Top ten most popular Linux distributions in the world

Source: Internet
Author: User
Tags arch linux linux mint

The reason for creating this web page is to help new Linux users choose the most appropriate operating system in a growing number of Linux distributions. It lists the 10 most popular Linux distributions to date (plus FreeBSD, the most popular BSD system so far), and is often considered the most widely recommended by Linux users around the world.

No number can be fully counted there are many other distributions that may be better suited for your particular purpose, but as a general rule, all of these distributions are very popular, there are very active forums or mailing lists, and you can ask any questions. Ubuntu, Linux Mint and PCLinuxOS are considered to be the easiest to use for new Linux users who don't have to master their complexities. In another context, Slackware Linux,gentoo Linux and FreeBSD are more advanced distributions that require a lot of learning before they can be effectively exploited. The Opensuse,fedora,debian Gnu/linux and Mandriva Linux operating systems can be classified as "Middle Road" distributions. CentOS is an enterprise-class release that is especially suitable for those who prefer stability, reliability and advanced cutting-edge functionality and software.

First, Ubuntu

Ubuntu was first published in September 2004. Although Ubuntu is relatively late for Linux distributions, the project has no other Linux distributions early, but its mailing list is quickly filled with user eagerness and enthusiastic developer discussions. Over the next few years, Ubuntu has grown into the most popular desktop Linux distribution, making great efforts and contributions to the development of an "easy-to-use and free" desktop operating system that competes with any individual operating system on the market.

What factors have made Ubuntu so successful? First, the project was created by Mark Shuttleworth, an attractive South African millionaire, a Debian developer, and the former world's second space tourist (Isle of Man-based Canonical Ltd, which he created, is still a commercial project). Second, Ubuntu has learned from the start of the failure of other Linux-like distribution programs and avoided repeating their mistakes-creating an excellent web-based wiki-style document that creates an error reporting feedback mechanism for end users in a professional way. Third, thanks to its wealthy founders, Ubuntu has been able to give free CDs to all interested users on the Internet, thus contributing to the rapid expansion of the Ubuntu distribution.

On the technical side, Ubuntu is a Debian-based release that contains some of the most famous packages, such as Gnome,firefox and's latest version of the update. It has a predictable schedule that is released every 6 months, sometimes with a long-term technical support for the LTS version, typically for the years of the security update support, depending on the version (non-LTS version of the technical support period of 18 months) support. Other special features of Ubuntu include an installable live CD, art creation and desktop themes, Windows user Migration Assistant, support for the latest new technologies such as 3D desktop effects, easy-to-install ATI and NVIDIA graphics drivers, and wireless device driver support, etc. and support non-free or patented media codecs on demand.

Source: Manx (between England Island and Ireland) Isle of Man
Desktop: GNOME
Type: Beginners, Desktop, Server, Live Medium, Netbooks
Processor architecture: i386, PowerPC, SPARC64, x86_64
Based on which release: Debian
Pros: Fixed release cycles and support deadlines; easy for beginners to learn; Rich documentation, both official and user-contributed.
Cons: Lack of compatibility with Debian
Package management: Using the Deb package for the Advanced Package Management tool (APT)
Available versions: Ubuntu,kubuntu,xubuntu, Ubuntu Studio and Mythbuntu contain 32-bit (i386) and 64-bit (x86_64) processors; Ubuntu Server Version Edition (includes SPARC processors)
Suggested Ubuntu-based options: Linux Mint (Desktop version), GOS (Google Apps Desktop edition), OpenGEU (enlightenemnt desktop), Ultimate Edition (Desktop), CrunchBang Linux (Op Enbox desktop version), gNewSense (freeware)

Second, Fedora

Although Fedora was officially launched in September 2004, its origins date back to 1995, and it was created by two Linux Dreamers –bob Young and Marc Ewing (the name of Red Hat Linux) to be launched together. As the company's first product, Red Hat Linux 1.0 "Mother's Day", published in the same year and soon updated to fix some bugs. In 1997, Red Hat launched its revolutionary RPM package management solution and other advanced features, which greatly facilitated the rapid rise and popularity of the release, surpassing Slackware Linux as the most widely used Linux distribution in the world. In the years that followed, Red Hat established a standard, 6-month timetable for its release.

In 2003, shortly after the release of the Red Hat Linux 9 system, the company introduced some radical changes in its product line. It retains its commercial product brand, especially Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and launches Fedora core, a Red Hat company-sponsored but community-oriented design that is distributed to "enthusiasts of Linux". The new changes were initially criticized, and the Linux community eventually accepted the new release of "A logical continuation of Red Hat Linux". A series of high-quality releases released for Fedora restored its status as the best operating system on the market. At the same time, Red Hat quickly became the world's largest and most profitable Linux company, with innovative product lines and other interesting features such as its Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) certification program.

Although the direction of Fedora is still dominated by red hat, whether correct or not, it sometimes appears as a beta version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, but it is undeniable that Fedora remains one of the most innovative distributions until today. Its contribution to the Linux kernel, glibc and GCC is well known, its recent more integration with SELinux functionality, Xen virtualization technology and other enterprise-class features are appreciated by many corporate customers. The downside is that Fedora still lacks a clear-oriented strategy for making products easier to use and beyond the goal of "Linux enthusiasts".

Source: USA USA
Desktop: GNOME, KDE, LXDE, Openbox, XFCE
Type: Desktop, Server , Live Medium
Processor architecture: i686, PowerPC, x86_64
based on which release: Independent
Benefits: highly innovative, excellent security features, a large number of support packages, strict adherence to free software
Cons: Fedora's priorities tend to be biased toward enterprise applications rather than desktop availability
Package management: Yum and RPM Package management
Available versions: Fedora (i386), 64-bit (x86_64), PowerPC (PPC) processors; Red Hat Enterprise Linux (i386), IA64, PowerPC, s390x and x86_64 architectures; Also live CD editions with GNOME or KDE
recommendations based on Fedora selection: Blag Linux and GNU (desktop version, free software), Berry Linux (Live CD), Yellow Dog L Inux (Apple PowerPC processor system)
Recommended Red Hat-based selection: CentOS, Scientific Linux, startcom Enterprise linux

Third, OpenSUSE

The start of openSUSE dates back to 1992, with four Linux enthusiasts in Germany –roland Dyroff, Thomas Fehr, Hubert Mantel and Burchard steinbild– co-launched the SUSE Linux operating system A project (software und System Entwicklung). In the early days, young companies sold floppy disks containing the German version of Slackware Linux, but shortly after May 1996, SuSE Linux was released as a standalone version from the 4.2 release. In the following years, developers adopted the RPM package management approach and introduced YaST, an easy-to-use graphical system management tool. With the frequent release of openSUSE, excellent print documentation, and the easy availability of SUSE Linux in stores in Europe and North America, SUSE Linux is becoming more and more popular.

SuSE Linux was acquired by Novell at the end of 2003. Shortly thereafter, the availability and licensing of SUSE Linux changed significantly, YaST was released under the general Public License (GPL), ISO images can be obtained free of charge from public download servers, and most importantly, the development version is open to the public for the first time. Since the start of the openSUSE project, it has been released to release 10.0 in October 2005, eventually becoming a complete and free release. openSUSE's code has become Novell's commercial product base system, initially named Novell Linux, but later renamed SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop desktop and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server Edition.

Today, openSUSE has a large number of satisfied user followers. Getting high scores for openSUSE is user satisfaction and beautiful (KDE and GNOME) desktop environments, excellent system management tools (YaST), as well as providing the best print with any available documentation for those who purchase the boxed version. However, the recent deal between Novell and Microsoft, Novell acknowledges Microsoft's assertion that it owns the intellectual property of Linux, which has led to the condemnation of many Linux enthusiasts and prompted some users to change other distributions. While Novell has downplayed the deal and Microsoft has not exercised any rights, the problem remains a thorn in the company of Pure Linux.

Source: Germany, Germany
Desktop: Blackbox, GNOME, ICEWM, KDE, Wmaker, XFCE
Genre: Desktop, Server, Live Medium
Processor architecture: i586, x86_64
Based on which issue: Independent
Advantages: Comprehensive, intuitive configuration tools, extensive software support, excellent website architecture and beautiful document library
Cons: Novell's patent deal with Microsoft in November 2006 appears to legalize Microsoft's intellectual property rights on Linux, and its desktop installation and graphics tools are sometimes seen as "bloated and slow"
Package Management: YaST graphics and command-line utilities and RPM package management
Available versions: openSUSE's 32-bit (i386), 64-bit (x86_64) and PowerPC (PPC) processors (also available on-site CD-ROM), while the i586 system's SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop/server, in addition to IA64,POWERPC, S390,S390X and x86_64 architectures

Iv. Debian

The Debian Gnu/linux was first published in 1993. The founder is Ian Murdock, who envisions creating a fully non-commercial distribution in his spare time through hundreds of of the existing development volunteers. Sceptics were far greater than optimists, who thought it was doomed to failure and collapse, but the opposite was true. Not only has Debian survived for nearly 10 years, it has become the largest Linux distribution and possibly the largest collaborative software project ever!

The success of Debian Gnu/linux can be explained by the following figures. With more than 1000 volunteer developers, its software library contains more than 20,000 packages (11 processor architectures) that are available to more than 120 Debian-based releases and live discs. These numbers are unmatched by any other Linux-based operating system. The actual development of Debian consists of three main branches (i.e., "experimental" is counted as four branches): "Unstable" (or "Sid"), "testing" and "stable". This progressive integration and packaging stability feature, along with the project's perfect quality control mechanism, makes Debian a reputation for "one of the best experiences and least bug distributions".

Of course, this lengthy and complex development model has some drawbacks: Debian's stable (stable version) is not currently up to date, because the new stable version is released once every 1–3 year. These users prefer to use an unstable Debian distribution or beta version that includes the latest technology. The highly democratic structure of Debian led to controversial decisions and caused a scuffle between developers. This has led to the need to abandon some of the results and make radical decisions to keep the project moving forward.

Home page:
Source: Worldwide Global
Desktop: Afterstep, Blackbox, Fluxbox, GNOME, ICEWM, KDE, LXDE, Openbox, Wmaker, XFCE
Type: Desktop, Live Medium, Server
Processor architecture: Alpha, ARM, Armel, Hppa, IA64, i386, M68K, MIPS, MIPS El, PowerPC, s390, SPARC64, x86_64
based on which release: Independent
Advantages: very stable, superior quality control, over 20,000 quantities of software, more processor architectures than any other Linux distribution
Cons: Conservative – because of the support of many of its processor architectures, the latest technology is not always included; the cycle is slow (stable release per 1–3 year), and the discussion of developer mailing lists and blogs is sometimes backward.
Package Management: The available versions of the Advanced Package Management tool (APT) and the Deb Package
: CD/DVD discs and live CD images for 11-processor-architecture installation, including all 32-bit and 64-bit Intel, AMD, Power, and other processors
Recommended Debian-based options: MEPIS Linux, Ubuntu, Sidux. Damn Small Linux (old computer), KNOPPIX (Live CD), Dreamlinux (desktop version), Elive (desktops with Enlightenment), Xandros (commercial), 6 4 Studio (multimedia)

Wu, Mandriva

Mandriva Linux was launched by Gaël Duval in July 1998 under Mandrake Linux. Initially, this was just a re-optimized version of Red Hat Linux with a more friendly KDE desktop, but subsequent versions added a more friendly experience, such as a new installer, improved hardware detection, and an intuitive disk partitioning utility. As a result of these improvements, Mandrake Linux has flourished. After the introduction of venture capital investment into a commercial company, the new MandrakeSoft company in the early 2003 to 2005 the fate of a lot of ups and downs, or even near bankruptcy. Then, after the merger of the Brazilian Conectiva Company, the company changed its name to the Mandriva we saw today.

Mandriva Linux focuses on desktop versions. Its greatest features are advanced software, best-in-Class system Management Suite (DRAKCONF), excellent 64-bit version support, and extensive international support. It has an open development model than many other popular distributions, and there are intensive and frequent beta testing periods prior to the release of the stable version. In recent years, an installable Live CD series has been developed and has launched the Mandriva Mobile version-a complete bootable USB mobile drive version of the Mandriva Linux system. This is the first major distribution for popular netbooks, such as support for Asus Eee PC.

Despite technical excellence, the Mandriva Linux operating system has had a lot of ups and downs in recent years. This is partly because the ease of use of other distributions and the interface has caught up with Mandriva, but there are some controversial decisions made by the company that do not value the basic user. Mandriva website Messy distribution on several different sites, the original design of the "Mandriva Club", providing value-added paid customers, received comments mixed. Although the company has addressed some criticisms, it still faces a difficult battle to persuade new Linux users or other Linux users of the distribution to try (Buy) and their products.

Source: Australia, Australia
Desktop: JWM
Type: Desktop, old computers, Live Medium, Netbooks
Processor architecture: i386
Based on which issue: Independent
Pros: Easy to get started, especially Business Edition, excellent unified Configuration Utility, very friendly "out of the box" in dozens of languages support; Live CD installation CD
Cons: Competition with other major distributions lacks a comprehensive marketing strategy, and the lack of publishers "favor" few Mandriva-type books are issued
Package management software: Rpmdrake URPMI (Graphics front-end URPMI) using RPM package, "SMART" as an available alternative
Available versions: Free download of the Mandriva "free" installation media 32-bit (i586 system) and 64-bit (x86_64) processor, free download of Mandriva "one" 32-bit (i586 system) processor installation version, The commercial version of the Mandriva package is a 32-bit (i586 system) and 64-bit (x86_64) processor, as well as a solution for high-end "Company" desktops and servers with a longer support cycle
Suggested alternative version based on Mandriva: PCLinuxOS (Desktop version)

Six, Mint

Linux Mint, an Ubuntu-based release, was first created in 2006 by IT expert Clement Lefebvre, who was born in France and lived and worked in Ireland. Originally conceived to build a Linux Web site to provide assistance to new Linux users, prompting documents and other materials, Clement Lefebvre saw the development of Linux to solve the shortcomings of many mainstream products and more practical technology and the potential of alternative mainstream products. After soliciting feedback from visitors to his website, he set out to make a mint that today is known as "mproved Ubuntu (perfect Ubuntu)".

But Linux Mint is not just a desktop theme version that adds new app settings and Ubuntu updates. Since its inception, the developer has added a graphical tool called "Mint", which includes a mintdesktop– for configuring the desktop, mintmenu– a new simpler and more elegant menu navigation structure, mintinstall– an easy-to-use Software installation utility, mintupdate– a software update on some of the other additional tools and improvements after hundreds of several prominent tools. The project also designed its own artwork, which has been further enhanced by the addition of patented multimedia codecs to a number of "large distributions subject to potential legal threats." However, one of the best experience features of Linux Mint is that developers listen to the user's voice and always implement good advice quickly.

Although Linux Mint is free to download, the revenue from the project comes from donations, advertising and professional support services. It does not have a fixed schedule or a list of distribution plan features, but it is expected that a new version of Linux Mint will be released within a few weeks of each stable version of Linux Ubuntu. In addition to the major version of the GNOME Desktop feature, the project also established a semi-formal "community" Community Edition, such as the KDE desktop, Xfce and Fluxbox editions. However, these tend to be released several months after the completion of the "Major Gnome release", which may sometimes not include the "minty" tool and other features found in the project's flagship product. Linux Mint does not adhere to the principle of free software, and does not issue security bulletins.

Source: Ireland, Ireland
Desktop: Fluxbox, GNOME, KDE, XFCE
Genre: Beginners, Desktop, Live Medium
Processor architecture: i386, x86_64
Based on which release: Debian, Ubuntu
Pros: Powerful "minty" tool collection, enhanced by hundreds of user-friendly experiences, including numerous multimedia codecs, open user recommendations
Cons: The alternative "community" community version does not always include the latest features, and the project does not issue a security warning
Package Management: APT uses the Deb package (compatible with Ubuntu Software Library)
Available versions: one "PRIMARY" (Gnome version) for 32-bit and 64-bit computer versions, one "community" community version (32-bit computers using KDE,XFCE and Fluxbox)
Possible options: Ubuntu, SimplyMEPIS

Seven, PCLinuxOS

PCLinuxOS was first published in 2003 by Bill Reynolds, a well-known "Texstar". Prior to his own creation of the distribution, TexStar was a well-known developer who had created the most popular RPM package management in the Mandrake Linux user community and provided free downloads. In 2003, he decided to build a new release, initially based on Mandrake Linux, but included some important usability improvements. What is his goal? It should be friendly to beginners, have excellent proprietary kernel modules, browser plugins and media codec support, and be able to provide a simple and intuitive graphical installer for live CD.

After several years of development, PCLinuxOS quickly approached its expected state. In terms of usability, the project provides most of the new operating systems that are expected from Windows to Linux to enable out-of-the-box technical support. On the software side, PCLinuxOS is a KDE-oriented release that includes custom and always-on versions of the desktop environment with the latest popular updates. Its growing software library contains other desktop editions, of course, and offers a wide variety of desktop packages for many common tasks. For system configuration, PCLinuxOS retains the Mandriva version of the excellent control center, but has replaced its package management apt and synaptic, a graphical interface of the front-end package management management system.

On the negative side, PCLinuxOS lacks any form of roadmap or version of the goal. Although more and more communities are involved in the project, most development versions and decisions are often made in TexStar hands to make decisions and tend to be conservative. Ultimately, the PCLinuxOS development process is often a lengthy process to address all known vulnerabilities until a new version is published. There is currently no plan for a PCLinuxOS 64-bit version.

Source: USA
Desktop: Enlightenment, Fluxbox, GNOME, ICEWM, KDE, LXDE, Openbox, XFCE
Genre: Beginners, Desktop, Live Medium
Processor architecture: i586
Based on which issue: Mandriva
Advantages: Excellent graphics driver, browser plugin and media codec support; Fast boot time, up-to-date software
Cons: No 64-bit version available, no out-of-the-box support outside the English language; lack of planning release
Package Management: Advanced Package management tool (APT) uses RPM packages
Available versions: Minime, Junior and BigDaddy versions are 32-bit (i586 system) processor architectures
Suggested PCLinuxOS-based overrides: SAM Linux Desktop, granular Linux

Eight, Slackware

Founded in 1992 by Patrick Volkerding, the Slackware Linux operating system is the oldest existing Linux distribution. From now on, the SLS program has been discontinued, Slackware 1.0 starts with 24 floppy disks and is on top of the Linux kernel version 0.99pl11-α. It quickly became the most popular Linux distribution, with some even estimating its market share of up to 80% Linux installations in 1995. Its popularity decline is related to Red Hat Linux and other releases that are easier to release, but Slackware Linux is still a highly appreciated and operating system for system administrator technology and desktop users.

Slackware Linux is a highly technical, clean distribution with only a small number of very limited personal settings. It uses a simple, text-based system to install and compare the original package management system without addressing software dependencies. Therefore, Slackware is considered to be the most pure and unstable distribution of today –slackware lacks the possibility of a concrete improvement to reduce errors into the new system. All configuration is done by editing the text file. There's a saying in the Linux community that if you learn Red hat, you know Red hat, but if you know Slackware, you know the Linux operating system. Today, in particular, many other Linux distributions continue to develop a large number of custom products to meet the needs of less technical Linux users.

While this simple philosophy has its supporters, the fact is that, in today's world, the Slackware Linux operating system is becoming a "core system kernel", with new custom solutions built, rather than a wide range of supported software varieties. The only exception is the server market, where Slackware is still popular, but even here, the lack of official support for automated tools that distribute complex upgrade procedures and security updates makes Slackware increasingly uncompetitive. Slackware's conservative attitude towards the basic components of the system means that it requires a lot of manual installation of the adjusted work to become a modern desktop system.

Source: USA
Desktop: Blackbox, Fluxbox, FVWM, KDE, Wmaker, XFCE
Type: Desktop, Server
Processor architecture: i486, x86_64
Based on which issue: Independent
Advantages: High stability, clean, defect-free, firmly adhered to the principle of Unix
Cons: The limited number of officially supported applications, the choice of a conservative base package, and the complex upgrade process
Package management: "Pkgtool" Using TXZ Package
Available versions: 32-bit (i486) and 64-bit (x86_64) processors for installing CD/DVD
Slackware Advice-based options: Zenwalk Linux (Desktop Edition), VectorLinux (Desktop edition), SLAX (Live CD), Slamd64 Linux (64-bit), Bluewhite64 Linux (64-b It), Wolvix (Desktop P, live CD), Goblinx (desktop version, Live CD)
Other distributions with similar ideas: Arch Linux, Frugalware Linux

Nine, Gentoo

The concept of Gentoo Linux was proposed by Daniel Robbins around 2000 years ago as a developer of Stampede Linux and FreeBSD. When the author comes into contact with FreeBSD and its "autobuild" function, the so-called "ports", it prompts him to incorporate some of the principles of FreeBSD's software management into its Gentoo "portage". The idea was to develop a Linux distribution that would allow users to compile the source code of the Linux kernel and application directly on their own computer, thus maintaining a highly optimized and always up-to-date system. The 1.0 version of the project was announced in March 2002, and Gentoo's package management was considered to be a better choice for some binary package management systems, especially the widely used RPM.

The Gentoo Linux operating system is designed for advanced users. Initially, installation was tedious, cumbersome, and even took hours or even a day to build a full Linux distribution with the command line, however, in 2006, a project was developed to simplify the installation of the Gentoo Live CD installation process for "One click Install" program. In addition to providing a single command that always gets the latest installation package, other important features of the release are excellent security, extensive configuration options, support for many architectures, and the ability to keep the system up-to-date without the need for a reinstallation. Gentoo's documentation has been considered one of the best online documents many times.

The Gentoo Linux operating system has lost its original glory in recent years. Some Gentoo users have realized that the time-consuming compilation of a software package brings only marginal benefits to speed and optimization. Since the founder of Gentoo and the benevolent dictator resigned from the project in 2004, the new Gentoo Foundation has been trying to avoid a clear direction of development and frequent conflict of development, which has led several high-profile famous people to leave Gentoo. It remains to be seen whether Gentoo will be able to restore the quality of its past innovations or slowly break down into a loose collection of projects that lacks a clear definition of individual goals.

Source: USA
Desktop: Afterstep, Blackbox, Fluxbox, GNOME, ICEWM, KDE, LXDE, Op Enbox, Wmaker, XFCE
Type: Desktop, Server, source-based
Processor architecture: i486, i586, i686, x86_64, Alpha, ARM, Hppa, MIPS, power PC, PPC64, SPARC64
based on which release: Independent
Benefits: Excellent software management infrastructure, unmatched customization and tuning solutions, first-class online documentation
Cons: Occasional instability and the danger of crashes, The project is subject to frequent infighting between the lack of direction and the developer
Package management: "Portage" use (SRC)
Available versions: Minimum installation CD and Live CD (with GNOME) for Alpha, AMD64, HPPA, IA64, MIPS, PPC, SPARC and x86 processors; You can also manually install the
recommended Gentoo-based selection from the command line by using "Stages": Sabayonlinux (Desktop, Live CD/DVD), Ututo (desktop, freeware)
Other sources of distribution: Lunar Linux, Source Mage Gnu/linux, Sorcerer, Linux from Scratch

Ten, CentOS

CentOS was launched at the end of 2003, CentOS is a community project that compiles installable Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) code and provides timely security updates to all package software upgrades targeted. More directly, CentOS is a version of Rhel cloning. The only difference between the two release technologies is that the brand –centos replaces all Red Hat's trademarks and logos for his own. However, the link to Rhel and CentOS cannot be seen on the CentOS website, because of the trademark law, Red Hat is known as a "prominent North American Enterprise Linux Vendor" (The well-known business Linux seller of the Americas), Instead of its correct name. However, the relationship between Red Hat and CentOS is still good, and many CentOS developers are actively engaged with red Hat engineers.

CentOS is often seen as a reliable server release. It inherits the perfect test and stable Linux kernel and software, the same as Red Hat Enterprise Linux Foundation. Although for a community project volunteer, free access to a solid, expensive server products market reputation for free choice, especially for experienced Linux system administrators. CentOS is an enterprise also suitable for desktop solutions, especially in terms of stability, reliability and long-term support, is the first choice for the latest software and features. Like Rhel,centos is supported by a security update that has more than 5 years.

Despite its advantages, CentOS may not be the best solution for all deployment scenarios. Users who are willing to use the latest Linux technology and the latest software packages should also look at other scenarios. In the Major CentOS version, these are based on the Rhel version, released every 2–3 year, while the "point" version (such as version 5.1) is often separated by 6 – 9-month intervals. This "point" distribution typically does not contain any major features (although they sometimes include recent hardware support), and only a handful of software can be updated. Linux kernels, basic systems and most application versions remain the same, but occasionally an important software (such as or Firefox Firefox) has been updated to provide experiments. As a companion item, CentOS has also established a user update package for its release, but these libraries are not enabled by default because they may break compatibility.

Source: USA
Desktop: GNOME, KDE
Type: Desktop, Live Medium, Server
Processor architecture: i386, PowerPC, s390, S390X, x86_64
Based on which release: Fedora, Red Hat
Advantages: Very effective, stable and reliable, free download and use, with 5 years of free security updates, timely release and security updates
Cons: Lack of the latest Linux technology, when it's released, most software is obsolete
Package Management: Yum graphics and command-line utilities using RPM packages
Available Versions: Live DVD and CD (GNOME) for I386 and x86_64 processors, older versions (3.x and 4.x) Alpha,ia64 and IBM-provided Z-series (s390,s390x) processors.
Other Red Hat and CentOS clone-based distributions: Scientific Linux, SME Server, startcom Enterprise Linux, Fermi Linux, Rocks Cluster distribution, Or Acle Enterprise Linux

Xi. FreeBSD

FreeBSD, the descendants of AT&T indirectly through the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Berkeley Software Release Unix, whose long and turbulent history dates back to 1993 years. Unlike Linux distributions, which are defined as integrated Linux kernels and a solution consisting of thousands of applications, FreeBSD is a tightly integrated operating system based on BSD kernel and so-called "userland (user-built)" (so there is even no additional extension). The distribution has lost the chance to install a common computer system – like many Linux distributions, an easy-to-install (mostly) open-source application extension provides the core of FreeBSD, but these are usually part of a third-party donor and not a strict FreeBSD.

FreeBSD is developed as a fast, high-performance and extremely stable operating system, especially for Web servers and similar tasks. Many large search engine sites, or organizations, are deployed and used on mission-critical computing infrastructure and run FreeBSD on their computer systems for many years. Compared to the Linux operating system, FreeBSD is distributed in a more permissive license, which can be reused almost indefinitely and the source code is modified for any purpose. Even the well-known Apple Mac OS X is also derived from BSD. In addition to the core operating system, the project also offers more than 15,000 binary and source-code forms of FreeBSD software that are conveniently applied to BSD core installations.

While it is certain that FreeBSD can be used as a desktop operating system, it does not have a popular Linux distribution in this regard. The text mode installer provides system hardware detection or system configuration aspects and does not leave complex work, which allows the user to set after installation. In modern hardware support, FreeBSD generally lags behind the Linux operating system, especially in support of gadgets such as laptops and netbooks, such as wireless cards or popular digital cameras. These users looking for existing desktop FreeBSD projects are considering the use of FreeBSD at the desktop or workstation speed and stability, rather than FreeBSD itself.

Source: USA
Desktop: Afterstep, Blackbox, Fluxbox, ICEWM, KDE, Openbox, Wmaker, XFCE
Type: BSD
Processor architecture: Alpha, i386, IA64, SPARC64, PC98, PowerPC, x86_64
Based on which issue: Independent
Benefits: Fast, stable, more than 15,000 software applications (or "ports" installation); very good documentation
Cons: Lag behind Linux in hardware support, limited business applications; Lack of graphical configuration tools
Package Management: A complete command-line package management "ports" (TBZ)
Available versions: Installation disc alpha version, AMD64 bit, i386 Ia64 file, PC98 and SPARC64 processor
Recommended FreeBSD-based options: Pc-bsd (Desktop version), DesktopBSD (Desktop), Freesbie (Live CD)
Other BSD options: OpenBSD, NetBSD, Dragonfly BSD, Midnightbsd

Top ten most popular Linux distributions in the world (figure)

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