Source: Internet
Author: User


Unix Operating System (Younis), is a powerful multi-user, multitasking operating system, support a variety of processor architectures, according to the classification of the operating system, is a time-sharing operating system, the earliest by Kenthompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy was developed at T-Bell Labs in 1969. At present, its trademark rights are owned by the International Open Standards Organization, only UNIX systems that conform to the single UNIX specification can use the UNIX name, otherwise it can only be called Unix-like (unix-like).
Chinese name
Operating system
sharing operating system
Multi-user, multi-tasking
    1. 1 History
    2. ? Birth
    3. ? Popular
    1. 2 Genealogy
    2. Class 3 Unix
    3. 4 Charge Status
    1. 5 UNIX Standards
    2. 6 Unix Features
1965 years after the birth of the history editor, Bell Labs joined a partnership between General Electric and MITFigure 1-1 PDP-7 computerPlan to build a multi-user, multi-tasking, multi-layered (multi-user, multi-processor, multi-level) Multics operating system. It was not until 1969 that the plan was stopped because of the slow pace of Multics's work. At the time, Ken Thompson (later known as the Father of Unix) already had a program called "Star Trek" running on GE-635 's machine, but the reaction was very slow, and he found an idle PDP-7 (digital host), Ken Thompson and Dernis Ritchie transplanted the "Star Trek" program to PDP-7. And this PDP-7 (1-1) has left its mark on the history of the entire computer. [1] Multics is actually the abbreviation for "multiplexed Information and Computing Service", when, in 1970, the PDP-7 only supported two users, when Brian Kernighan jokingly called their system is actually: "Uniplexed information and Computing Service", abbreviated as "UNICs", later, everyone to take its homophonic, called it "UNIX". 1970 can be called the "Unix of the Same". After 1971 years of popularity, Ken Thompson wrote a full-length application report and applied to a pdp-11/24 machine. So the first UNIX version came out. Done on a pdp-11/24 machine. This computer has only 24KB of physical memory and 500K of disk space. Unix consumes 12KB of memory, and half of the remaining memory can support two of users in space travel games. The well-known fork () system call occurs at this point. By the time of 1973, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie felt that using assembly language to transplant too much headache, they want to use high-level languages to complete the third edition, for the time completely in assembly language to develop programs, their ideas are quite crazy. At first they tried to use Fortran, but they failed. Then they used a call bcpl(Basic Combined programming Language) language development, they integrate BCPL formation B Language, later Dennis Ritchie think B language still can not meet the requirements, so improved the B language, this is today's famous C language。 As a result, Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie succeeded in using C language to re-UnixWrote the third version of Unix kernel. At this point, the UNIX operating system modification, transplantation is very convenient, for the future popularization of Unix laid a solid foundation. While Unix and C perfectly combine to become a unity, C and Unix soon become the dominant world. UNIX's first article "The Unix Time Sharing System" was published by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie in July 1974 by the Communications of the ACM. This is UNIX's first contact with the outside world. The results aroused extensive interest in academia and the source of their sources, so the fifth edition of UNIX, "for educational purposes only" agreement, provided to the universities as teaching, become the operating system in the course of the sample textbook. University companies began to make various improvements and extensions to UNIX through UNIX source code. As a result, Unix became widely popular. [3] Genealogy EditorUnix GenealogyUnix in the process of development, there is no incentive system and management, from the beginning at the company at the time, it is a similar to curiosity or interest in something. In the 1970s, however, the company began to notice the commercial value of UNIX. The company's lawyers began looking for ways to protect Unix and make it a trade secret. Starting with the UNIX version of V7 in 1979, UNIX licenses began to prohibit the use of UNIX source code in universities, including in the course of lectures. By the year 1980, there were two major UNIX version lines, one was Berkeley's BSD Unix, the other was at-and-t Unix, and at this time, it was clear that the competition eventually led to the Unix war. In this war, it is good that the software developer can get the UNIX source code and cut it according to their own needs and interest. The downside is that UNIX is starting to develop a variety of variants that are constantly emerging. In 1982, Joy created the Sun Microsystems Company and provided the workstation –sun-1, which runs the SunOS (Solaris appears for the next ten years). At and T, the first edition of Unix System V was released in the following years, a powerful operating system that eventually led to IBM's AIX and HP-UX. Unix-like editing AIX Aix logo( Advanced Interactive eXecutive) is IBMDeveloped a set of UNIX operating systems. It complies with the Open Group's UNIX 98 industry standard (The Open Group UNIX 98 Base Brand) and provides comprehensive scalability for these applications by fully integrating parallel run support for 32-bit and 64-bit applications. It can run on all IBM ~ P-Series and IBM rs/6000 workstations, servers, and large parallel supercomputers. Some of the popular features of Aix such as Chuser, Mkuser, rmuser commands, and similar things allow user management to be managed like files. The Aix-level logical volume management is gradually being added to a variety of free UNIX-style operating systems. Solarisis the Unix-like operating system developed by Sun Corporation. Until 2013, the latest version of Solaris was Solaris 11.Solaris logoThe early Solaris was developed by Bsdunix. This is because one of the founders of Bill Joy, Bill Joy, is from the University of California, Berkeley (U.c.berkeley). However, over time, Solaris is gradually moving closer to System V on the interface, but so far Solaris is still private software. On June 14, 2005, Sun will open the source code for Solaris 11 under development under the CDDL license, an open version of which is OpenSolaris. Sun's operating system was originally called SunOS. Starting with SunOS 5.0, Sun's operating system development began to shift to system V4, with a new name called Solaris 2.0. After Solaris 2.6, Sun removed "2" from the version number, so SunOS 5.10 is called Solaris 10. Earlier versions of Solaris were later renamed to Solaris 1.x. So the word "SunOS" is used to refer to the kernel of the Solaris operating system, so Solaris is considered to be composed of SunOS, a graphical desktop computing environment, and its network enhancements. Solaris runs on two platforms: Intel x86 and Sparc/ultrasparc. The latter is the processor used by the ascending Yang workstation. As a result, Solaris has strong processing power and hardware support on SPARC, while performance on the Intel x86 is improving. For these two platforms, Solaris masks the underlying platform differences, providing users with the same experience as possible. HP-UX HP-UXFrom Hewlett Packard UniXIs HP Company(Hp,hewlett-packard) to SystemV-based Unix-like operating system. HP-UX can be run on Hewlett-Packard's Pa-risc processor, Intel's Itanium processor's PC, and in the past can be used on later Apollo computer (Apollo/domain) systems. An earlier version of HP-UX can also be used in HP 9000 Series 200, 300, 400 computer systems (using Motorola's 68000 processor), and the HP-9000 series 500 PCs (using HP's exclusive Focus processor architecture). IRIX IRIXIs by the Silicon Valley graphic Company ( Silicon Graphics INC., general use abbreviation: SGIA UNIX operating system based on System V and BSD extensions, IRIX can be run on SGI's RISC-based computers, which are SGI workstations and servers that adopt 32-bit, 64-bit MIPS architectures. Xenixis a UNIX operating system that can be used on personal computers and microcomputers. The system consists of Microsoft Corporationwas authorized by the American Telephone and Telegraph Corporation in 1979 and was developed for Intel processors. Later, SCO acquired its exclusive use, and since then, the company has been on sale in the name of SCO UNIX (also known as SCO OpenServer). It is worth mentioning that it can also run on DECPDP-11 or Apple Lisa computers. It inherits the characteristics of Unix, XENIX has a multi-tasking working environment, conforms to UNIX System VInterface Specifications (SVID). A/ux(taken from Apple Unix) is Apple Computer(Apple computer) developed a UNIX operating system that can run on some Macintosh computers in the company, the last (or most recent) set of A/ux in Macintosh II, Quadra and Centris and other series of computers running. A/ux was first published in 1988 and the final version is 3.1.1, published in 1995. A/ux requires at least one 68k processor with a floating-point unit and a tabbed memory management unit (Paged memory Management Unit,pmmu) to run. A/ux is based on System V 2.2Version, and also uses the traditional features of System V 3 (abbreviated as: SysV 3), System V 4, BSD 4.2, BSD 4.3, etc., which also follow the POSIX specification and Svid specification, but it is difficult to follow the standard version to support the latest information technology, Therefore, in the second edition, the TCP/IP network functions are added. There are rumors that a follow-up version is based on OSF/1 as the main code, but it has never been published publicly, but there is no way to confirm whether this version really exists. Charge Status Edit Unix operating system is Commercial Edition [4], a fee is required, and the price is more expensive than Microsoft Windows Genuine. However, Unix has a free version, for example: NetBSD and other similar UNIX versions. The UNIX Standard Edition UNIX User Association began standardization work from the 1980s onwards, and a trial standard was enacted in 1984. Later, the IEEE developed the POSIX standard (i.e. the IEEE1003 standard) with the international standard name iso/iec9945. It defines a language interface that is compatible between UNIX operating systems and applications through a minimal set of capabilities. POSIX is an easy-to-remember name proposed by Richard Stallman at the request of the IEEE, meaning Portable OPerating system Interface (Portable Operating system interface), while x indicates the inheritance of its API. UNIX feature Editing
    1. Unix system is a multi-user, multi-task time-sharing operating system.
    2. UNIX's system structure can be divided into three parts: the operating system kernel (is the UNIX system core management and control center, in the system startup or resident memory), System call (for program developers to invoke system components when developing applications, including process management, file management, device status, etc.), applications (including various development tools, Compilers, network communication handlers, and so on, all applications are managed and controlled by the shell to serve the user).
    3. Most Unix systems are written in C, which makes the system easy to read, easy to modify, and easy to transplant.
    4. UNIX provides a rich, well-chosen system call, the entire system is very compact and concise implementation.
    5. UNIX provides a powerful, programmable shell language (shell language) as a user interface with a concise, efficient feature.
    6. The UNIX system uses a tree-like directory structure, which has good security, confidentiality and maintainability.
    7. The UNIX system uses the process swap (swapping) memory management mechanism and the request paging storage method, realizes the virtual memory management, greatly improves the memory utilization efficiency.
    8. UNIX system provides a variety of communication mechanisms, such as: Pipeline communication, soft interrupt communication, message communication, shared memory communication, signal traffic.


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