These XML applications that will change our lives

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags abstract format define object interface new features version versions

How much do you know about these applications that will change the XML that we live in?


XHTML 1.0 [The Consortium recommendation Standard] is basically a rewrite of HTML 4, making it well-formed XML. HTML is a SGML application, and when XML is developed as a simplification and normalization of SGML on Web applications, HTML (which is itself a common language on the Web) becomes the preferred target for using XML. A variant of HTML appears, called XHTML. The goal of XHTML research is an HTML language that is easier to parse (because the syntax of XML is more restrictive). XHTML is easy to process with ready-made XML tools, trying to better separate content from presentation. XHTML is one of the oldest XML applications, with many interest groups playing a role in different parts and versions. I will try to generalize most of them.

corresponding to three HTML 4 dtd--strict, Transitional, and Frameset, XHTML 1.0 defines different DTDs and namespaces. Modularization of XHTML [the Consortium recommended standards] provides a framework for decomposing XHTML into separate modules as distinct DTD definitions. For example, all the elements and attributes used to define a list are composed of one module, and the type of element associated with the representation is placed in another module. This allows you to develop and redefine XHTML by adding, reducing, and modifying common stand-alone modules. Along this line, the first step is XHTML Basic [the consortium recommended Standard], which defines the minimum set of XHTML modules that must be in any language that is XHTML. XHTML Basic itself can serve as a content language for WEB customers, such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers, and sticky boxes. XHTML 1.1 [The recommended standard for the consortium] is basically the XHTML 1.0 Strict DTD that is decomposed using the module framework.

XHTML 2.0 [Development] is an override of XHTML, with no consideration for backward compatibility with HTML. The idea is almost to write a new content language for the Web, learning from past experiences without being tied to the past. Among the major changes are:

Cancels <br/>, and other elements that are considered overly oriented

Cancel HTML-style form and support XForm (previously described in this series)

Remove HTML-style links to Hlink (described earlier in this article series)

Replaces many JavaScript-driven dynamic tasks with XML Event

Replace HTML-style frames with xframe

More importantly, XHTML 2.0 has many extensions that enhance the author's ability to express content structure and meaning. Breaking backwards compatibility is a contentious issue. Some commentators believe that keeping (X) the name of HTML only modifies the version number can create confusion. Others say that these changes are necessary and that XHTML is actually still an extensible Hypertext Markup language, so it is appropriate to keep the original name.

XHTML is often used in conjunction with other embedded formats, such as MathML, RDF, SVG, SMIL, and VoiceXML (described later). This hybrid document is referred to as multimode or not monomer. The consortium, ISO and other organizations are investing a great deal of effort to encourage strong support for such documents.

2. Docbook

Docbook was originally a popular SGML format for compiling books and documents, especially those with more technical features. Later, an XML version was added, and the DocBook XML V4.2 [OASIS Committee specification] was the latest achievement. Docbook is very popular and has been supported by many tools, many of which are very mature. It is respected as an example of avoiding mixed representations of problems and content formats. Recently, some developers have complained that it has inherited too many burdens from previous versions, and has discussed (and even its main developer, Norm Walsh) A new, backward-compatible version of this format.

Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is even older than Docbook, a document format that is somewhat similar to the scope of the Docbook application, except that it usually deals with the humanities text rather than the technical text. TEI itself is not an SGML or XML application, but rather a set of guidelines for constructing a language (DTD). The most commonly used Tei variant is tei Lite [community Standard]. TEI is famous for its complexity, which in part limits its adoption, but it is well maintained and has fanatical users in some communities.

3. Xsl-fo

Extensible Stylesheet Language Formatting Objects (XSL-FO) [the Consortium recommendation Standard] is a representation language that uses XML definitions. (Note that the title of the link specification is "Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)," but the content actually includes only the formatting objects of the XSL.) XSL-FO is an XML format that can be used by any user agent to render content in accordance with the precise specifications given by developers. Its role is similar to the XHTML in the Web user interface, but is more complex to express formatting details that are appropriate for print form. These details and cascading style sheets (css--described earlier in this series) are no different, but in xsl-fo these details form an instance of the markup language itself, rather than the instruction that renders a single tag.

XSL-FO is commonly used as an output format for XSLT (described earlier in this series). In fact, the original XSLT and Xsl-fo were a system called XSL, but the team wisely divided the two parts into two different specifications. There are a variety of open source or commercially available tools that convert Xsl-fo into TeX, Adobe PDFs, and other (non-XML) output formats that are suitable for printing and typesetting. This application pattern makes xsl-fo very popular, but Xsl-fo has been hoping to become the native rendering format of WYSIWYG tools or similar tools, and its application is also beginning to be promoted. XSL-FO 1.1 [development] is an upgrade of this language, adding features such as annotations, indexing, bookmarks, and enhanced image processing capabilities.

4. SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 [The recommended standards for the consortium] is a language that describes two-dimensional images. It is mainly a vector graphics language, although some raster graphics features are also supported. The extraordinary ambition of SVG is to provide a practical, flexible image format that uses (long known) XML, and has been successful at this point. SVG features include: nested transformations, clipping paths, alpha masks, raster filtering effects, template objects, and of course extensibility. SVG also supports animations, zooming and moving views, various graphic primitives, groupings, scripts, hyperlinks, structured metadata, CSS, a dedicated DOM superset (previously described in Dom and CSS), and easy embedding of other XML documents. Some of the design decisions of SVG have gone through a little bit of controversy, including vector paths that are represented by a space-delimited list of numbers in a single attribute, but in general SVG has become one of the most widely used and warmly welcomed XML applications. The specification has been translated into multiple languages.

SVG 1.1 is an update to the SVG 1.0 [the recommended standards for the consortium], adding new features, including corrections. The biggest difference is that SVG 1.1 is modular in a way that is similar to XHTML 1.1+. This modularity allows SVG to be extended or even streamlined, just as Mobile svg profiles:svg Tiny and SVG Basic [the recommended standards for the consortium]. The latter defines a streamlined set of SVG modules for use in mobile phones and PDAs. SVG 1.2 [development] is dedicated to adding many new tools to make SVG not only an image format, but also a platform with wide application prospects.

5. VoiceXML

Voice Extensible Markup Language (VoiceXML) Version 2.0 [development] is a language for creating audio, voice, and telephony applications. It contains audio dialog boxes that feature speech synthesis, digital audio, voice recognition and telephone quality dialing input and voice input recording. It seeks to bring the benefits of web-based development and content delivery into an interactive voice response application. VoiceXML is part of the Interface Framework [development] of the Speech, which also includes other criteria that are not discussed here because of the blurring of the boundaries between these standards and the telephone industry. VoiceXML 2.0 marks the shift of the VoiceXML specification from VoiceXML Forum to the consortium, which is still working to improve the technology. About VoiceXML already has some patent notices, some of which means VoiceXML users will face copyright and licensing fees.

6. MathML

Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) 2.0 [the Consortium recommendation Standard] is an XML language that, according to the specification, aims to "promote mathematical and scientific content on the Web, as well as other applications such as computer algebra systems, Use and reuse in print typesetting and speech synthesis. MathML can be used to encode mathematical symbols for high quality display, or to encode mathematical content for applications that play a more important role in semantics, such as scientific software or speech synthesis. "MathML is often used to represent equations, formulas, or similar information in the fields of education, scientific papers, industrial norms, and regulatory content. This version adds some relatively new features to MathML 1.01 [the recommended standards for the consortium]. MathML is often used in conjunction with XHTML, SVG, and other applications.

7. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)

SMIL 2.0 [The standard of the consortium], according to the consortium, "supports simple editing of interactive [audio/video] presentations." SMIL is typically used in [' Rich media ' or multimedia] presentations that incorporate streaming audio and video, images, text, or any other media type. SMIL is a simple and easy to learn HTML language, and many SMIL presentations are written using a simple [text editor]. "Smil is a product of the multimedia activity of the Synchronized, which has been upgraded to SMIL 1.0 [recommended by the consortium], adding features related to animation, metadata, content control, linking, timing and synchronization, event handling, transition effects, etc.

8. RDF

Almost at the same time that the consortium is committed to the next generation labeling technology represented by XML, it also begins the research of the formal description technology of the next generation Web resources. The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a model for describing a set of WEB resource declarations. These declarations are conceptualized as triples, each containing the subject (a uri--described earlier in this series), a predicate (also a URI), and an object (a URI or literal data value). To understand the meaning of this Declaration, consider the HTML meta tag that describes the Web page. If applied to RDF, the subject is the URI of the Web page itself, and the predicate is a standard URI that represents the general description, and the object is the actual text of the description. By using a lot of URI,RDF, you want to minimize the ambiguity of these declarative component identities, making them more formalized for machine processing. It is debatable whether RDF can achieve this goal, but RDF is known for its very active community and a wide range of tools.

RDF is the backbone of the semantic web activity; The semantic web is a vision of the web, not just a representation of the content, but also a comment to help express its meaning. For example, when describing Web resources in the semantic Web, you can distinguish between "python" (A snake) and "Python" (a computer programming language). RDF standardization consists of a number of specifications, including:

Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and abstract Syntax [the recommended standards for the consortium] presents objectives, core concepts, basic data models, and abstract syntax for RDF.

Rdf/xml Syntax Specification [the Consortium recommendation Standard] defines a generic XML representation of RDF. Many observers, including myself, complained about the poor grammar of Rdf/xml's design.

The RDF vocabulary Description Language 1.0:RDF Schema [the Consortium recommended standards] defines an RDF glossary that can be used to define other RDF vocabularies.

RDF semantics [the recommended standard for the consortium] is not for those who lack courage in their hearts, it explores the mathematical theory of form at the bottom of the RDF data model.

Web Ontology Language (OWL) is an application of RDF, often with rdf/xml encoding, which adds a rich vocabulary for formal classification and generalization of RDF resources.

9. XML Topic Maps

Topic Maps [ISO International Standard, number 13250] provides a system for organizing information, in some respects a semantic Web technology that competes with RDF. Specifically, the XML Topic Maps [part of ISO 13250] is a Web-friendly version of Topic Maps, using XML syntax, and with a URI as its identifier. Similar to RDF, Topic Maps defines a model similar to a graph, but the finer difference is related to the fact that one of the important provisions of Topic Maps is the distinction between the actual concept and its computer representation. Topic Maps's approach is a basic tool for semantic the WEB or adds unnecessary complexity, and the debate between Topic Maps and RDF supporters never ends. XML Topic Maps uses a very clear XML syntax, which is based on XLink.

--Reference from IBM Developworks

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