The general conception of population urbanization in China

Source: Internet
Author: User

The general conception of population urbanization in China

Population urbanization--the process of rural and agricultural population moving to urban and non-agriculture is an inevitable and insurmountable process in the development of human economy and society. Our country is in the new period of socialist modernization construction, accelerating our country's population urbanization, is not only the necessary precondition of realizing our country's economic modernization, but also the inevitable result of economic modernization. Therefore, it is a glorious and arduous mission for China's population economics to explore a Chinese-style urbanization path from the combination of theory and practice.
First, population optimization and population urbanization
Population optimization, refers to a country or region of the population in quantity, quality, structure and social material information production to adapt to the most perfect, the most excellent degree. Different times, different countries, the standard of population optimization is also varied. Under the specific conditions of our country, the specific criteria of population optimization are as follows: (i) achieving low birth rate, (iii) achieving low natural growth rates, (iv) Achieving high life expectancy, (v) achieving high levels of intelligence, and (vi) achieving high levels of employment; (vii) Achieving the population, population quality, population quality, The individual rationalization and integrated rationalization of the demographic structure.
To achieve the optimization of the population, we need to do a good job of economic, scientific and technological, health care and other aspects of the work, take a variety of measures. The realization of population urbanization is a fundamental and important measure in a series of measures. This is not only proved by the practice of urbanization which has been realized in developed countries, but also proved by the practice of urbanization in our country.
1. Population urbanization is beneficial to the optimization of fertility rate. According to statistics, from 1950 to 1981 of this 32 years, our country population average annual birth rate, town is 0, 36%, the countryside is 0, 56%. Among them, the 50 's, the town is about 0, 55%, the rural area is about 0, 65%, the 60 's, the town is about 0, 35%, the rural area is about 0, 65%, 70, the town is about 0, 25%, the rural area is about 0, 5%, the late 70 and the early 80, the town is about 0, 15%,
2, population urbanization is beneficial to the optimization of population mortality. According to the incomplete statistics for 30 years from 1954 to 1984, the average population mortality rate of our country, the city is about 0, 6%, the rural area is about 0, 76%, infant mortality, according to 1982 statistics, Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai three major cities are 1, 488%, 1, 793% and 1, 711% , and the two provinces of Hebei and Jiangsu are 1, 943% and 2 and 913% respectively. Moreover, the lowest level of urbanization in Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces, the infant mortality rate of 8, 392% and 10, 8%.
3, population urbanization is beneficial to the optimization of population life. According to 1982 statistics, our country population average life is 67, 88 years old. Among them, the city is 70, 63 years old, the countryside is 66, 89 years old. From the differences in life expectancy between the provinces and cities, the average life expectancy is 70 years and above in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Hebei, Liaoning, Guangdong, Guangxi, Shandong and other eight regions, the average urbanization level of 24, 38%, and the average life of 65 years of age of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and other five regions, the average urbanization level of 79%.
4, population urbanization is conducive to the optimization of population intelligence level. According to 1982 statistics, the population of 12 years of age and over the illiterate functional illiteracy rate, Beijing, Tianjin and Shanghai three municipalities average 13, 8%, while the remaining 26 provinces, the district average 25, 5%, the worst of Yunnan and Tibet two provinces, the region reached 47, 2% and 52, 6%.
5, population urbanization is beneficial to the optimization of the industrial structure of population. According to the proportion of three industrial population in each country, the United States with higher urbanization level is 2%, 32% and 66%, while Thailand with lower urbanization level is 76%, 9% and 15% in turn, the level of urbanization in China is in the middle, and the proportion of three industrial population is 69%, 19% and 12%. Judging from the ratio of three industries in China and rural areas, the city is certainly superior to the rural areas, because the second industry and the tertiary sector are underdeveloped, while the cities are mainly non-agricultural industries.
In summary, in the population optimization of the indicators, cities are superior to rural areas. Therefore, accelerating population urbanization is of great significance to the optimization of population.
Ii. urbanization model and migration of population
The historical facts of the world's urban and demographic development show that although each country has its own different characteristics, there is a similar trend between them, that is to say, the population urbanization objectively exists a regular pattern. The content of this pattern is roughly the following table:

Population urbanization Model
Population migration Form order in urban development stage outside City circle of Urban suburb
First stage population urbanization A +- +         -
B + + + +--
Second stage population suburbC + + + ++       --
D-+ +-
The third stage of population suburbanization E-+-        +
F-----+ +
Note: In the table above, + indicates an increase in population and + + indicates a significant increase in population-indicating a decrease in population-indicating a significant reduction in population.

According to the relationship between the three stages of urban development and the three forms of population migration, it is not difficult to see that the urbanization of population has its inherent and inevitable development law.
The first stage-population urbanization. The so-called urban area is the center of the city. It generally includes the old City and the new Town two parts: the old town is the initial stage of the urban development of the central region, the city is the urban development in the latter part of the expansion of the emerging central region. Population urbanization is the migration of population from rural and suburban areas to urban areas, so that the population of urban areas increased, the process of increasing density. The main features of this process are: at an early stage, the population
The relocation of rural and suburban areas has led to an increase in urban population and a reduction in suburban and rural populations. In the late period, the rural population continued to migrate substantially to the urban areas, but also to the suburbs, resulting in a large increase in the city circle population, the city outside the population greatly reduced. The overall trend of population change at this stage is: "Downtown ← Outskirts ← City Circle Outside".
The second stage----the suburbanization of the population. The so-called suburbs, is around the central city outside, but also within the City Circle area. It is a dynamic and scalable area: It narrows the area due to urban sprawl, and expands the region by expanding the urban circle to the countryside. The so-called suburbanization of the population, is the rural population in a large influx of the city, while the urban population due to saturation and gradually moved to the suburbs, resulting in a large increase in the suburban population process. The main features of this process are: in the early days, the rural population outside the city Circle continued to migrate to the inner circle, making the urban population increase and the suburban population increase greatly, which greatly increased the population of the whole city circle. In the late period, the urban population and the rural population outside the city Circle simultaneously moved to the suburbs, so that the suburban population continued to increase, urban population began to decrease, the city circle population continues to increase, and the rural population outside the city circle continues to decline. The overall trend of population migration at this stage is: "City → suburb ← City Circle Outside".
The third stage----The population is out of the loop. The so-called circle outside, is the City circle outside, refers to the city and the suburbs outside the vast area. Outside the City circle, not only the vast rural areas outside the city circle, but also other large, medium and small cities of the city Circle. In the first two stages of urbanization, the population outside the city circle is mainly rural population, and in the third stage of urbanization, the population of the inner circle migrates outside the city circle, mainly not to the rural area outside the city circle, but mainly to the new City circle outside the City circle. Therefore, the so-called population of the outer circle, is the population constantly from the old City circle to the outside circle of the new City Circle migration process. The main characteristics of this process are: in the early days, the urban population moved outside the suburbs and the City Circle, which reduced the urban population, while the suburbs and the population outside the city Circle increased. In the late period, the urban and suburban population moved significantly outside the city circle, resulting in a drastic reduction in urban and suburban population, and a significant increase in population outside the city circle. The overall trend of population migration at this stage is: "city → suburb → outside the City Circle".
The phenomenon of population movements in the above-mentioned urbanization process, though seemingly complex, is not in fact chaotic. It flows in an orderly manner following certain rules. In the first stage, the population is mainly from rural and suburban to urban mobility, the direction of the trend is the urban axis, in the second stage, the population is mainly from the urban area and the outer suburbs of the city movement, the direction of both the trend of the city axis, but also deviate from the axis of the city; in the third stage, the population flows from the Its direction is to deviate from the city axis. Thus, if we take the urban axis as the basis to observe and analyze the trend of population flow in urbanization, we can divide the population urbanization into the following two types:
The first category is the agglomeration type of population urbanization. It is characterized by the movement of the population towards the axis of the city, which includes both the population flowing from outside the city circle to the inner city, and the population from the suburbs to urban areas. This category occurs mainly in the early stage of urban development.
The second category is the diffusion-type population urbanization. It is characterized by the population carrying the urban axis flow, which includes the population from the city Circle to the city circle, but also includes the population from the urban area to the suburbs. This category occurs mainly in the late stage of urban development.
In the actual process of population urbanization, due to different country's specific national conditions, the stage of development of cities is different, and the forms of expression vary. Some of them are clustered, some of them are diffused, some are supplemented mainly by agglomeration, and some are supplemented by the diffusion-dominated agglomeration. As for the population urbanization of a certain city in a particular period, it is not decided by people's subjective desire, but by the general law of population urbanization and the concrete practical decision of the population urbanization of each country.
Iii. the foundation of China and the road of urbanization
To realize our country's population urbanization, we must consider the objective foundation of our country's reality. The realistic foundation of our country's population urbanization is the base is thin, the starting point is low, the difficulty is more, the task is heavy. Its specific performance: first, the total population is too large, the first in the world, which determines that the basis of our population policy is to control the population growth quantity. Second, the natural growth rate of the population is too fast, 1984 China's natural population growth rate of 1, 8%, the speed of the Soviet Union 1, 6 times times, the United States 1, 5 times times, France 3 times times, the United Kingdom 12 times times, it reminds us that the analysis of population must be indecisive. Third, the rural population is too large, the rural population is more than 3 times times the urban population, it means that China's population urbanization is not easy. The geographical distribution of the population is uneven, 15 provinces and cities in southeast China are 476 people/square kilometers, and 14 provinces in the northwest are 86/square kilometers, the former is 5, 5 times times more than the latter. This situation shows that the population urbanization of our country must take into account the specific situation of population geographical distribution. Five is the population urbanization and industrialization of different steps, according to 1984 statistics, China's urban population reached 330.06 million people, accounting for 32% of the total population, but the urban population of the agricultural population accounted for a large proportion, non-agricultural urban population only 110.37 million people, only accounted for 10, 7% of the total population. This shows that China's population urbanization only reached 10, 7% of the degree, and 89, 3% of the population waiting for the arrival of "urbanization".
We have to take a Chinese-style population urbanization path, which is generally the way to combine the general pattern of population urbanization with the reality of China.
1, small town: To take the road of agglomeration urbanization. The small town mentioned here refers to the county and the formed town. Although it does not qualify as a standard city, but because it is China's rural economic and cultural center, actually play the role of "local city", therefore, our population urbanization must start from the development of small towns. The Concrete Way is: (1) Strengthen the small town infrastructure construction, must make the long-term plan, in the premise of saving resources and improving economic efficiency, small town construction should gradually transition to small city scale. (2) Taking advantage of the advantages of the small town's advantageous infrastructure, attracting the rural surplus labor force into the city, engaging in the second industry and the tertiary sector, (3) giving support to the peasants entering the small towns in the areas of capital, technology and occupation of land; (4) Farmers who have a stable career in small towns and are decoupled from agriculture, Can allow them to move into the town to live; (5) The small towns to implement all-round open, not only to Hongo County open, but also foreign provinces and cities and rural and urban residents fully open to facilitate the introduction of capital, technology, talent and material exchange.
2, small city: To take the agglomeration as the main diffusion as a supplement to the urbanization Road. Small cities are mostly in the process of development of the city, the potential is very large, strong vitality, so to the population agglomeration-based. This requires a small city to adopt an open and flexible policy in terms of population migration. These include: (1) to give full play to the urban scale economy and the function of agglomeration economy, to attract rural and suburban population to the city, to engage in the second industry and tertiary sector, (2) to allow farmers to buy commercial housing in urban Central District or rental housing, for the city to live longer (such as more than five years) and stable professional farmers, Allow them to move to the city; (3) Allow workers in large, medium and small cities to enter into small cities to work and live, at the same time, to recruit all kinds of professional and technical personnel, the development of small cities, small cities; On the other hand, when we gather the population, we should try our best to avoid the blind expansion of the urban population, pay special attention to the rational layout of the city industry, and plan to spread the industrial enterprises and their workers to the suburbs, actively develop the suburbs and new towns, and expand the urban circle, so that the small city keeps the good ecological balance. To the scale of medium-sized urban development.
3, medium-sized cities: to take the agglomeration and diffusion at the same time urbanization road. The medium-sized cities are mostly cities that become economic and political centers in one area, and they are the media and ties connecting big cities and small cities and small towns, which play a connecting role. Therefore, its population policy should be both agglomeration and diffusion. On the one hand, people should be encouraged to gather. To give full play to the city's various functions, enhance the city's population cohesion; to provide a variety of convenient conditions for farmers in the second and tertiary industries, allowing farmers to live in cities with their own food rations, and allowing them to relocate to cities for a longer period of time (for example, more than ten years) and stable jobs. On the other hand, it encourages population proliferation. To transform the old City, the construction of new urban areas, the construction of beautiful environment, comfortable living suburban residential area. In this way, not only will it be possible to attract some of the overcrowded residents from the urban areas to the suburbs, but also to promote the relocation of industrial enterprises unsuitable for urban areas to the suburbs.
4, the big city: to take the diffusion as the main agglomeration supplemented by the urbanization road. Big cities are important cities in the political and economic center of a larger region. Because of the long development time of these cities and the large scale of the cities, the population agglomeration has reached a higher level, so it should be supplemented by population diffusion and population agglomeration. The main ways are: (1) to build a good suburb, so that the suburbs gradually urbanization, so that the new urban areas continue to expand, in order to facilitate the old city population to the new towns and suburbs spread, so that the cities circle expansion. (2) The large industrial areas of the old City are to be relocated to the suburbs, and new industrial enterprises are built in the suburbs. (3) to build a full-fledged commuter area in the suburbs to alleviate the high density of urban residents. At the same time, we should continue to strengthen and exert the urban agglomeration function, relax the urban population migration policy, absorb the rural labor force in the city to engage in the temporary and the liquidity service industry, under the premise of self-care ration, allow the peasants with stable occupation to live in town.
5, Mega-city: To take the road of diffusion of urbanization. China's existing mega-cities, are relatively long history, relatively developed economy, in the domestic and international important influence of the famous city. The population of these cities has reached or near saturation and spillover levels, coupled with a high natural population growth rate in our country, the population growth is too fierce, once a little slack, there will be runaway. Therefore, these cities should resolutely follow the path of the spread of the population. Specific ways, in addition to the large and medium-sized cities with the spread of the construction of the suburbs, expand the new urban areas, evacuation industry and other common measures, but also: (1) The development of satellite, the proliferation of Central city functions, satellite cities to gather population-based, in order to better than the central city of industry and living conditions, to attract the population (2) to support and nurture new urban areas with the strong economic strength of mega-cities, and to encourage the migration of the population from mega-cities to new cities and urban circles. (3) To strengthen the horizontal joint between cities, several adjacent large and medium-sized cities through economic cooperation, can form a variety of forms of "city Belt" and "urban agglomeration". (4) to exert the radiation power of mega-cities, develop multi-level, network type, open urban economic zone. A large city to form an economic zone, the major cities to form two economic zones, small and medium-sized cities to form three economic zones, the following are a number of small towns and their associated vast rural areas. In this way, the formation of a central city based on a criss-cross dynamic urban economic system, it will greatly promote China's rural population to urban migration, to avoid some capitalist developed countries, the problems of population urbanization in China to reproduce, gradually out of a Chinese characteristics of the urbanization of the population.
Note: The figures listed in the text are derived from the 1986-year-six period of population studies.

(This article was published in 1988, 4, 15 urban economic research in the second phase of 1988, the Heilongjiang Provincial City Economic Society sponsored.) Signed Wang Zhenyue, Jiamusi Committee Party School. Also published in 1988, 5, 25 Academic Exchange 1988 Supplement Phase II, population Science paper album. Signed Wang Zhenyue, Jiamusi Committee Party School. Won the second prize of outstanding scientific research achievements. )

The general conception of population urbanization in China

Contact Us

The content source of this page is from Internet, which doesn't represent Alibaba Cloud's opinion; products and services mentioned on that page don't have any relationship with Alibaba Cloud. If the content of the page makes you feel confusing, please write us an email, we will handle the problem within 5 days after receiving your email.

If you find any instances of plagiarism from the community, please send an email to: and provide relevant evidence. A staff member will contact you within 5 working days.

A Free Trial That Lets You Build Big!

Start building with 50+ products and up to 12 months usage for Elastic Compute Service

  • Sales Support

    1 on 1 presale consultation

  • After-Sales Support

    24/7 Technical Support 6 Free Tickets per Quarter Faster Response

  • Alibaba Cloud offers highly flexible support services tailored to meet your exact needs.