In 2003, Microsoft acquired the Connectix company, which introduced virtualization Virtual PC software, as a sign of virtualization, and later introduced virtual server virtualization software. But Microsoft's release and promotion of Virtual PC and virtual server are very low-key in the face of Vmware/xen and other products that occupy more than half market share. And now with the launch of Hyper-V, Microsoft approached everyone's vision and quickly changed the market landscape.
Microsoft Hyper-V Architecture Chapter
Compared to Hyper-V, we are more familiar with VMware and its architecture, so in order for everyone to gain a thorough understanding of Hyper-V in this topic we take a section on the architecture of Hyper-V. Hyper-V is also a server virtualization hypervisor (equivalent to VMware ESXi) technology, and Microsoft began supporting Hyper-V in Windows 2008, primarily virtualizing server compute resources through Hyper-V Manager management, Schedules the creation and operation of virtual machines. Of course, cluster Management also has a dedicated management tool for system Center VMM.
Microsoft offers different products and deployment options to facilitate the deployment of Hyper-V by users or learners. These include:
The free version of Windows Hyper-V Server Lite is used to deploy virtualization features, but it does not provide clustering and other advanced features.
After Windows Server is fully installed, configure the Hyper-V role. Hyper-V is a system module/HYPER-V role that allows users to customize the ability to turn virtualization on or off.
In addition, Microsoft also provides the Server core operating system installation mode, cutting off the GUI and other non-essential modules to enhance system reliability.
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Virtual Server, Virtual PC and other products are based on hybrid virtualization mode, both VMM (Hypervisor) and host sever run at the same level in the kernel state alternate access CPU and other resources; VMware Workstation is the virtualization layer that deploys the VMM program as a VM on top of the OS.
In Windows serve 8 Beta and Windows R2, Hyper-V has completely switched to a 64-bit system, and as a virtualized product Hyper-V must require that the processor must support AMD-V or Intel VT Cup hardware-assisted virtualization technology. Hyper-V has its own uniqueness compared to the architecture.
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The parent partition is a child partition (sub-partition) service as part of the Hyper-V virtualization program. Child partitions are installed on the guest host host, and access to system resources and hardware is provided through the parent partition.
VSP (Virtualization service Provider) is responsible for direct dialogue on each hardware device, providing services such as hardware services and file systems for each requirement.
VSC (Virtual service consumer) is a client component within a sub-partition that is actually working by consuming VSP-provided services.
VMBus is a channel connection between the virtual machines VSP and VSC, for each hardware device, there is a pair of VSP/VSC to complete the use of this hardware resources.
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Microsoft's early product architecture
Microsoft's previous Virtual Server 2005 R2 and VMware products, processor-assisted virtualization Vt/amd-v This is only an optional feature, unlike Hyper-V is a hard requirement.
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Hyper-V micro-kernel architecture
Hyper-V is a microkernel architecture in which the most common and core functions are carefully selected for a process or set of processes that are designed to run in a kernel state (ring 0 mode), while most of the other less important core functions run as separate processes in user mode (Ring 3 mode). Typically, the microkernel contains only the fundamental functions of process scheduling, memory management, and interprocess communication. They communicate via messaging (for example, the IPC mechanism that Windows uses for interprocess communication, IPC is interprocess communicate). Only core tasks are executed in the kernel, so the micro-kernel security is a better lightweight architecture.
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Most Linux systems, including BSD's almost all UNIX, MS-DOS, Windows 9x, Sun Solaris, and Linux-based VMware ESX Server, are tiered-based single-core architectures. Its interior can also be divided into modules (or hierarchies, or other). But at run time, it is a separate binary image. Because it is within the same process, the communication between its modules is delivered in multiple processes by directly invoking functions in other modules rather than microkernel. Therefore, in the operational efficiency, the single core will have a certain advantage.
The Hyper-V virtual network is interconnected via VMBus and vswitch and achieves three types by simulating a standard (Iso/osi) two-layer switch:
Private Virtual network: only the VMS running on the Hyper-V server are allowed to communicate, and the VMS cannot communicate with the Hyper-V server.
internal virtual network: allows for inter-VMS communication on Hyper-V and also allows these VMs to communicate with the Hyper-V server, but cannot communicate with the external network.
external Virtual network: allows VMS on Hyper-V to communicate between Hyper-V servers and external networks.
Hyper-V has many useful features on vswitch such as: multitenant Isolation, communication tuning (virtual machine queue), non-Microsoft extended open (extensible SDN capabilities such as OpenFlow, Ethernet port aggregation, etc.), Check the security and legality of non-Windows extensions through the Network Device Interface Specification (NDIS) filtering driver and the Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) callout driver. In addition, Hyper-V also has some optimizations on the network:
SR-Iov (Hyper-V single Root IO virtualization)
The physical network card is directly mapped to Vm,vms to direct access to the physical network card, no need to go through the vswitch.
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VMQ (VM Queue)
Each virtual machine is assigned an accept queue on the physical network card, the VMQ is mapped to the VM's address space, and when the physical NIC receives the data, the Mac locates the data in the VM's VMQ, the VM accesses the data directly and does not need to copy the data vswitch.
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This article from the "ICT Architects Technical Exchange" blog, declined to reprint!
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