Ten common mistakes in Linux management

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags chmod dedicated server root directory

For Linux administrators sometimes make small Linux management common mistakes, but for some of the administrators who just stepped into Linux management, if not avoid some common mistakes, it is easy to the organization's network or system security risks.

Here are 10 common bugs in Linux management to help beginners improve their work.

Linux Management common error one: Download and install various types of applications from multiple channels without rigorous auditing

At first glance, this may be a good idea. If you are running Ubuntu, you will know what the package management program is using. Deb package. However, many of the applications you find are provided in the form of source code. No problem? These programs may work correctly after they are installed. But why can't you just install the program at random? The reason is simple, if you install the program in the form of a source, your package management system will not be able to track what you have installed.

Therefore, installing in package a (in source form) relies on package B (from one. Deb Library, what happens when package B is updated from the Update Manager? Package A May or may not run. However, if package A and B are all from the.

If the Deb library is installed, the chances of both running will be higher. In addition, it is easier to update packages when all packages are from the same binary type.

Linux Management common error two: Ignore update

This is not to say that Linux administrators lack skills. However, many Linux administrators, after running Linux, think that there will be nothing to do in the future, that it is safe and reliable. In fact, new updates can patch up some new vulnerabilities. Maintaining updates can construct a watershed between a vulnerable system and a secure system. Linux security comes from constant maintenance. To achieve security, any administrator should keep up with the update of Linux in order to use some new features and stability.

Linux Management common error three: bad password

Remember, the root password is usually the key to the Linux kingdom. So why should the password of root be so easily cracked? It is important to keep your user password robust. If your password is long and difficult to remember, you can store the password in a location that can be encrypted. When this password is required, the decryption software can be used to unlock the password.

Linux Management common error Four: Start the server into the X

When a machine is a dedicated server, you may want to install X, so some administrative tasks will be simpler. However, this does not mean that the user needs to boot the server into X. This will waste valuable memory and CPU resources.

Instead, you should stop the boot process at level 3 and go to the command line mode. This will not only leave all the resources to the server, but also prevent the disclosure of the machine's secrets. To log on to X, the user only needs to log on as a command line, and then type startx into the desktop.

Linux Management common error Five: Random permission, because do not understand the license

If the license is improperly configured, the hacker will be left with an opportunity. The easiest way to handle licensing issues is to use the so-called RWE method, read (read), write (write), execute (execute).

Let's say you want a user to be able to read a file but not write to it. To do this, you can perform: chmod u+w,u-rx file name, some new users may see an error, said they do not use the file's permission, so they use: chmod 777 file name, think this can avoid problems. But doing so actually leads to more problems because it gives the executable permissions to the file. Remember this: 777 the license to read, write, and execute a file is given to all users, 666 reads and writes a file to all users, and 555 reads and executes the file to all users, 444, 333, 222, 111, and so on.

Linux Management common Error VI: no backup critical profile

Many administrators have this experience, after upgrading to an X version, such as X11, but found that the new version of the damage to your xorg.conf configuration file, so that you can no longer use X? It is recommended that you upgrade x before you go to the previous/etc/x11/ Xorg.conf make a backup to prevent the upgrade from failing. Of course, X's upgrade attempts to back up xorg.conf files for users, but it backs up the/etc/x11 directory. Even if this backup looks good, you'd better make a backup yourself.

One of the habits of the author is to back it up to the/root directory so that users can know that only the root user can access the file. Remember, safety first. The method here is also useful for other critical backups, such as Samba, Apache, MySQL, and so on.

Linux Management Common error Seven: Log on as root user

This is a very dangerous mistake. If the user needs the right of Ghent to execute or configure an application, you can switch to root by using SU in a standard user account. Log on to root why isn't that a good thing?

When a user logs on as a standard user, all running X applications still have access to this user only. If the user is logged in as the root, X has the license of root. This can lead to two problems, one, if the user made a mistake by the GUI, this error for the system, may be a huge disaster. Second, running x as the root user makes the system more vulnerable to attack.

Linux Management Common error Eight: no normal operating kernel installed

You may not have more than 10 cores installed on a single machine. But you need to update the kernel, and this update does not remove the previous kernel. How do you do that? You keep using the most recent, working kernel. Suppose your current working kernel is 2.6.22, and 2.6.20 is the backup kernel. If you update to 2.6.26 and everything works in the new kernel, you can delete the 2.6.20.

Linux Management common mistakes nine: Avoid using command line

I'm afraid very few people are willing to remember so many orders. In most cases, the graphical user interface is a favorite of many people. Sometimes, however, command exercise is easier, quicker, safer and more reliable. Avoiding the use of command lines is a big taboo for Linux management. At a minimum, an administrator should understand how the command line works, or at least some important management commands.

Linux Management Common mistakes Ten: Ignore log files

There is a reason for the existence of/var/log. This is the only location where all the log files are stored. In the event of a problem, you first need to look at this. Check for security issues, but take a look at/var/log/secure. The first position that the author looks at is/var/log/messages. This log file holds all general errors. In this file, you can get information about the network, media changes, and so on.

When administering a machine, users can use a third party application, such as Logwatch, to create reports that create/var/log files for users.

These 10 common Linux management errors are common among some Linux administrator novices. Avoiding these mistakes will make the management work more secure and robust.

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