and will produce a sense of beauty.

6. gradient of the bone lattice: it refers to the regular change of the bone lattice, so that the basic shape changes in shape, size, and direction. The line of the split bone grid can be horizontal, vertical, diagonal line, line, curve and other total bone grid gradient. The tiered bones are arranged carefully to produce special visual effects, and sometimes produce incorrect views and movements.

(3) repeated
The concept of repetition generally refers to the fact that the same image appears more than twice in the same design. repetition is a commonly used method in the design to enhance the impression, creates a regular sense of rhythm to unify the screen. The so-called consistency mainly refers to the same shape, color, size, and other aspects in the repetitive structure. The basic shape in the repeat: The shape used for repetition is called the basic shape. Each basic shape is a unit and is then designed in a repetitive way. The basic shape should not be complex, but should be simple.

Repeated type:

1. repeat of the basic shape: In the composition design, the same basic shape is called the repetition of the basic shape, which is everywhere in daily life. For example, the upper floor windows.

2. repeat: if the shape and area of each unit are completely the same, this is a repeated bone lattice. The repeated bone lattice is a regular bone lattice, the simplest one.

3. Shape repetition: shape is the most commonly used repeating element. The repeating shape in the entire structure can be changed in size and color.

4. Duplicate size: similar or identical shapes are repeated in size.

5. Repeated colors: The shape and size can be changed when the colors are the same.

6. Duplication of texture: The size and color can be changed under the same texture.

7. repetition in the direction: The shape has a clearly consistent direction in the composition.

(4) approximation
An approximation refers to the common characteristics of shape, size, color, texture, and so on. It shows a vivid change in unity. The degree of similarity can be large or small, and a large degree of similarity produces a sense of repetition. A small degree of approximation will undermine unification.

Similarity classification:

1. Shape approximation: If two images belong to the same family, their shapes are similar, just like human images.

2. Approximation of the bone lattice: the bone lattice can be similar instead of repetition. That is to say, the shape and size of the bone lattice unit have certain changes.

Note: The difference between the approximation and the gradient is that the gradient changes have a strong regularity and the basic shape arrangement is very rigorous, while the variation regularity of the approximation is not strong, and the variation between the approximation and other visual elements is large, it is also lively.

(5) bone Grid
The bone grid determines the relationship between the basic shapes in the diagram. Sometimes, the bone lattice also becomes a part of the image.

Bone cells are divided:

1. Regular bone grid: Regular bone grids have precise and rigorous bone grid lines and regular digital relationships. The basic shapes are arranged according to the bone grid, with a strong sense of order. There are repeated, gradient, emission, and other bone cells.

2. Non-regular bone cells: irregular bone cells generally do not have rigorous bone cells, and the composition method is relatively free.

3. functional Bone lattice: The Functional Bone lattice refers to dividing the basic shape into the boundaries of their respective units, and the bone lattice gives the image an accurate space, the basic shape can freely change the position, direction, positive and negative, or even get out of the bone grid unit.

4. non-functional bone cells: the non-functional bone cells are conceptual, and the non-functional bone cells help to arrange the basic shape of the tissue, but do not affect their shape, it does not divide the space into relatively independent bone cells.

5. Repetitive bone cells: the space units separated by bone cells are identical in shape and size. They are the most regular bone cells and are arranged in a continuous manner by bone cells.

Graphic design combines different basic images on the plane according to certain rules. In the second-degree space, the boundaries between the plot and the ground are divided by contour lines to depict the image. The three-dimensional sense of space presented by graphic design is not a real three-degree space, but an illusion space formed by the visual guidance of people.

(6) Launch
Launch is a common natural phenomenon, and the sun is shining. The launch has a direction regularity, and the launch center is the most important visual focus. All the images are concentrated in the center or dispersed from the center, which sometimes results in an optical dynamic state and may lead to an explosion, has a strong visual effect.

Categories of launch:

1. Center-point launch: the launch from the center to the outside or from the inside out.

2. Spiral launch: the basic form of spiral is arranged in a spiral arrangement, and the basic form of spiral is gradually expanded to form a spiral launch.

3. Concentric launch: concentric launch is a focal point centered around the launch layer by layer, such as an arrow target image.

(7) Special

Specialization refers to the intentional violation of order among components in order to highlight a few elements to break the regularity.

Specific classification:

1. Shape uniqueness: In many repeated or similar basic shapes, a small portion of the specific shape appears to form a differential comparison, which becomes the visual focus on the screen.

2. size-specific: in the composition of the same basic form, only do some special comparison on the size, but note that the size-specific nature of the basic form should be moderate, do not compare the differences or similarities.

3. Color specialization: add some contrast components to the similar colors to break the monotonic.

4. Special Direction: most basic forms are arranged in order, with the same direction, and a few basic forms are changed in the direction to form a special effect.

5. Texture uniqueness: In the same texture, different texture changes are caused.

(8) Comparison
Comparison is sometimes a comparison of form, or a comparison of color and texture. The comparison can produce clear, positive, and strong visual effects, which gives a deep impression. In the natural world is full of comparison, and heaven and earth, land and sea, and red flowers and green leaves are compared. The relationship that constitutes the comparison, including size, brightness, sharpness, and severity.

Classification of comparison:

1. Shape comparison: although there are some differences between different shapes, you should pay attention to uniformity.

2. Comparison of the size: different shapes have different area sizes and different line lengths.

3. Comparison of colors: colors are compared based on different colors, such as colors, light, shade, and warmth.

4. Texture comparison: comparison of different texture senses, such as thickness, smoothness, and texture layering.

5. Comparison of positions: different shapes in the image, such as Upper and Lower, left and right, and height.

6. Comparison of the center of gravity: Comparison of the stability, instability, and importance of the center of gravity.

7. Comparison of space: Comparison of positive and negative values in the plane, the bottom of the graph, the distance and the front and back senses.

8. Comparison of real-world images: real images are called real images. Space is virtual, and most of the virtual images are the bottom.

It should be noted that the use of comparison requires a unified overall sense, and there must be a general trend in all aspects of the visual elements, with a focus on each other. If the comparison is everywhere, the comparison cannot be emphasized.

(9) Intensive
Intensive design is a commonly used method of organizing graphs. The basic shapes can be freely distributed throughout the entire diagram, with sparse and dense features. The shortest or shortest areas often become the visual focus of the entire design. Creates a visual tension in the drawing, which features a rhythm like a magnetic field. Dense is also a case of comparison. The number of basic shapes is used to produce the comparison results of density, deficiency, and tightness.

Intensive classification:

1. point density: In the design, a conceptual point is placed on a certain point in the diagram. The basic shape tends to be at this point in the organization arrangement, and the closer it gets to this point, the closer it gets, stay away from this point.

2. line density: there is a conceptual line in the diagram, and the basic shape is dense to this line. The largest density on the online location, and the farther offline the basic shape, the more sparse.

3. Free-intensive: in the diagram, the basic organization has no point or line-intensive constraints. It is completely scattered and irregular, and the changes in the basic structure are subtle.

4. Congestion and alienation: congestion is over-intensive, and all the basic shapes are in a crowded State throughout the entire figure. It occupies all the space and is not sparse. On the contrary, the entire diagram is basically isolated from each other and scattered in every corner. The distribution can be even or uneven.

It should be noted that in intensive effect processing, the basic area should be small, and the number should be large to achieve intensive effect. The shape of the basic shape can be the same or similar, and the size and direction may change. In the intensive structure, it is important that the basic structure of the intensive organization must have tension and dynamic trends, and the organization cannot be dispersed.

(10) Texture
Texture is also called texture. Because objects have different materials and different surface arrangement, organization, and structure, the texture is smooth, soft, and soft.

Texture creation method:

1. Stroke changes: different texture effects are characterized by the coarse, fine, hard, soft, heavy, and different arrangement of strokes.

2. inpu: It is carved with ink or paint and the uneven surface naturally formed. Then it is printed on the drawing to form a simple extension texture.

3. Spray Painting: After the dissolved pigment is flushed down with a spray pen or a metal mesh and toothbrush, the color material is sprayed on the paper like a fog.

4. Dyeing: a surface with high water absorption ability. It can be rendered, infected, and naturally dispersed on the surface with liquid pigments to produce a natural and beautiful texture effect.

5. Paper: different kinds of paper, due to different processing materials, have different thickness, texture, structure, or artificial wrinkle, kneading produces special texture effect.

(11) Space
We generally refer to space as a two-dimensional space. There are the following space expressions:

1. Use the size to express the sense of space: the feeling of size varies depending on the distance. On the plane, we feel that the area is close and the area is small.

2. Use overlap: A shape on the plane is stacked on another shape, and there will be a feeling of front and back, up and down, resulting in a sense of space.

3. Use the Shadow Representation: the distinction of the Shadow will make the object have a stereoscopic feeling and a sense of gain of the object.

4. use interval density: small image or line density changes can generate a sense of space. In reality, the pattern at which it is rolled will become dense, the smaller the interval, the closer the password is.

5. Use parallel lines to change the direction of parallel lines. changing the direction of parallel lines produces an illusion of three dimensions.

6. color changes: the cold colors stay away from the cold colors and the warm colors are close.

7. Texture changes: the rough surface means that people feel close and the delicate surface is far away.

8. Conflict space: the so-called conflict Space refers to the fact that it is impossible to exist in a real space, and only exists in a hypothetical space.

Graphic design combines different basic images on the plane according to certain rules. In the second-degree space, the boundaries between the plot and the ground are divided by contour lines to depict the image. The three-dimensional sense of space presented by graphic design is not a real three-degree space, but an illusion space formed by the visual guidance of people.

(12) graph and bottom

There is a comparison between the graph and the bottom, and the relationship between the graph and the bottom. In nature, blue sky, white clouds, and red flowers and green leaves all reflect the relationship between comparison and setting. In graphic design, the relationship between the image and the bottom is inseparable, and sometimes reverse.

Use of graphs and backgrounds in design:

1. The color brightness is high.

2. the convex image in the concave and convex changes has a positive image.

3. In the comparison of area size, the image is small.

4. the shape surrounded by space is graphic.

5. In the static and dynamic aspects, the dynamic graph has a sense.

6. There is a map between the abstract and the concrete.

7. In the geometric pattern, the bottom of the graph can be determined based on the comparison relationship. The larger the comparison, the easier it is to distinguish between the graph and the bottom.

Inversion of the graph and the bottom: Sometimes the features of the graph and the bottom are very similar and difficult to distinguish, which is the flip phenomenon at the bottom of the graph.

(13) scatter
Dissembling is a form of decomposition and combination. It is to divide a complete thing into various parts and then combine them according to certain composition principles. This method is conducive to grasping the internal structure and characteristics of things, observing and exploring things from different angles, and extracting abstract elements from a concrete form, these abstract elements form a new form to create a new sense of beauty.

(14) rhythm
The expression of rhythm is one of the ways to express dynamics. When the same element appears cyclically and repeatedly, it forms a sense of motion, which is a kind of psychological activity. The rhythm shows that the screen is full of vigor. How is it formed?

1. The rhythm of Yuan: the rhythm of Yuan is repeatedly called yuan in a single direction in the upper and lower sides. At this time, if the spacing of the basic form is the same, the rhythm changes little. If the basic form price is different, it will produce a complex sense of rhythm.

2. the rhythm of the quadratic element is shown as follows: A go-like disk is repeatedly called the quadratic rhythm in the upper and lower left directions. The basic shape can be separated or changed.

3. Use a gradient to show the rhythm: The rhythm is generated according to the regular change of the number, and the change of the mathematical ratio can follow the regular rule, which can cause the gradual change to produce the rhythm.

(15th) Segmentation
In the plane structure, the whole is divided into parts, called segmentation. In daily life, this phenomenon can be seen at any time. For example, the ceiling and floor of a house are separated. The following describes several common segmentation methods:

1. equi-form segmentation: the same shape is required. After the division, the separation line is selected. This will have a good effect.

2. free segmentation: the free segmentation is irregular. The method of free Image Segmentation is different from the neat effect produced by the mathematical rule, but it is separated randomly, it gives people a sense of being lively and unrestricted.

3. Proportion and series: The proportion-based structure is usually orderly and clear, giving people a fresh feeling. The rule of separation is given, such as the golden division and series.

(16) Balance
In shape, the feeling of balance is very important. Due to the visual satisfaction caused by balance, human eyes can have a balanced and stable feeling when observing objects.

The balance is mainly divided:

1. symmetric balancing: for example, people and butterflies, some symmetric shapes centered around the central axis.

2. Asymmetric balancing: Although there is no central axis, it is not symmetric, but it has a very correct balance of beauty.

(17) Arrangement of basic shapes
The basic form is the most basic unit element in the composition. During the clustering process of unit elements, there may be countless combinations, so that the composition changes are not messy, the basic shape is better than the simple geometric form.

Basic Arrangement Principles:

1. Arrangement of basic shape and line assembly: The Arrangement develops horizontally and becomes the current situation chart with strong directionality. It can develop horizontally or diagonal lines.

2. Surface arrangement: the basic shape is arranged in the secondary direction to form a Surface Chart.

3. Ring arrangement: Develops the arrangement of the basic line into a curve to connect the two ends.

4. Radial arrangement: the basic shape is arranged outward from the center, resulting in a radiation image.

5. symmetric arrangement: the basic shapes are arranged in symmetric order, regular and neat.

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