Summary of common doscommands and doscommands

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Summary of common doscommands and doscommands

Common internal Commands include MD, CD, RD, DIR, PATH, COPY, TYPE, EDIT, REN, DEL, CLS, VER, DATE, TIME, and PROMPT. Common External Commands include DELTREE, FORMAT, DISKCOPY, LABEL, VOL, SYS, XCOPY, FC, ATTRIB, MEM, and TREE.

Switch to another drive letter D:

1. MD -- create subdirectory function: Create a New subdirectory type: Internal Command U format: MD [drive letter:] [path name] <subdirectory Name> FOR 1: C: \> md y/* --- create y Sub-directory ---*/
2. CD -- change the current directory function: display the current directory U type: Internal Command U format: CD [drive letter:] [path name] [subdirectory name] Description: the CD command cannot change the current disk, CD .. return to the upper-level directory. "CD \" indicates that the current directory is returned to the current disk. If "CD" does not have a parameter, the current directory name is displayed. FOR 2: C: \> cd y/* --- display the current directory y ---*/
3. RD -- delete subdirectory command: the directory is deleted from the specified disk. Type: Internal Command U format: RD [drive letter:] [path name] [subdirectory name] FOR 3: C: \> rd y
4. DIR -- display disk directory command function: displays the disk directory content. Type: Internal Command U format: DIR [drive letter] [path] [/P] [/W] FOR 4: C: \> dir y
5. PATH -- PATH setting command: The Search PATH of the executable file of the device, which is only valid for the file. Type: Internal Command U format: PATH [drive letter 1] Directory [PATH name 1] {[; drive letter 2:], <directory PATH name 2> 〉...} FOR 5: C :\> path PATH = C: \ WINDOWS; C: \ WINDOWS \ COMMAND; C: \ PROGRAMFILES \ MTS 6. COPY file COPY command U function: COPY one or more files to the specified disk. Type: Internal Command U format: copy u [Source disk] [path] <source file name> [target disk] [path] [target file name] FOR 6_1: C: \> copy yyy.txt yyy 1 file (s) copied C: \ yyy> dir yyy yyy txt 8 11-23-03/* --- use the DIR command to view the copy status --- */description: if you want to copy multiple files to a new file, the command is like this: COPY [Source disk] [path] <source file A> + [Source disk] [path] <source file B> [target disk] [path] [target file name] 6_2: c: \> copy x.txtpolicy.txt xy. t x.txt y.txt 1 file (s) copied
7. TYPE -- display file content command function: displays the content of an ASCII code file. U type: Internal commands. Ü format: TYPE [drive letter:] [path] <File Name> FOR 7: C: \> trpe yyy.txt/* ---hypothetical C directory contains the yyy.txt file ---*/
8. EDIT -- EDIT file content command 1. function: EDIT the content of an ASCII file or create a new file. 2. Type: Internal commands. 3. EDIT [drive letter:] [path] <File Name> Description: editcan be used to EDIT the content of the ASCII file, or create a new file. Their extension name formats are also flexible, such as .txt,. bat, and even the format of. c and. bas. FOR 8_1: C :\> edit/* enter the editing mode */FOR 8_2: C: \> edit yyy.txt/* ---edit the content of the yyy.txt file. If you want to select the supported Chinese format, you should install UCDOS ---*/
9. REN -- file RENAME Command U function: change file name type: Internal Command U format: REN [drive letter:] [path] <old file name> <New File Name> u for 9: C: \> ren yyy.txt cly.txt
10. DEL -- delete a file: delete a specified file. U type: Internal Command u format: DEL [drive letter:] [path] <File Name> [/P] Description: Select/P parameter, the system asked if the file was to be deleted before deletion. If this parameter is not used, the file will be deleted automatically.
11. CLS -- clear screen command U function: clear all the display on the screen, the cursor is placed in the upper left corner of the screen. Type: Internal Command U format: cls u for 11: C: \> CLS
12. VER: view system version number. Command function: display the current system version number. Type: Internal Command. Format: ver for 12: C: \> VER Windows 98 [Version 4.10.2222]/* --- Current System Version Number ---*/
13. DATA Date setting command: set or display the system date. U type: Internal Command u format: DATE [mm-dd-yy] FOR 13: C: \> DATE Current date is Sun 11-23-2 Enter new date (mm-dd-yy):/* --- prompt you to Enter a new DATE ---*/
14. TIME system clock setting command function: set or display the system period. U type: Internal Command U format: TIME [hh: mm: ss: xx] FOR 14: C: \> time Current time is 22:49:28. 81 Enter new time:
15. PROMPT: Change command PROMPT ü function: Change the DOS system PROMPT style.


1. dir is the abbreviation of directory, which is used to display files and subdirectories in a directory. [Format] dir [drive letter] [path] 2. MD -- create a directory in the format of "MD [drive letter] [path]", for example, "md temp ". 3. RD -- delete the directory in the format of "RD [drive letter] [path]". 4. CD -- enter the specified directory format as "CD [path]", for example, "cd happy 5. COPY: The COPY file format is "COPY [Source directory or file] [destination directory or file 6. DEL -- delete the file in the format of "DEL [drive letter] [path] [file name] [parameter]" 7. ren-rename format: "REN [original name] [current name] 8. TYPE -- display text file format: "TYPE [file name]" 9. discopy -- Disk copy [format] diskcopy source drive name destination drive name 10. deltree -- delete directory tree [format] [C:] [path] DELTREE [C1:] [path1] [C2:] [path2] […] 11. mem -- check the memory size and usage of your computer. [Format] directly type the mem command 12. chkdsk -- check your disk usage. [Format] chkdsk disk name 13. cls -- clear the content on the screen of the display, and make the DOS prompt to the upper left corner of the screen. [Format] cls 14. time -- display and set the DOS system time in [format] time [hh [: mm [: ss [. cc] 15. FORMAT (Format. COM) -- FORMAT the command in the FORMAT of "FORMAT [drive letter] [parameter]", for example, "format a:/S ". It has two common parameters:/Q: for quick formatting;/S: for formatting, and copying the system boot file to the disk. 16. FDISK (Fdisk. EXE) -- partition command

Uname displays version information (ver of win2K) dir Displays the current directory file, ls-al displays including hidden files (dir OF win2K) pwd queries the current directory location cd .. go back to the previous directory and pay attention to cd and .. there is a space between them. Cd/return to the root directory. View the file content in the cat file name cat> abc.txt and write the content into the abc.txt file. The more File Name displays a text file on one page. Cp copies the mv file and moves the rm file name to delete the file. The rm-a directory name deletes the Directory and the mkdir directory name creates the directory rmdir to delete the subdirectory. There is no document in the directory. Chmod sets the access permission for files or directories grep searches for strings diff files in files comparison find Files Search date current date and time who queries people who are currently using the same machine as you and Login time and place w query details of current machine users whoami view their account name groups view someone's Group passwd Change Password history view their own command ps display Process status kill stop a process gcc hackers usually use it to compile files written in C Language su permissions and convert them to the specified user's telnet IP address to connect to the other host (same as win2K ), if bash $ is displayed, the connection is successful. Ftp connection to a server (same as win2K)

Network commands

Compmgmt. msc Computer Management net stop messenger Service conf Start netmeeting dvdplay DVD player charmap start character ing table diskmgmt. msc disk management utility calc start calculator dfrg. msc disk fragment program chkdsk.exe Chkdsk disk check devmgmt. msc Device Manager regsvr32/u *. dll stop dll file run drwtsn32 system doctor dxdiag check DirectX information regedt32 Registry Editor Msconfig.exe System Configuration Utility rsop. msc group policy result set mem.exe displays memory usage regedit.exe registry winchat XP built-in LAN chat progman Program Manager winmsd system information perfmon. msc computer performance monitoring program winver check Windows sfc/scannow scan errors and restore taskmgr Task Manager (2000/xp/2003) gpedit. msc Group Policy sndrec32 recorder Nslookup IP address detector explorer open Resource Manager logoff logout command tsshutdn 60 seconds countdown shutdown command lusrmgr. msc local user and group services. msc local service settings oobe/msoobe/a check if XP is activated notepad open notepad cleanmgr garbage collection net start messenger Service
A complete set of windows running commands
Winver checks Windows dxdiag checks DirectX information mem.exe displays memory usage Sndvol32 volume control program sfc.exe System File Checker gpedit. msc Group Policy regedit.exe registry Msconfig.exe System Configuration Utility cmd.exe CMD command prompt chkdsk.exe Chkdsk disk check mem.exe Display memory usage gpedit. msc Group Policy regedit.exe registry Msconfig.exe System Configuration Utility cmd.exe CMD command prompt services. msc service lusrmgr. msc Local Account Management drwtsn32 system doctor cleanmgr spam iexpress Trojan bundle tool, the system comes with the mmc console dcpromo Active Directory to install ntbackup System Backup and Restore rononce-p shutdown taskmgr Task Manager conf 15 seconds to Start netmeeting devmgmt. msc Device Manager diskmgmt. disk Manager compmgmt of msc NT. msc Computer Management winchat LAN chat dvdplay DVD player mplayer2 simple widnows media player mspaint graphic board nslookup network management tool syskey system encryption, Once encrypted, cannot be unlocked, protect windows XP dual password wupdmgr widnows update Clipbrd clipboard viewer Odbcad32 ODBC data source Manager Nslookup IP address Detector

CMD command Overview

For more information about a command, enter the HELP command name.
XP. CMD command Overview
For more information about a command, enter the HELP command name ASSOC to display or modify the file extension Association. AT is the command and program to be run on the computer. ATTRIB displays or changes file attributes. Set or clear the extended CTRL + C check. CACLS displays or modifies the File Access Control List (ACLs ). CALL calls this one from another batch processing program. CD displays or changes the name of the current directory. CHCP displays or sets the number of pages of the active code. CHDIR displays or changes the name of the current directory. CHKDSK checks the disk and displays the status report. CHKNTFS Displays or modifies the boot time disk check. CLS clears the screen. CMD opens another Windows Command Interpreter window. COLOR sets the default console foreground and background COLOR. COMP compares the content of two or two sets of files. COMPACT Displays or changes the compression of files on NTFS partitions. CONVERT Converts a FAT volume to NTFS. You cannot convert the current drive. COPY Copies at least one file to another location. DATE: displays or sets the DATE. DEL deletes at least one file. DIR Displays files and subdirectories in a directory. DISKCOMP compares two floppy disks. DISKCOPY copies the content of one floppy disk to another. DOSKEY: edit the command line, call the Windows Command, and create a macro. ECHO Displays the message, or explicitly opens or closes the command. ENDLOCAL ends the localization of Environment Changes in the batch file. ERASE deletes at least one file. EXIT to EXIT the CMD. EXE program (command interpreter ). FC compares two or two sets of files and displays the differences. FIND searches for text strings in the file. FINDSTR searches for strings in the file. FOR runs a specified command FOR each file in a set of files. FORMAT the disk for use with Windows. FTYPE Displays or modifies the file type associated with the file extension. GOTO points the Windows command interpreter to a specified line in the batch processing program. GRAFTABL enables Windows to display extended character sets in image mode. HELP provides HELP information for Windows commands. IF executes conditional processing in the batch processing program. LABEL to create, change, or delete the volume LABEL of a disk. MD creates a directory. Create a directory using MKDIR. MODE: configure the system device. MORE: display a result screen at a time. MOVE Moves the file from one directory to another. PATH: displays or sets the search PATH for executable files. PAUSE Suspends processing of batch files and displays messages. POPD restores the previous value of the current directory saved by PUSHD. PRINT a text file. PROMPT to change the Windows command PROMPT. PUSHD saves the current directory and changes it. RD deletes the directory. RECOVER restores readable information from the faulty disk. REM record comments in a batch file or CONFIG. SYS. Rename the file. RENAME the file. REPLACE the file. Delete the RMDIR directory. SET displays, sets, or deletes Windows environment variables. SETLOCAL starts localization of Environment Changes in the batch file. SHIFT changes the positions of parameters that can be replaced in a batch file. SORT classifies input. START starts another window to run the specified program or command. SUBST Associates the path with a drive letter. TIME: displays or sets the system TIME. TITLE: Set the TITLE of the CMD. EXE session. TREE displays the directory structure of the drive or path in graphic mode. TYPE: displays the content of a text file. Server displays the Windows version. VERIFY tells Windows whether to VERIFY that the file has been correctly written to the disk. VOL Displays the volume label and serial number of the disk. XCOPY copies the file and directory tree.
Appwiz. cpl ------------ add and delete a program
Control userpasswords2 -------- user account settings
Cleanmgr ------- garbage collection
CMD -------------- a command prompt can be used as an attachment for Windows. Ping, Convert, and other functions that cannot be used in the graphic environment must be used.
Cmd ------ view the Java Virtual Machine version in jview. ------ the call is the built-in NTVDM of the system, a DOS virtual machine. It is a Virtual environment similar to Virtual PC and has little connection with the system itself. When we run the DOS program at the command prompt, it is actually automatically transferred to the NTVDM virtual machine. It has nothing to do with CMD itself.
Calc ----------- start Calculator
Chkdsk.exe ----- Chkdsk disk check
Compmgmt. msc --- Computer Management
Conf ----------- Start netmeeting
Control userpasswords2 ----- User Account permission settings
Devmgmt. msc --- Device Manager
Diskmgmt. msc --- disk Management Utility
Dfrg. msc ------- disk fragment Program
Drwtsn32 ------ system doctor
Dvdplay -------- start Media Player
Dxdiag ----------- DirectX Diagnostic Tool
Gpedit. msc ------- Group Policy Editor
Gpupdate/target: computer/force refresh Group Policy
Eventvwr.exe ----- Event Viewer
Explorer ------- open the Resource Manager
Logoff --------- logout command
Lusrmgr. msc ---- local users and groups
Msinfo32 --------- system information
Msconfig --------- System Configuration Utility
Net start (servicename) ---- start the service
Net stop (servicename) ----- stop the service
Notepad -------- open notepad
Nusrmgr. cpl ------- same as control userpasswords, open the User Account control Panel
Nslookup ------- IP address Detector
Oobe/msobe/a ---- check whether XP is activated
Perfmon. msc ---- computer performance monitoring program
Progman -------- Program Manager
Regedit ---------- Registry Editor
Regedt32 ------- Registry Editor
Regsvr32/u *. dll ---- stop dll file running
Route print ------ view route table
Rononce-p ---- shutdown in 15 seconds
Rsop. msc ------- group policy result set
Rundll32.exe rundll32.exe % Systemroot % System32shimgvw. dll, ImageView_Fullscreen ---- start a blank Windows Image and fax Viewer
Secpol. msc -------- Local Security Policy
Services. msc --- local service settings
Sfc/scannow ----- start the System File Checker
Sndrec32 ------- Recorder
Taskmgr ----- Task Manager (applicable to 2000/xp/2003)
Tsshutdn ------- 60 seconds countdown shutdown command
Winchat -------- XP built-in LAN chat
Winmsd --------- system information
Winver ----- display the About Windows window
Wupdmgr ----------- Windows Update


What is a registry? Since Windows 95, Microsoft introduced the REGISTRY concept in Windows (REGISTRY in English) (in fact, this concept already exists in Windows NT ). The Registry is the core database of Windows 95 and Windows 98. It stores various parameters and directly controls Windows Startup, hardware driver loading, and whether some Windows applications run normally, if the registry is damaged due to a whip, the startup process of Windows may be abnormal. Otherwise, the entire Windows system may be completely paralyzed. Therefore, it is very important for Windows users to correctly understand, modify, back up data in a timely manner, and restore the Registry when problems occur.
★How do I open the registry? (Back up the registry before restoring it.) Click "start"> "run"> enter "regedit"> "OK ".
★I. Structure and relationship of the Registry WINDOWS Registry has six keys, which is equivalent to dividing a hard disk into six partitions. In the run dialog box, enter RegEdit and click OK to run the Registry Editor.
The data organization structure of the Registry (System. dat, User. dat, Config. pol) in Windows 98. The Registry has six root keys. These root keys are capitalized and prefixed with HKEY _. This command Convention is based on the symbol variable of the keyword of the Registry function of Win32 API. Although in the Registry, the six root keys seem to be in a parallel position and have no relationship with each other. But in fact, the information stored in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT and HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG is part of the information stored in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, and the information stored in HKEY_CURRENT_USER is only part of the information stored in HKEY_USERS. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE includes all information in HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT and HKEY_CURRENT_USER. After each system startup, the system maps the information in HKEY_CURRENT_USER so that you can view and edit the information. In fact, HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Classes is HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT. To facilitate viewing and editing, the system uses it as a root key. Similarly, HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG \ SY-STEM \ Current Control is HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SYSTEM \ Current Control. HKEY_USERS stores the information of the default user and the current user. HKEY_CURRENT_USER saves the user information of the current logon user. HKEY_DYN_DATA stores the dynamic data during system running. It reflects the current status of the system, which is different each time, even on the same machine. According to the above analysis, the information in the registry can be divided into two categories: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE and HKEY_USERS. For details about these two categories, see the following introduction.
★II. The six keys are used in the registry. All the data is organized by keys and subkeys in a tree structure, which is very similar to the directory structure. Each key contains a specific set of information. The key name of each key is related to the information contained in it. If the key contains a subkey, the "+" symbol is displayed on the left of the folder that represents the key in the registry editor window to show more content in the folder. If the folder is opened by the user, the "+" will be changed to "-".
1. HKEY_USERS the root key stores the user ID and password list in the password list of the local computer. The pre-configuration information of each user is stored in the HKEY_USERS Root Key. HKEY_USERS is one of the root keys accessed from a remote computer.
2. HKEY_CURRENT_USER the root key contains information about the currently logged-on users stored in the local workstation, including the User Logon username and temporary password (note: this password is hidden when entered ). When a user logs on to Windows 98, the information is copied from the corresponding items in HKEY_USERS to HKEY_CURRENT_USER.
3. HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG this root key stores the data that defines the current user's desktop configuration (such as display, etc.), and the final list of documents used (MRU) and other information about the current user's Windows 98 Chinese version installation. Figure 5 shows the connection between the subkeywords of HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG.
4. HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT specifies the name of the file type based on the extension of the application installed in Windows 98. When Windows 98 Chinese version is installed for the first time, the Rich Text format File is associated with WordPad & 127;. However, after the Chinese Word 6.0 is installed, when you double-click an RTF file, the Word is automatically activated. Stored in SYSTEM. in DAT, HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT will replace WIN. the setting item in the [Extensions] & 127; section of the INI file, which associates the application with the file extension and replaces Windows 3. reg. similar settings in the dat file.
5. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE the root key stores hardware data of the local computer. The subkeywords under this root key are included in SYSTEM. DAT, used to provide information required by HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE, or a group of keys that can be accessed on a remote computer. Many subkeys in the Root Key are similar to those in the System. ini file. Figure 7 shows the subkeys under the HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Root Key.
6. HKEY_DYN_DATA the root key stores the system's dynamic data during runtime. This data changes every time it is displayed. Therefore, the information under this root key is not stored in the registry. Figure 8 shows the subkeys under the HKEY_DYN_DATA Root Key.
★3. The Registry is a large database Registry. To analyze the database in detail, we will not be able to cover one or two pages. I used more than half a year to analyze the database structure. The following describes some important topics.
(1) HKEY_CLASS_ROOT 1. HKEY_CLASS_ROOT/Paint. Pricture/DefaultIcon double-click the default string on the right of the window, delete the original "key value" in the displayed dialog box, and enter % 1. After restarting, open the Windows directory in "My Computer" and select "Big icon". Then, the icon of the Bmp file you see is no longer the same MSPAINT icon, a thumbnail of each Bmp file (provided that ACDSee and other image viewing software are not installed ).
(2) In HKEY_CURRENT_USER 1. In HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Control Panel \ Desktop, the New String Value Name MenuShowDelay = 0 increases the pop-up speed of the submenu in the Start Menu. 2. In HKEY_CURRENT_USER \ Control Panel \ audio T-op \ WindowsMeterics, create the string value MinAnimate. The value is 1. Start the animation effect switch window. The value is 0 to cancel the animation effect.
(3) HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE 1. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ software \ microsoft \ windows \ currentVersion \ explorer \ user shell folders saves the path of the personal folder and favorites.
2. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ system \ currentControl-Set \ control \ keyboard Layouts saves the language used by the keyboard and various Chinese input methods.
3. HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ software \ microsoft \ windows \ currentVersion \ uninstall save installed Windows application uninstall information

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