VIM display UTF-8 document garbled solution, vimutf-8

Source: Internet
Author: User

VIM display UTF-8 document garbled solution, vimutf-8

1. Basic Knowledge

In Vim, there are four encoding-related options: fileencodings, fileencoding, encoding, and termencoding. In actual use, any option error may cause garbled characters. Therefore, each Vim user should clarify the meaning of these four options. The following describes in detail the meanings and functions of these four options.

(1) encoding
Encoding is the internal character encoding method used by Vim. After encoding is set, all the buffer, registers, and strings in the script in Vim use this encoding. When Vim is working, if the encoding method is inconsistent with its internal encoding, it will first convert the encoding to the internal encoding. If the encoding used for work contains characters that cannot be converted to internal encoding, these characters will be lost. Therefore, when selecting the Vim internal encoding, you must use an encoding with sufficient performance to avoid affecting normal operations.
Since the encoding option involves the internal representation of all characters in Vim, it can only be set once when Vim is started. Modifying encoding in Vim may cause many problems. In the user manual, it is recommended to change its value only in. vimrc. In fact, it seems only meaningful to change its value in. vimrc. If there is no special reason, set encoding to UTF-8. To avoid garbled menus and system prompts in non-UTF-8 systems such as Windows, you can also make these settings:
Set encoding = UTF-8
Set langmenu = zh_CN.UTF-8
Language message zh_CN.UTF-8

(2) termencoding
Termencoding is the code Vim uses for screen display. During display, Vim converts the internal code to screen encoding and then outputs the code. When the internal encoding contains a character that cannot be converted to screen encoding, the character becomes a question mark, but the editing operation is not affected. If termencoding is not set, encoding is directly used without conversion.
For example, when you log on to the Linux workstation via telnet in Windows, because Windows telnet is GBK encoded, and Linux uses UTF-8 encoding, garbled characters are displayed in Vim in telnet. At this time, there are two ways to eliminate Garbled text: one is to change Vim's encoding to gbk, the other is to keep encoding As UTF-8, and change termencoding to gbk, transcode Vim when it is displayed. Obviously, when using the previous method, if the edited file contains characters that cannot be expressed by GBK, these characters will be lost. However, if the last method is used, although these characters cannot be displayed due to terminal limitations, they will not be lost during editing.
For GVim in the graphic interface, its display does not depend on the TERM, so termencoding has no meaning for it. In GVim under GTK2, termencoding is always UTF-8 and cannot be modified. In Windows, GVim ignores the existence of termencoding.

(3) fileencoding
When Vim reads a file from a disk, it detects the file encoding. If the file encoding method is different from the Vim internal encoding method, Vim converts the encoding method. After the conversion, Vim sets the fileencoding option to the file encoding. If the encoding and fileencoding are different when Vim stores the disk, Vim performs encoding conversion. Therefore, by setting fileencoding after opening the file, we can convert the file from one encoding to another encoding. However, we can see from the previous introduction that fileencoding is automatically set when the file is opened and tested by Vim. Therefore, in case of garbled characters, we cannot correct the garbled characters by setting fileencoding again after opening the file.
In short, fileencoding is the character encoding method of the file currently edited in Vim. When saving the file, Vim also saves the file as this encoding method (whether new files are used or not ).

(4) fileencodings
The automatic identification of encoding is implemented by setting fileencodings. Note that it is in the plural form. Fileencodings is a list separated by commas (,). Each item in the list is an encoded name. When we open the file, VIM uses the encoding in fileencodings to try decoding. If it succeeds, it uses this encoding method and sets fileencoding to this value, if the Code fails, test the next encoding.
Therefore, when setting fileencodings, we must put the encoding method that is strictly required and is more prone to decoding failures when the file is not encoded, put the loose encoding method at the end. For example, latin1 is a very loose encoding method. The text obtained by any encoding method is decoded using latin1 and will not fail to be decoded.-Of course, the decoded results are naturally "garbled ". Therefore, if you put latin1 at the top of fileencodings, opening any Chinese file is garbled.

The following is a fileencodings setting recommended on the Internet:

Set fileencodings = ucs-bom, UTF-8, cp936, gb18030, big5, euc-jp, euc-kr, latin1
Among them, the ucs-bom is a very strict encoding. files without this encoding are hardly mistaken for the ucs-bom, so they are placed first.
UTF-8 is also quite strict, in addition to very short files (for example, many people relish the GBK encoding of the "Unicom" was misjudged as a classic error of UTF-8 encoding ), in real life, files are almost impossible to be misjudged, so they are placed in the second place.
The following are cp936 and gb18030. These two types of codes are relatively loose. If we put them in front, there will be a lot of misjudgment, So let them back. The encoding space of cp936 is smaller than that of gb18030, so cp936 is placed before gb18030.
As for big5, euc-jp, and euc-kr, they are strictly the same as cp936. Put them behind them and there will inevitably be a lot of misjudgment when editing these encoded files, but this is a problem that Vim's built-in encoding detection mechanism cannot solve. Since Chinese users rarely have the opportunity to edit these encoding files, we decided to put cp936 and gb18030 in front to ensure the identification of these encoding.
Finally, latin1. It is an extremely loose code, so we have to put it in the last place. Unfortunately, when you encounter a file with latin1 encoding, in most cases, it does not have the opportunity to fall-back to latin1, which is often mistaken in the previous encoding. However, as mentioned earlier, Chinese users do not have much access to such files.
If the encoding is wrong, the decoded results won't be recognized by humans, so we can say that this file is garbled. If you know the correct encoding of the file, you can open the file by using ++ enc = encoding when opening the file, for example:
: E ++ enc = UTF-8 myfile.txt

2. How Vim works

Well, I have explained this pile of parameters that will easily confuse new users. Let's take a look at how Vim's multi-character encoding method supports work.
(1) Start Vim and set the encoding mode of the buffer, menu text, and message text based on the encoding value set in. vimrc.
(2) read the file to be edited and test the file encoding method one by one based on the character encoding methods listed in fileencodings. And set fileencoding to the detected character encoding method. In fact, the test accuracy of Vim is not high, especially when encoding is not set to UTF-8. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you set encoding to UTF-8, although it may cause another minor problem if you want Vim to display chinese menus and prompt messages.
(3) Compare fileencoding and encoding values. If they are different, call iconv to convert the file content to the character encoding method described by encoding, and put the converted content in the buffer opened for this file. Now we can edit this file. Note: To complete this step, you need to call the external iconv. dll (note 2). You need to ensure that this file exists in $ VIMRUNTIME or other columns in the PATH environment variable directory.
(4) When saving the file after editing, compare the values of fileencoding and encoding again. If different, call iconv again to convert the text in the buffer to the character encoding method described by fileencoding, and save it to the specified file. Similarly, you need to call iconv. dll

3. solution example

(1) Method 1: Set the. vimrc file:
Add two sentences under/home/username/. vimrc or/root/. vimrc:
Let & termencoding = & encoding
Set fileencodings = UTF-8, gbk, ucs-bom, cp936
This approach enables editing of UTF-8 files

(2) Method 2: After opening the file, set in the vi Editor:
: Set encoding = UTF-8 termencoding = gbk fileencoding = UTF-8

(3) method 3: Create a UTF-8 file, in the vi editor settings:
: Set fenc = UTF-8
: Set enc = GB2312
In this way, enter Chinese in the editor and save the file as a UTF-8.

(4) Method 4: A recommended ~ /. Vimrc file Configuration:
Set encoding = UTF-8
Set fileencodings = ucs-bom, UTF-8, cp936, gb18030, latin1
Set termencoding = gb18030
Set expandtab
Set ts = 4
Set shiftwidth = 4
Set nu
Syntax on

If has ('mouse ')
Set mouse-=

Postscript: This article is based on relevant information on the Internet. Due to the large number of sources, the source cannot be identified one by one. Please forgive me.

In Linux, how does one view the file encoding format? Run vim and set fileencoding = UTF-8.

File + file name

For more information, see
View File Encoding
You can view the file encoding in Linux in the following ways:
1. You can directly view the file encoding in Vim.
: Set fileencoding
The file encoding format is displayed.
If you only want to view files in other encoding formats or want to solve the problem of using Vim to View File garbled characters, you can
~ /Add the following content to the vimrc file:
Set encoding = UTF-8 fileencodings = ucs-bom, UTF-8, cp936
File encoding and conversion
1. Convert the file encoding directly in Vim. For example, convert a file to UTF-8 format.
: Sets fileencoding = UTF-8
2. enconv conversion file encoding, for example, to convert a GBK encoded file into UTF-8 encoding, the operation is as follows
Enconv-L zh_CN-x UTF-8 filename
3. iconv conversion. The iconv command format is as follows:
Iconv-f encoding-t encoding inputfile
For example, converting a UTF-8-encoded file into GBK Encoding
Iconv-f GBK-t UTF-8 file1-o file2
Where can I use vim to execute commands? Character garbled, need to switch Encoding

The vim configuration file for windows can be in the _ vimrc file in the installation directory. For example, if I installed vim7.2 in the Directory d: programfile \ vim of the disk, and the execution program in the directory vim72 of the installation directory (d: \ programfile \ vim \ vim72 ), the configuration file is stored in the d: \ programfile \ vim directory. The configuration template can be copied from d: \ programfile \ vim \ vim72 \ vimrc_example.vim. Add
Set fileencodings = ucs-bom, UTF-8, cp936, gb18030
Set encoding = cp936
Automatically identifies the file encoding.

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