Summary of software installation in Linux (Software Package Manager, source code package, and graphic desktop environment)

Source: Internet
Author: User
Document directory
  • 1. RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager (Red Hat Package Manager)
  • 2. Yum stands for Yellow Dog Updater, modified
  • 3. Deb
  • 4. APT (theadvanced packaging tool)
  • 1. The suffix is .tar.gz?tar.z=tar.bz2 or. tgz.
  • 2. Installation File ending with Bin
  • 3. uncompiled RPM package installation

The software installation under the Windows GUI is guided, basically the next step. The following summarizes three methods for installing software in Linux. In some cases, many installation packages in Linux are released as source code packages, and compilation is required.

1. Use the Package Manager

Almost all Linux distributions use some form of software package to manage installation, update, and uninstall software. Compared with direct installation from source code:

1. Software Package management is easy to install and uninstall;

2. Easy to update installed software packages;

3. Easy to protect configuration files;

4. Easy to track installed files.

The following describes several common package managers:

1. RPM stands for Red Hat Package Manager (Red Hat Package Manager)

It was originally the software package management contributed by red hat. The software suffix is. rpm, which is used in many Linux releases. Because of its early appearance, it is widely used. Rpm is essentially a package that contains Linux software that can be installed and run on a specific machine architecture immediately.

Its disadvantage is dependency hell, which has to work hard to find out all the dependency problems when loading and unloading software. Several RPM search sites have become frequent locations. If we encounter circular dependencies, foo is needed by bar, bar is needed by Foo will only be stunned.

The RPM package is similar to the EXE file on Windows. Various files have been compiled and packaged. If you have a graphical interface, you can double-click to install the package. If you use the command line, run the following command:

(1) install the RPM package software: # rpm-IVH package name (install a package)

Note:-I install the software.

-T test the installation.

-P shows the installation progress.

-F ignores any errors.

-U upgrade and installation.

-V check whether the kit is correctly installed.

(2) uninstall software: # rpm-E Software name

(3) run the following command to install an uncompiled RPM package with the suffix ". SRC. RPM:

# Rpm-rebuild SRC. rpm

# Rpm-IVH package name


(1) software name and software package name are two concepts. Software name is usually a string located before the version number in the file name. For example, the apache-devel-3.1.12-i386.rpm package, which corresponds to the package name, the corresponding software name is Apache-devel.

(2) Of course, these parameters can be used at the same time. For more information, see

Help list: # rpm -- Help

System Function Description: # Man rpm

2. Yum stands for Yellow Dog Updater, modified

Is a shell front-end Package Manager in fedora, RedHat, Suse, and centos. Based on RPM package management, You can automatically download and install the RPM package from the specified server. In addition, dependencies can be automatically processed. All dependent software packages can be installed at one time without the need for tedious download and installation.

You need to download the yum package that matches your operating system before use. Download the package at /.

(1) install the specified installation package: # Yum installpackage_name (for example, yum-y install httpd)

(2) Delete the software package: # Yum remove package_name (for example, yum remove httpd)

(3) Find the package in which the library file is located: Yum whatprovides libraries_name (for example, yumwhatprovideslibstdc ++. so.6)

(4) For more commands, refer:


Http:// /? P = 155

3. Deb

Deb is a package manager provided by Debian Linux. It is very similar to rpm and the software suffix is. Deb. However, the Debian Package Manager dpkg only appears in debina Linux and ubuntu. Its advantage is that it does not need to be troubled by strict dependency check. The disadvantage is that this package management tool can be seen only in the Debian Linux release. Deb is not recommended for non-Debian Ubuntu systems because it is difficult to install the software package because it is necessary to solve the dependency problem of the software package.

(1) Installation and direct use: # dpkg-I package_file.deb

(2) uninstall and use: # dpkg-r package_name

If you install the Deb package on other Linux, you need to install some replacement, here can refer to:

4. APT (theadvanced packaging tool)

APT is an advanced interface of the Ubuntu software package management system. Ubuntu is based on Debian. APT consists of several programs named "apt. Apt-Get, Apt-cache, and apt-CDROM are command line tools used to process software packages.

(1) install the specified package: # sudo apt-Get install package

(2) Delete the specified package: # sudo apt-Get remove package

(3) More command reference:

Ii. Installation and uninstallation of the source code package 1. The extension is .tar.gz?tar.z=tar.bz2 or. tgz.

It is packaged using the UNIX system packaging tool tar, that is, the source code package. This type of software package contains all source programs, some of which have not been compiled and must be decompressed before being installed. Installation:

(1), # tar zxvf package name (for example, file.tar.gz) [directory_to_compress]

Note: Decompress the file.tar.gz package. If cxvf is used, all. txt files under the current directory will be compressed and archive to file.tar.gz. You can specify the decompression/archiving path after it.

(2), #./configure [-- prefix =/path]

(3), # Make

(4), # make install

Note: In actual installation, (2) and (3) are optional. For details, see the installation package.

(1). If there is a configure file in the package, execute (2 ).. /Configure is the first step in source code installation. It mainly serves to configure the software to be installed and check whether the current environment meets the dependency of the software to be installed. Some compressed packages have been compiled, saving this step.

(2). Run makefile again (3 ). The make command is used to execute the compilation according to the commands in the MAKEFILE file. The makeinstall command is also used to execute the commands under the install command in the MAKEFILE file.

Uninstall: There are two methods:

(1) If the author writes the uninstall command in makefile, execute the uninstall command: Make uninstall

(2) recommended: Specify the installation directory during installation, that is, add -- prefix =/path after./configure. In this way, you only need to delete the installation directory path when uninstalling. If this parameter is not specified, the default value is -- prefix =/usr. In this way, the configuration file of this program will be installed in/usr/etc, the application files of the program will be installed in/usr/bin, and the private libraries of the program will also be installed in/usr/lib.

2. Installation File ending with Bin

Some commercial software is suffixed with. Bin, which is similar to RPM packages and is easy to install. You only need to run #./filename. Bin and delete the installation directory when uninstalling the package.

3. uncompiled RPM package installation

The suffix is. SRC. rpm. See rpm.

3. installation in a graphic desktop environment

There are four common graphic desktop environments: KDE (Kool desktop environment), gnome, xfce (xformscommon environment), and lxde (lightweight X11 desktop environment). You can use their archive compression management tools, click and use.

Linux Common commands:

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